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Encyclopedia > DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Agency overview
Formed 1958
Employees 240
Annual Budget $3.2 billion
Agency Executive Anthony J. Tether, Director
Website
www.darpa.mil

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA has been responsible for funding the development of many technologies which have had a major impact on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS, which was both the first hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface. Dr. Anthony J. Tether was appointed as Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on June 18, 2001. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The NLS workstation showing the CRT display, keyboard, pushbuttons, and mouse NLS, or the oNLine System, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... “GUI” redirects here. ...


Its original name was simply Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but it was renamed DARPA (for Defense) on March 23, 1972, then back to ARPA on February 22, 1993, and then back to DARPA again on March 11, 1996. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


DARPA was established in 1958 in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957, with the mission of keeping the US's military technology ahead of its enemies. DARPA is independent from other more conventional military R&D and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has around 240 personnel (about 140 technical) directly managing a $3.2 billion budget. These figures are "on average" since DARPA focuses on short-term (two to four-year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams. Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite to be launched into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of research and technological development. ...

Contents

DARPA's mission

From DARPA's own introduction (pdf):

DARPA is a Defense Agency with a unique role within DoD. DARPA is not tied to a specific operational mission: DARPA supplies technological options for the entire Department, and is designed to be the “technological engine” for transforming DoD.

Near-term needs and requirements generally drive the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force to focus on those needs at the expense of major change. Consequently, a large organization like DoD needs a place like DARPA whose only charter is radical innovation.

DARPA looks beyond today’s known needs and requirements. As military historian John Chambers noted, “None of the most important weapons transforming warfare in the 20th century – the airplane, tank, radar, jet engine, helicopter, electronic computer, not even the atomic bomb – owed its initial development to a doctrinal requirement or request of the military.”[1] None of them. And to this list, DARPA would add unmanned systems, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Internet technologies. GPS redirects here. ...

DARPA’s approach is to imagine what capabilities a military commander might want in the future and accelerate those capabilities into being through technology demonstrations. These not only provide options to the commander, but also change minds about what is technologically possible today.

History

DARPA was created as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by Public Law 85-325 and Department of Defense Directive 5105.41, in February 1958. Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U.S. realization that the Soviet Union had developed the capacity to rapidly exploit military technology. Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines which address the full spectrum of national security needs. Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ...


From 1958-1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space, ballistic missile defense, and nuclear test detection. In 1960, all of its civilian space programs were transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the military space programs to the individual Services. This allowed DARPA to concentrate its efforts on the DEFENDER (defense against ballistic missiles), Project Vela (nuclear test detection), and AGILE (counterinsurgency R&D) Programs, and to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, and materials sciences. The DEFENDER and AGILE Programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor, surveillance, and directed energy R&D, particularly in the study of radars, infrared sensing, and x-ray/gamma ray detection. This article is about the American space agency. ... Project Vela was a project by the United States to develop and implement methods to monitor compliance with the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty. ...


In the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its role and concentrated on a diverse set of relatively small, essentially exploratory research programs. The Agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972, and in the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, and tactical technologies.


In the area of information processing, DARPA made great strides, initially through its support of the development of time-sharing (all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the Multics system, developed by a cooperation between Bell Labs, General Electric and MIT, which DARPA supported by funding Project MAC at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant), and later through the evolution of the ARPANET (the first wide-area packet switching network), Packet Radio Network, Packet Satellite Network and ultimately, the Internet and research in the artificial intelligence (AI) fields of speech recognition and signal processing. DARPA also funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and the Aspen Movie Map, which was probably the first hypermedia system and an important precursor of virtual reality. Alternate uses: see Timesharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. ... Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was an extraordinarily influential early time-sharing operating system. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... “GE” redirects here. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Project MAC, later the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS), was a research laboratory at MIT. Project MAC would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... AI redirects here. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. // Features The Aspen Movie Map allowed the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Colorado. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ...


