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Encyclopedia > D cell
Four double-A batteries

In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Although such storage in an electrostatic form is practical in some specialized uses (in a capacitor), batteries usually consist of electrochemical devices such as one or more galvanic cells or more recently fuel cells, and may in the future use other technologies. The battery industry is worth 2.8 billion dollars annually. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor (occasionally referred to using the older term condenser) is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... Electrochemistry is the science of the reactions that can take place at the interface of an electronic conductor (the electrode, which can be a metal or a semiconductor including graphite) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte). ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


In a technical sense, the distinction may be made between

  • an electrical battery, a device for creating or storing electrical energy composed of several similar (usually identical) cells that are connected together, versus
  • an electrical cell, a single such unit, possibly one cell in a (strict-terminology) battery of multiple cells or possibly the entire device.

That distinction, however, is considered pedantic in most contexts (other than the expression dry cell), and in current English usage it is more common to call a single cell used on its own a battery than a cell. A dry cell is a compact primary electrochemical cell that supplies electrical energy at small currents. ...


An example is a double A (AA) battery. Even though most people call it a battery, in reality it is a cell (as are the other lettered designations although one often hears the more-correct "D cell" or "C cell"). A car battery is a true "battery" because it uses multiple cells inside of it that are connected together in series, thus forming a battery. Similarly, a 9-volt battery is a true battery as it must contain more than one cell. Multiple batteries or cells may also be refered to as a battery pack as a set of multi-cell 12v batteries in an electric vehicle. A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ...

Contents

History

There is some evidence—in the form of the Baghdad Batteries from sometime between 250 BC and 640 AD—of galvanic cells having been used in ancient times to electroplate base metal objects with a precious metal. Such ancient knowledge in the history of electricity bears no known continuous relationship to the development of modern batteries. The conjecture that these devices had an electrical function, while plausible, remains unproven, as with devices discovered in Egyptian digs that are alleged to be batteries as well. The Baghdad Battery is the common name for a number of artifacts apparently discovered in the village of Khuyut Rabboua (near Baghdad, Iraq) in 1936. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... Electroplating is the coating of an electrically conductive item with a layer of metal using electrical current. ...


In 1748, Benjamin Franklin coined the term battery to describe the simple capacitor he experimented with, which was an array of charged glass plates. He adapted the word from its earlier sense meaning a beating, which is what an electric shock from the apparatus felt like. In those days, the entertaining effect of an electric shock was one of the few uses of the technology. Other experimenters made batteries from a number of Leyden jars connected in parallel. The definition was later widened to include an array of electrochemical cells or capacitors. The Voltaic pile was a chemical battery developed by Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta researched the effects which different metals produced when exposed to salt water. In 1801, Volta demonstrated the Voltaic cell to Napoleon Bonaparte (who later ennobled him for his discoveries). Luigi Galvani researched the same effect with two pieces of the same metal exposed to salt water. Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze 1777 For the former mayor of Nepean, see Ben Franklin (politician) Dr. Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was an American printer, journalist, publisher, author, philanthropist, abolitionist, public servant, scientist, librarian, diplomat, and inventor. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor (occasionally referred to using the older term condenser) is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... In medicine, shock is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by inability of the body to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements. ... Original capacitor The Leyden jar was the original capacitor, developed in the 18th century and used to conduct many early experiments in electricity. ... Left: Series  / Right: Parallel Arrows indicate direction of current flow. ... In computer programming, an array, also known as a vector or list, is one of the simplest data structures. ... An electrochemical cell is a setup used for creating an electromotive force in a conductor separating two reactions. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor (occasionally referred to using the older term condenser) is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... The Voltaic Pile was invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 - March 5, 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Luigi Galvani Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737–December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ...


The scientific community at this time called these batteries piles. The battery was called an accumulator, because it held charge, or an artificial electrical organ. Some early researchers over batteries called the device a gravity cell because gravity kept the two sulfates separated. The name crowfoot cell was also commonly used because of the shape of the zinc electrode used in the batteries. Sulfate is the IUPAC name for the SO42- ion, consisting of a central sulfur atom single bonded to four tetrahedrally oriented oxygen atoms. ...


