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Encyclopedia > DASA

The Dāsa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryan tribes in the Rigveda. The word Dāsa, later acquired derogatory connotations, meaning 'servant', implying that they were subordinated by the Aryans. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in Indian history of which we have written records that we understand. ... The Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists, subdivided into villages (vish) and headed by a tribal chief (raja) and administered by a priestly caste. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ...


The identity of the Dasa has caused much debate, closely tied to arguments over Indo-Aryan migration, the claim that the Indo-Aryan authors of the Rigveda entered India from outside, displacing its earlier inhabitants. During the nineteenth century Western scholars identified the Dasa with dark-skinned Dravidian-speaking peoples, but more recent scholars, notably Asko Parpola, have claimed that they were fellow Indo-Iranians of the BMAC, who initially rejected Aryan religious practices but were later merged with them. Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is a modern archaeologists designation for a Bronze Age Turkmenistan. ...


A similar term for enemy people, Dasyu, is also used in the Rig Veda. It is unclear whether the Dasa and Dasyu are identical. The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

Contents

Dasa, Dasyu and Arya

Dasyu is a term that could also be applied to Vedic kings, if their behaviour changed. In the battle of the Ten Kings (Dasarajna) in the Rig Veda the king Sudas calls his enemies "Dasyu" which included Vedic peoples like the Anus, Druhyus, Turvashas, and even Purus. (RV 7.6, 12-14, 18) The Battle of the Ten Kings () is a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (hymns 18, 33 and 83. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Sudas is a king from the Rig Veda. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda has 104 hymns. ...


There is also a Dasa Balbutha Taruksa in RV 6.45.31 who is a patron of a seer and who is distinguished by his generosity (RV 8.46.32). There are several hymns in the Rigveda that refer to Dasa and Aryan enemies [1] and to related (jami) and unrelated (ajami) enemies (e.g. 1.111.3, 4.4.5); still, in the battle of the ten kings, there are Dasas and Aryas on both sides of the battlefield and in some Rigvedic verses, the Aryas and Dasas stood united against their enemies.[2]. The sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ...


Etymology of Dasa and related terms

Dasa and related terms have been examined by several scholars.[3] While the terms Dasa and Dasyu have a negative meaning in Sanskrit, their Iranian counterparts Daha and Dahyu have preserved their positive (or neutral) meaning. This is similar to the Sanskrit terms Deva (a "positive" term) and Asura (a "negative" term). The Iranian counterparts of these terms (Daeva and Ahura) have opposite meanings. It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... A div (earlier Persian dēv, Middle Persian dēw, Avestan daēva) is an evil spirit in Persian mythology that loves to cause harm and destruction. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ...


Dasa

See also Dahae

The meaning of the word dāsa, which has been long preserved in the Khotanese dialect, is "man". Two words that contain "dasa" are the Vedic names Divodās (meaning "divine man") and Sudās (meaning "good man"). Dasa is also in Iranian "Daha", known to Graeco-Roman authors as the Dahae (Daai), designating probably Iranian tribes. The term Daha occurs in a Persepolis inscription of Xerxes (h 26).[4] Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hsia. ...


Daha also referred to a dasyu tribe in Margiana. Dahistan (east of the Caspian Sea/Gorgan) derives its name from this tribe [5]. The Greek historians Q. Curtius Rufus (8,3) and Ptolemy (Geography: 6,10,2) located the region of the Dahas on the river Margos (modern Murghab) or in Margiana (Parpola 1988). The Dahas are also mentioned by Pomponius Mela (3,42)[6] and Tacitus (Ann. 11,10)[7]. Margu (Greek Margiana) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions of ca. ... Golestān (Persian: گلستان) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Gorgan Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, Land of the Wolf) is the capital city of the Iranian province of Golestan. ... Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian who is generally thought to have written his works during the reign of Emperor Claudius (41-54 CE). ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Murghab (and various similar transliterations; Russian Мургаб) can refer to: The city of Murghab, Tajikistan One of two Central Asian rivers: see Murgab River This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Margu (Greek Margiana) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions of ca. ... Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...


Strabo wrote about the Dahae the following: The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

"Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahae Scythae, and those situated more towards the east Massagetae and Sacae."
(Strabo, 11-8-1)

Strabo's description places Dahae nomads in the area around modern Turkmenistan. Tacitus, in the Annals , writes of the Parthian king Vardanes I that he subdued "the intermediate tribes as far as the river Sindes, which is the boundary between the Dahae and the Arians." [8] The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... A cataphract-style parade armour from gold scales of Sakas King found in Issyk in Kazakhstan in 1970[1] The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Annals are a form of historical writing which record events year by year. ... Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–47. ...