The controversial Mansfield Amendment of 1973 expressly limited appropriations for defense research (through ARPA/DARPA) to projects with direct military application. Some contend that the amendment devastated American science, since ARPA/DARPA was a major funding source for basic science projects at the time; the National Science Foundation never took up the slack as expected. But the resulting brain drain is also credited with boosting the development of the fledgling personal computer industry. Many young computer scientists fled from the universities to startups and private research labs like Xerox PARC. Michael Joseph Mansfield (March 16, 1903–October 5, 2001) was an American politician from Montana. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... This article is about the emigration term. ... Bold text // Headline text Link title This article is about the computer research center. ...


From 1976-1981, DARPA's major thrusts were dominated by air, land, sea, and space technology, such as follow-on forces attack with standoff weapons and associated Command, Control, and Communications; tactical armor and anti-armor programs; infrared sensing for space-based surveillance; high-energy laser technology for space-based missile defense; antisubmarine warfare; advanced cruise missiles; advanced aircraft; and defense applications of advanced computing. These large-scale technological program demonstrations were joined by integrated circuit research, which resulted in submicrometre electronic technology and electron devices that evolved into the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Program and the Congressionally mandated charged particle beam program. Many of the successful programs were transitioned to the Services, such as the foundation technologies in automatic target recognition, space based sensing, propulsion, and materials that were transferred to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), later known as the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), now titled the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). VLSI may refer to: Very-large-scale integration, a process for the creation of electronic integrated circuits VLSI Technology (1979–1999), a former American integrated circuit manufacturer, now a part of Philips Electronics VLSI Solution, a Finnish integrated circuit manufacturer Category: ... The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the U.S. Department of Defense to oversee President Ronald Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative. ... The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ...


During the 1980s, the attention of the Agency was centered on information processing and aircraft-related programs, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) or Hypersonic Research Program. The Strategic Computing Program enabled DARPA to exploit advanced processing and networking technologies and to rebuild and strengthen relationships with universities after the Vietnam War. In addition, DARPA began to pursue new concepts for small, lightweight satellites (LIGHTSAT) and directed new programs regarding defense manufacturing, submarine technology, and armor/anti-armor. 1986 artists concept of X-30 on liftoff. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Current organization

DARPA has eight program offices, all of which report to DARPA director Dr. Anthony J. Tether. (Note that as of July 2006 SPO and ATO have been merged into a single Strategic Technology Office (STO) that complements the Tactical Technology Office (TTO) as one of the two "systems" offices.) Dr. Anthony J. Tether was appointed as Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on June 18, 2001. ...

  1. The Advanced Technology Office (ATO) researches, demonstrates, and develops high payoff projects in maritime, communications, special operations, command and control, and information assurance and survivability mission areas.
  2. The Defense Sciences Office (DSO) vigorously pursues the most promising technologies within a broad spectrum of the science and engineering research communities and develops those technologies into important, radically new military capabilities.
  3. The Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) focuses on inventing the networking, computing, and software technologies vital to ensuring DOD military superiority.
  4. The Information Exploitation Office (IXO) develops sensor and information system technology and systems with application to battle space awareness, targeting, command and control, and the supporting infrastructure required to address land-based threats in a dynamic, closed-loop process. IXO leverages ongoing DARPA efforts in sensors, sensor exploitation, information management, and command and control, and addresses systemic challenges associated with performing surface target interdiction in environments that require very high combat identification confidence and an associated low likelihood for inadvertent collateral damage.
  5. The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) mission focuses on the heterogeneous microchip-scale integration of electronics, photonics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Their high risk/high payoff technology is aimed at solving the national level problems of protection from biological, chemical and information attack and to provide operational dominance for mobile distributed command and control, combined manned/unmanned warfare, and dynamic, adaptive military planning and execution.
  6. The Special Projects Office (SPO) researches, develops, demonstrates, and transitions technologies focused on addressing present and emerging national challenges. SPO investments range from the development of enabling technologies to the demonstration of large prototype systems. SPO is developing technologies to counter the emerging threat of underground facilities used for purposes ranging from command-and-control, to weapons storage and staging, to the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction. SPO is also developing significantly more cost-effective ways to counter proliferated, inexpensive cruise missiles, UAVs, and other platforms used for weapon delivery, jamming, and surveillance. SPO is investing in novel space technologies across the spectrum of space control applications including rapid access, space situational awareness, counterspace, and persistent tactical grade sensing approaches including extremely large space apertures and structures.
  7. The Tactical Technology Office (TTO) engages in high-risk, high-payoff advanced military research, emphasizing the "system" and "subsystem" approach to the development of aeronautic, space, and land systems as well as embedded processors and control systems.