In 1800, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle used a battery to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. Sir Humphry Davy researched this chemical effect at the same time. Davy researched the decomposition of substances (called electrolysis). In 1813, he constructed a 2,000-plate paired battery in the basement of Britain's Royal Society, covering 889 ft² (83 m²). Through this experiment, Davy deduced that electrolysis was the action in the voltaic pile that produced electricity. In 1820, the British researcher John Frederic Daniell improved the voltaic cell. The Daniell cell consisted of copper and zinc plates and copper and zinc sulfates. It was used to operate telegraphs and doorbells. Between 1832 and 1834, Michael Faraday conducted experiments with a ferrite ring, a galvanometer, and a connected battery. When the battery was connected or disconnected, the galvanometer deflected. Faraday also developed the principle of ionic mobility in chemical reactions of batteries. In 1839, William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell, which produced electrical energy by combining hydrogen and oxygen. Grove developed another form the electric cell using zinc and platinum electrodes. These electrodes were exposed to two acids separated by a diaphragm. 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... There have been several well-known people named William Nicholson, including: William Nicholson (artist) William Nicholson (chemist) William Nicholson (dramatist) William Nicholson (Mayor of Melbourne) Sir William Nicholson (soldier), British General, and Chief of the Imperial General Staff William Nicholson (naval officer) served in the United States Navy. ... Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was an Cornish chemist. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Frederic Daniell (March 12, 1790 - March 13, 1845) was an English chemist and physicist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8920 kg/m3, 3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Density, Hardness 7140 kg/m3, 2. ... Sulfate is the IUPAC name for the SO42- ion, consisting of a central sulfur atom single bonded to four tetrahedrally oriented oxygen atoms. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Ferrite may refer to: (1) ferromagnetic ceramic materials, used in magnetic applications; (2) iron or iron alloys with a body centred cubic crystal structure. ... A ring is usually anything resembling a circle, or a noise that cycles rapidly. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring A galvanometer is an electromechanical transducer. ... An ion is an elementary particle or system of elementary particles with a net electric charge. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Grove may refer to: William Barry Grove, U.S. Congressman from North Carolina William Robert Grove, scientist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ...


In the 1860s, Georges Leclanché of France developed a carbon-zinc battery. It was a wet cell, with electrodes plunged into a body of electrolyte fluid. It was rugged, manufactured easily, and had a decent shelf life. An improved version called a dry cell was later made by sealing the cell and changing the fluid electrolyte to a wet paste. The Leclanché cell is a type of primary (non-rechargeable) battery. In the 1860s, Raymond Gaston Plant invented the lead-acid battery. He immersed two thin solid lead plates separated by rubber sheets in a dilute sulfuric acid solution to make a secondary (rechargeable) battery. The original invention had a short shelf life, though. Around 1881, Émile Alphonse Faure, with his colleagues, developed batteries using a mixture of lead oxides for the positive plate electrolyte. These had faster reactions and higher efficiency. In 1878, the air cell battery was developed. In 1897, Nikola Tesla researched a lightweight carbide cell and a oxygen-hydrogen storage cell. In 1898 Nathan Stubblefield received approval for a battery patent (US600457): this electrolytic coil patent is referred to as an "earth battery". Events and trends Italian unification under King Victor Emmanuel II. Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States (March 17, 1861 - September 20, 1870). ... Georges Leclanché (1839 - September 14, 1882) was a French electrical engineer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Carbon, C, 6 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 2, p Density, Hardness 2267 kg/m3 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Density, Hardness 7140 kg/m3, 2. ... An electrochemical cell is a setup used for creating an electromotive force in a conductor separating two reactions. ... An electrolyte is a substance which dissociates free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... A subset of the phases of matter, fluids include liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. ... Events and trends Italian unification under King Victor Emmanuel II. Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States (March 17, 1861 - September 20, 1870). ... Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries today. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Poor metals Group, Period, Block 14(IVA), 6 , p Density, Hardness 11340 kg/m3, 1. ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements, e. ... In common usage positive is sometimes used in affirmation, as a synonym for yes or to express certainty. In mathematics, a number is called positive if it is bigger than zero. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nikola Tesla (July 9/July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943) was a physicist, inventor, and electrical engineer of unusual intellectual brilliance and practical achievement. ... Carbide is a polyatomic ion consisting of two carbon atoms or any salt containing such an ion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 2, p Density, Hardness 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1, s Density, Hardness 0. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Nathan B. Stubblefield was the son of a lawyer, (Capt Billy, and educator: Nathan Founded the Teléph-on-délgreen Campus in Murray, Kentucky. ... An earth battery is an early type of voltaic cell buried in the ground so that the soil acts as the electrolyte. ...