Dasyu

Dasyus is in Iranian "dahyu" and means tribe, province and district. "Dah-" means "male, man" in Iranian. The "dahyu-pati" (also dahyunam) was the head of the tribe. (The Greek "des-potes and the English "despot" correspond to this term. (Windfuhr 1999)) A "dahyu-sasti" (command of dahyus) is a confederation of two or more dahyus. [9]


Related terms

See also Panis

Other hostile tribes, besides the Dasas and Dasyus, that are mentioned in the Vedic texts are the Panis, Pakthas (Pashtuns?), Parshus (Iranian tribes?), Prthus (Parthians?) and Bhalanas (Baluchis?). The Panis are a class of demons in the Rigveda, from paṇi-, a term for bargainer, miser, niggard, especially applied to one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... When referring to central asian peoples, Baluchi is an alernative spalling of Balochi (qv). ...


Anasa

In RV 5.29.10, the word anasa is in connection with the Dasyus. Some scholars have translated anasa as "noseless". Although there is only one instance in the Rig Veda where this word occurs, this has led to belief that the Dasyus were "flat-nosed" people. But the classical commentator Sayana translated anasa as "without mouth or face" (anas = an "negative" + as "mouth"). Sayana's translation is supported by the occurrence of the word mrdhravacah in the same verse. Sayana explains the word mrdhravacah as "having defective organs of speech" (Rg Veda 1854-57:3.276 n.). Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ...


The religion of the Dasas/Dasyus

The main difference between the Aryas and the Dasas in the Rig Veda is a difference of religion.[10] Already A.A. Macdonell and A.B. Keith (1912) remarked that: "The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion... It is significant that constant reference is made to difference in religion between Aryans and Dasa and Dasyu." The Dasas and Dasyus are also described as brahma-dvisah in the Rig Veda [11], which Ralph T.H. Griffith translates as "those who hate devotion" or "prayer haters". Thus Dasa has also been interpreted as meaning the people that don't follow the same religion as the Aryans. Rig Veda 10.22.8 describes the Dasa-Dasyus as a-karman (non-performers of Aryan sacrifices), anya-vrata (observers of other rites) and in Rig Veda 10.105.8 they are described as anrc (non-singer of laudatory hymns). In RV 8.70.11 they are described as a-deva-yu (not regarding Deva ).[12] Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ... Deva can refer to: Deva (Hinduism), a Hindu deity. ...


Devas versus Asuras

This divide goes back to the composition of the Rig Veda. Both the religions believe in the holiness of the Veda except that the Zarathustrians believe in certain sections of the Rig Veda. When the Rig Veda was being written, there occurred a divide among the Brahmanas writing it. The Brahmanas of the Pauravas (Indians) or Parthas believed that Aditi was the good mother of the gods while the Irani or Dasa Brahmanas believed that Diti was. The Pauravas' chief god was Shri Indra and said that He has overtaken Shri Varuna as the leader of the gods. The Irani believed that Shri Varuna was still the chief of the gods. In the Irani pantheon, Shri Indra was given the status of a demon while they worshipped an Indra-like character who accepts the law of Varuna known as Indar. From this originated the Dasarajna war in which the ten kingdoms of the Irani, represented by the Brahmana Vishwamitra fought against the Indian King Sudas. From then on, the Indians referred to the asuras as the demons while Devas were the gods and the Irani, viceversa. When Zarathustrianism was established, Shri Varuna who Zarathustra referred to as the Ahura Mazda (Rigvedic Assur Mehda or Assur Mahadeo) was God Almighty while all other spirits were given the status of angels. The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... The pauravas was the name given to the many petty kingdoms and tribes of ancient NW India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Pauravas were all situated on or near the Indus river where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. ... In Hinduism, Aditi (Sanskrit - limitless) is a goddess of the sky, consciousness, the past, the future and fertility. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... The Battle of the Ten Kings () is a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (hymns 18, 33 and 83. ... Sudas is a king from the Rig Veda. ...