Tether refers to DARPA's work as the "far side" of technological research.[2]


ARPA and DARPA in fiction

  • The earliest mention of ARPA in fiction may well be in Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X[3], published in 1961.
  • DARPA is mentioned in the Matthew Reilly books Temple and Hell Island. In Temple, DARPA plays a role in creating the super thermonuclear missile, the "Supernova". In Hell Island, DARPA is part of the villains testing out a "super trooper" experiment.
  • DARPA and ARPA are brought into context in episodes of The West Wing. In one, a DARPA employee, Dr. Max Milkman, discusses the difference between the two, and focuses on some of the organization's operations and projects.
  • In James Rollins' books Sandstorm (2004), Map of Bones (2005) and Black Order (2006) some of the main characters are part of a fictional organization called Sigma Force, a covert branch of DARPA, tasked with safeguarding, acquiring, or neutralizing "technologies vital to U.S. security."
  • In The Patriot Steven Seagal's character was a former DARPA scientist who specialized in biological research.
  • DARPA is the agency that tries to frame Keanu Reeves' character (Eddie) in the 1996 movie "Chain Reaction."
  • In Executive Decision a fictitious DARPA project that has developed a plane that can link up with a 747 in mid-air is used to board the hijacked plane.

The first Tom Swift book: Tom Swift and his Motor Cycle Tom Swift is the protagonist in several series of juvenile adventure novels starting in the early twentieth century and continuing to present. ... Matthew Reilly, born July 2nd, 1974 Sydney, is an Australian action thriller writer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hell Island is a horror/adventure novella written in conjunction with the Australian Books Alive promotion, by young thriller writer Matthew Reilly. ... This article is about a TV show. ... Under the pen name James Rollins, former veterinarian Dr. Jim Czajkowski (1961 - ) writes such bestselling, action-packed adventure-thrillers as Subterranean (1999), Excavation (2000), Deep Fathom (2001), Amazonia (2002), Ice Hunt (2003), Sandstorm (2004), and Map of Bones Rollins is an amateur spelunker and a certified scuba diver. ... Map of Bones is a thriller novel written by James Rollins. ... Black Order: the cover features Wewelsburg castle and the Schwarze Sonne Black Order is a 2005 novel by James Rollins. ... The Patriot is a 1998 action film based on the novel, The Last Canadian by William Heine. ... Beirut, Lebanon Years active 1985 – Present Keanu Charles Reeves (pronounced in IPA: ) is an actor, born September 2, 1964 in Beirut, Lebanon, and raised in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Chain Reaction is a 1996 film starring Keanu Reeves, Rachel Weisz, Morgan Freeman and Fred Ward. ... Executive Decision is a 1996 action film released on Friday, March 15, 1996. ...