Symbolical and spiritual interpretations

Religious Hindu authors like Sri Aurobindo believe that words like Dasa are used in the Rig Veda symbolically and should be interpreted spiritually, and that Dasa does not refer to human beings, but rather to demons who hinder the spiritual attainment of the mystic. Many Dasas are purely mythical and can only refer to demons. There is for example a Dasa called Urana with 99 arms (RV II.14.4), and a Dasa with six eyes and three heads in the Rig Veda.[13] A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from...


According to Aurobindo (The Secret of the Veda), RV 5.14.4 is a key for understanding the character of the Dasyus:

Agni born shone out slaying the Dasyus, the darkness by the light, he found the Cows, the Waters, Swar. (transl. Aurobindo)[14][15]

Aurobindo explains that in this verse the struggle between light and darkness, truth and falsehood, divine and undivine is described.[16] It is through the shining light created by Agni, god of fire, that the Dasyus, who are identified with the darkness, are slain. The Dasyus are also described in the Rig Veda as intercepting and withholding the Cows, the Waters and Swar ("heavenly world"; RV 5.34.9; 8.68.9). It is not difficult, of course, to find very similar metaphors, equating political or military opponents with evil and darkness, even in contemporary propaganda. The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from during the Cultural Revolution. ...


K.D. Sethna (1992) writes: "According to Aurobindo,(...) there are passages in which the spiritual interpretation of the Dasas, Dasyus and Panis is the sole one possible and all others are completely excluded. There are no passages in which we lack a choice either between this interpretation and a nature-poetry or between this interpretation and the reading of human enemies." K.D. Sethna is an Indian author. ...


The Dasas/Dasyus and krsna or asikni

In the Rig Veda, Dasa, Dasyu and similar terms (e.g. Pani) occur sometimes in conjunction with the terms krsna ("black") or asikni ("black"). This was often the basis for a "racial" interpretation of the Vedic texts. But Sanskrit is a language that uses many metaphors. The word cow for example can mean Mother Earth, sunshine, wealth, language, Aum etc. Words like "black" have similarly many different meanings in Sanskrit, as it is in fact the case in most languages. Thus "black" has many symbolical, mythological, psychological and other uses that are simply unrelated to human appearance. COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... “Om” redirects here. ...


Also Iyengar (1914) commented on such interpretations: "The only other trace of racial reference in the Vedic hymns is the occurrence of two words, one krishna in seven passages and the other asikini in two passages. In all the passages, the words have been interpreted as referring to black clouds, a demon whose name was Krishna, or the powers of darkness." (6-7, Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914.) Cumulus mediocris clouds, as seen from a plane window. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ...


Sri Aurobindo [17] commented that in the RV III.34 hymn, where the word Arya varna occurs, Indra is described as the increaser of the thoughts of his followers: "the shining hue of these thoughts, sukram varnam asam, is evidently the same as that sukra or sveta Aryan hue which is mentioned in verse 9. Indra carries forward or increases the "colour" of these thoughts beyond the opposition of the Panis, pra varnam atiracchukram; in doing so he slays the Dasyus and protects or fosters and increases the Aryan "colour", hatvi dasyun pra aryam varnam avat."[18] Thus, Aurobindo sees the Arya varna or lustre of the thoughts that Indra increases as psychological. In several Lord Indra is also said to be a white bull with and his friends are the Maruts, who are horses so when the Rig Veda speaks of a certain color they mean the color of god as an animal. For example, the twin deities Nastya and Dasra are said to be "horse princes."[citation needed] In some Rig Vedic verses, even Lord Agni is said to be the red bull that stands out from the dark bulls.[1] Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ...


The term krsnavonih in RV 2.20.7 has been interpreted by Asko Parpola as meaning "which in their wombs hid the black people". Sethna (1992) writes, referring to a comment by Richard Hartz, that "there is no need to follow Parpola in assuming a further unexpressed word meaning "people" in the middle of the compound krsnayonih", and the better known translation by Griffith, i.e. "who dwelt in darkness" can be considered as essentially correct.[19] Another scholar, Hans Hock (1999), finds Geldner's translation of krsnayonih (RV 2.20.7) as "Blacks in their wombs" and of krsnagarbha (RV 1.101.1) as "pregnant with the Blacks" "quite recherché" and thinks that it could refer to the "dark world" of the Dasas. Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ...


In RV 4.16.13, Geldner has assumed that "krsna" refers to "sahasra" (thousands). But this would be grammatically incorrect. If krsna would refer to "sahasra", it should be written as krsnan (acc. pl. masc.). Hans Hock (1999) suggests that "krsna" refers to "puro" (forts) in this verse.