See also

Military of the United States Portal

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Combat Zones That See, or CTS, is a project of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency whose goal is to track everything that moves in a city by linking up a massive network of surveillance cameras to a centralized computer system. ... The High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS), a weapon system that is under development by the Pentagons Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), will weigh around 1,650 lbs (750 kg). ... Force Application and Launch from Continental United States, dubbed FALCON, is a joint project between U.S. Air Force and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Boeing X-37 is a demonstration spaceplane that is intended to test future launch technologies while in orbit and during atmospheric reentry. ... Image of Switchblade in oblique position by John MacNeill Image of Switchblade in conventional position by John MacNeill The Switchblade is a proposed unmanned aerial vehicle being developed by Northrop Grumman for the United States. ... In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ... The driverless car is an emerging family of technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi-like experience for car users, but without a driver. ... System F6 is a DARPA demonstration program for the concept of Fractionated Spacecraft [1]. REDIRECT Fractionated Spacecraft ... Fractionated spacecraft are a type of satellite architecture that involves distributing the functional capabilities of what would conventionally be a single, monolithic spacecraft across multiple modules which interact through wireless links. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... The Boeing X-45 Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) is a concept demonstrator for a next generation of completely autonomous fighter aircraft, developed by Boeings Phantom Works (similar to Lockheed Martins Skunk Works division; acquired through McDonnell Douglas). ... The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) is a agent markup language developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for the semantic web. ... The High Performance Knowledge Bases (HPKB) was a DARPA research program to advance the technology of how computers acquire, represent and manipulate knowledge. ... In the fifties and early sixties, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network. ... Onion routing is a technique for pseudonymous (or anonymous) communication over a computer network, developed by David Goldschlag, Michael Reed, and Paul Syverson. ... Passive radar systems (also referred to a passive coherent location and passive covert radar) encompass a class of radar systems that detect and track objects by processing reflections from non-cooperative sources of illumination in the environment, such as commercial broadcast and communications signals. ... The Policy Analysis Market (PAM) was a proposed futures exchange developed by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and based on an idea first proposed by Net Exchange[1], a San Diego research firm specializing in the development of online markets. ... Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flies on a simulated Navy aerial reconnaissance flight off southern California in December 1995. ... Categories: Naval stubs ... Suran Suran is a town in the video game The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind (2002). ... Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982 by W. Daniel Hillis and Sheryl Handler to turn Hilliss doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product called the Connection Machine. ... Portable Open Source Security Elements, or POSSE, was a co-operative venture among the University of Pennsylvania Distributed Systems Laboratory, the OpenBSD project, and others, to provide increased security for Open Source projects such as OpenBSD, OpenSSL, and others. ... The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the research and development agency of the United States Department of Defense, in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter transnational threats to national security. ... Barry W. Boehm is known for many contributions to software engineering. ... Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) (last name pronounced just like the English word surf) is a American computer scientist who is commonly referred to as one of the founding fathers of the Internet for his key technical and managerial role, together with Bob Kahn, in the creation of... Robert Mano Fano (1917- ) is professor emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... James Hendler is one of the originators of the Semantic Web. ... Robert E. Kahn, (born December 23, 1938), along with Vinton G. Cerf, invented the TCP/IP protocol, the technology used to transmit information on the modern Internet. ... Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 - June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or Lick is one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. ... Robert Sproull, a former president of the University of Rochester, is a distinguished physicist and business figure. ... Rear Admiral John Poindexter USN (Ret. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... Dr. Anup K. Ghosh has served as a Senior Scientist and Program Manager in the Advanced Technology Office (ATO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) where he creates and manages programs in information assurance and information operations. ... Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ...

References

  • This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.
  • Castell, Manuel The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham UK 2004
  1. ^ John Chambers, ed., The Oxford Companion to American Military History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) p. 791.
  2. ^ [DARPA Chief says: failure key to its far side strategy] August 07 2007
  3. ^ Victor Appleton II, 1961. Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X, originally published by Grosset & Dunlap of New York, now re-published by Project Gutenberg. ARPA is referred to on page 68.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “GFDL” redirects here. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1446 words)
DARPA was responsible for funding development of many technologies which have had a major impact on the world, including computer networking (starting with the ARPANET, which eventually grew into the Internet), as well as NLS, which was both the first hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface.
DARPA was established in 1958 in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik, with the mission of keeping the US's military technology ahead of its enemies.
DARPA received media attention in 2002 and 2003 after its creation of projects like the Information Awareness Office and Combat Zones That See (CTS), which civil liberties activists on both the left wing and right wing claim are unacceptably Orwellian.
Cost Overruns Threaten DARPA Satellite Refueling Experiment (998 words)
DARPA recently added a third microsatellite to the equation that would monitor the experiment and provide "space situational awareness for U.S. satellites deployed in geostationary orbits," according to budget justification materials recently submitted to Congress.
DARPA asked the U.S. Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) about a year ago whether they believed that the ability to service satellites was likely to figure into their plans for the foreseeable future, a government source said.
DARPA is asking for $39.8 million for that launch vehicle effort, which was initially budgeted at a total of $88 million.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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