Tvac

There are three instances in the Rig Veda where the phrase krsna (or ashikni) tvac occurs, literally translating to "black (or swarthy) skin": The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... This article is about Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ...

1.130.8de mánave śâsad avratân tvácaṃ kṛṣṇâm arandhayat
— "Plaguing the lawless he [Indra] gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin" (trans. Griffith)
9.41.1 prá yé gâvo ná bhûrṇayas / tveṣâ ayâso ákramuḥ / ghnántaḥ kṛṣṇâm ápa tvácam[20]
— "active and bright have they come forth, impetuous in speed like bulls, Driving the black skin far away." (trans. Griffith)
9.73.5cd índradviṣṭām ápa dhamanti māyáyā tvácam ásiknīm bhûmano divás pári[21]
— "Blowing away with supernatural might from earth and from the heavens the swarthy skin which Indra hates." (trans. Griffith)

Tvac "skin" does, however, also take a secondary, more general meaning of "surface, cover" in the Rigveda, in particular referring to the Earth's surface. For this reason, there can be debate on whether instances of krsna tvac should be taken to refer literally to a "black skinned people". Maria Schetelich (1990) considers it a symbolic expression for darkness. Similary, Michael Witzel (1995b) writes about terms like krsna tvac that "while it would be easy to assume reference to skin colour, this would go against the spirit of the hymns: for Vedic poets, black always signifies evil, and any other meaning would be secondary in these contexts". Hans Hock argues along similar lines [22] Manu may refer to: In geography: Manu, a town in Sokoto State, Nigeria Manu, province in the Madre de Dios region of Peru Manu National Park Manu River In acting: Manu, member of the cast of a controversial film released in 2000 called Baise-moi Manu Intiraymi, American television and... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... Black cat, thought by some to cause bad luck (see superstition) Black is the shade of objects that do not reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum. ... Hans Heinrich Hock is a linguist who holds a Ph. ...


The Rigvedic commentator Sayana explains the word tvacam krsna (RV 1.130.8) as referring to an asura (demon) called Krsna whose skin was torn apart by Indra. Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ...


Dasa, in Hinduism

The present day usage of Dasa in Hinduism has respectful connotation and not derogatory. It always means 'slave of a god'. In the past, many saints from all castes added it in their names signifying their total devotion to their chosen god. An example is Mohandas Gandhi. Another example if Surdas, the blind Brahmin poet. 'Das' is one of the common surnames of Brahmins, especially in East India. It looks like there was a complete break from Rig Vedic people and Hindu India when it comes to the word 'Dasa'. As any other proper word to translate the word "slave" is absent in Sanskritized Hindi, the word Dāsa is used for the same. Further more in the bhakti yoga a person can be in a relationship with God in any of the 5 ways and one of the relationships is Dasyu-bhakta, meaning being a "slave of God" as said before. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... Surdas was a Hindu poet, saint and musician of India. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ...


References

  1. ^ (e.g. 6.22.10, 6.33.3, 6.60.6), Ambedkar 1946, Who were the Shudras
  2. ^ RV 6.33.3, 7.83.1, 8.51.9, 10.102.3; Ambedkar, 1946, Who were the Shudras
  3. ^ e.g., Asko Parpola (1988), Mayrhofer (1986-1996), Benveniste (1973), Lecoq (1990), Windfuhr (1999)
  4. ^ Parpola 1988:220-21
  5. ^ (G.L. Windfuhr in Bronkhorst & Desphande (ed.) 1999)
  6. ^ He places them near the Oxus. Parpola 1988
  7. ^ He places them on the northern border of Areia, at the Sindes (Tejend) River. Parpola 1988
  8. ^ Tacitus (109 CE), Book XI.
  9. ^ (G.L. Windfuhr in Bronkhorst & Desphande (ed.) 1999)
  10. ^ R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker (editors): The history and culture of the Indian people. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951, p.253. Keith and Macdonell 1922.
  11. ^ (e.g. RV 5.42.9; 8.45.23; 10.36.9; 10.160.4; 10.182.3)
  12. ^ e.g. Sethna 1992, Elst 1999, Ambedkar 1946 Who were the Shudras
  13. ^ Parpola 1988, Sethna 1992:329
  14. ^ Sethna 1992:114-115 and 348-349
  15. ^ Which is translated by Griffith thus: Agni shone bright when born, with light killing the Dasyus and the dark He found the Kine, the Floods, the Sun. (trans. Griffith)
  16. ^ Sethna 1992:114-115 and 348-349
  17. ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340, Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda, p. 220-21
  18. ^ Sethna 1992:114 and 340
  19. ^ Sethna 1992:337-338
  20. ^ note the sāhvâṃso dásyum avratám "vanquishing the rite less Dasyu" in the following verse.
  21. ^ again note the context of saṃdáhantaḥ avratân "burning up riteless men" in pada b.
  22. ^ Hock (1999). Hock also remarked that in RV 1.65.8, a similar metaphor is used. In this verse, "roma prthivyah" refers to the "body-hair of the earth", i.e. to the plants.

Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian and Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University. ...

Further reading

  • Ambedkar, B.R. (1946) Who were the Shudras?
  • Aurobindo, Sri. 1971. The Secret of the Veda. Pondicherry: Shri Aurobindo Ashram.
  • Bryant, Edwin: The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. 2001. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9
  • J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande. 1999. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Elst, Koenraad Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. 1999. ISBN 81-86471-77-4 [2], [3]
  • Frawley, David The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India, 1995. New Delhi: Voice of India; In Search of the Cradle of Civilization, Chapter 6
  • Hock, Hans. 1999b, Through a Glass Darkly: Modern "Racial" Interpretations vs. Textual and General Prehistoric Evidence on Arya and Dasa/Dasyu in Vedic Indo-Aryan Society." in Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia.
  • Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914. "Did the Dravidians of India Obtain Their Culture from Aran Immigrant [sic]." Anthropos 1-15.
  • Macdonell, A.A. and Keith, A.B. 1912. The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.
  • Parpola, Asko: 1988, The Coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the Cultural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas; The problem of the Aryans and the Soma.
  • Rg Veda 1854-57. Rig-Veda Samhita. tr. H.H. Wilson. London: H.Allen and Co.
  • Schetelich, Maria. 1990, "The problem ot the "Dark Skin" (Krsna Tvac) in the Rgveda." Visva Bharati Annals 3:244-249.
  • Sethna, K.D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
  • Talageri, Shrikant G. 2000. The Rig Veda - A historical analysis. [4]
  • Trautmann, Thomas R. 1997, Aryans and British India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Witzel, Michael. 1995b, 325, fn, "Rgvedic History" in The Indo-Aryans of South Asia.

Who were the Shudras? is a book written by B.R. Ambedkar. ... Edwin Bryant arrived in San Francisco by overland route in 1846, served as a lieutenant in Frémont’s Battalion, and in February 1847 succeeded Bartlett and Hyde as alcalde of San Francisco. ... The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture is a book by Edwin Bryant published at Oxford University Press (ISBN 0195137779). ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate is a book by Koenraad Elst. ... Dr. David Frawley (born 1950 in Wisconsin, U.S.A.) is currently one of the worlds leading authors on Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Yoga, Ayurveda, and contemporary Indian politics. ... In Search of the Cradle of Civilization: New Light on Ancient India is a 1995 book by Georg Feuerstein, Subhash Kak, and David Frawley that argues against the theories that Indo-European peoples only arrived in India in the middle of the second millennium BC (the Aryan invasion theory and... K.D. Sethna is an Indian author. ... The Problem of Aryan Origins is a book by K.D. Sethna. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dasa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1842 words)
The Dasa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryans in the Rig-Veda.
The identity of the Dasa has caused much debate, closely tied to arguments over Indo-Aryan migration, the claim that the Indo-Aryan authors of the Rigveda entered India from outside, displacing its earlier inhabitants.
Other hostile tribes, besides the Dasas and Dasyus, that are mentioned in the Vedic texts are the Panis, Pakthas (Pathans?), Parshus (Iranian tribes?), Prthus (Parthians?) and Bhalanas (Baluchis?).
DASA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (332 words)
As part of the Eurofighter consortium DASA manufactured the centre fuselage sections of all the development aircraft, (DA) beginning with DA1 which made its first flight from DASA's Manching facility in March 1994.
DASA was responsible for the mid life upgrade (MLU) of the German fleet of Panavia Tornados, similar to the RAF's GR4 upgrade.
Owing to its expertise with German and NATO aircraft DASA became an expert in upgrade of many allied aircraft, including the F-4 Phantom and the E-3 Sentry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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