In 1900, Thomas Edison developed the nickel storage battery. In 1905, Edison developed the nickel-iron battery. Like all electrochemical cells, Edison's produced a current of electrons that flowed only in one direction, known as direct current. In World War II, Samuel Ruben and Philip Rogers Mallory developed the mercury cell. In the 1950s, Russell S. Ohl developed a wafer of silicon that produced free electrons. In the 1950s, Ruben improved the alkaline manganese battery. In 1954, Gerald L. Pearson, Daryl M. Chapin, and Calvin S. Fuller produced an array of several such wafers, making the first solar battery or solar cell. In 1956, Francis Thomas Bacon developed the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. In 1959, Lewis Urry developed the small alkaline battery at the Eveready Battery Company laboratory in Parma, Ohio. In the 1960s, German researchers invented a gel-type electrolyte lead-acid battery. Duracell was formed in 1964. 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Thomas Alva Edison Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8908 kg/m³, 4. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8908 kg/m³, 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metal Group, Period, Block 8 (VIIIB), 4, d Density, Hardness 7874 kg/m3, 4. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... Properties The electron is a subatomic particle. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12 (IIB), 6, d Density, Hardness liquid 13. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Russell Ohl is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US2402662, Light sensitive device). Ohl was a notable semiconductor researcher prior to the invention of the transistor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Series metalloid Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2330 kg/m3, 6. ... Properties The electron is a subatomic particle. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7 , 4, d Density, Hardness 7470 kg/m3, 6. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is a semiconductor device consisting of a large-area p-n junction diode, which, in the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Thomas Bacon (December 21, 1904 - 1992), born at Ramsden Hall, Billericay, Essex, UK was a British Engineer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1, s Density, Hardness 0. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 2, p Density, Hardness 1. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewis Frederick Urry, (January 29, 1927-October 19, 2004), was a Canadian chemical engineer and inventor. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Energizer Holdings (formerly Eveready Battery), headquartered in St. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... A pair of Duracell AAA batteries. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Homemade cells

Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes into a lemon, potato, glass of soft drink, etc. and generate small amounts of electricity. As of 2005, "two-potato clocks" are widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, etc.) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock. Homemade cells of this kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable. This lemon cell battery can be made with almost any fruit. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The future

Initial research indicates that nanotechnology batteries employing carbon nanotubes will have twice the life of traditional modern batteries. A mite next to a gear chain produced using nanotechnology. ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ...


A new form of battery is in development called Power Paper. This thin, flexible battery comes in the form of ink cells which can be printed on to virtually any surface and produce power. Power paper is a kind of battery in development which is in the form of ink cells, able to be printed on almost any surface and produce electric power. ...


Electrical component

Circuit symbol for a battery (+ and - signs are optional)
Circuit symbol for a battery (+ and - signs are optional)

The cells in a battery can be connected in parallel or in series, or both. A parallel combination of cells has the same voltage as a single cell, but can supply a higher current (the sum of the currents from all the cells). On the other hand, a series combination has the same current rating as a single cell but its voltage is the sum of the voltages of all the cells. Most practical electrochemical batteries, such as 9 volt flashlight (torch) batteries and 12 V automobile (car) batteries, have a series structure. Parallel arrangements suffer from the problem that, if one cell discharges faster than its neighbour, current will flow from the full cell to the empty cell, wasting power and possibly causing overheating. Even worse, if one cell becomes short-circuited due to an internal fault, its neighbour will be forced to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, leading to overheating and possibly explosion. Cells in parallel are therefore usually fitted with an electronic circuit to protect them against these problems. In both series and parallel types, the energy stored in the battery is equal to the sum of the energies stored in all the cells. battery - circuit symbol This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... In the physical sciences, potential difference is the difference in potential between two points in a conservative vector field. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ...


A battery can be modelled as a perfect voltage source (i.e. one with zero internal resistance) in series with a resistor. The voltage source depends mainly on the chemistry of the battery, not on whether it is empty or full. When a battery runs down, its internal resistance increases. When the battery is connected to a load (e.g. a light bulb), which has its own resistance, the resulting voltage across the load depends on the ratio of the battery's internal resistance to the resistance of the load. When the battery is fresh, its internal resistance is low, so the voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's internal voltage source. As the battery runs down and its internal resistance increases, the proportion of its internal voltage that gets through the internal resistance to appear at the load gets smaller, so the battery's ability to deliver power to the load decreases. Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ... An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device or the rate of change of the current. ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... The output impedance, source impedance, or internal impedance of an electronic device is the opposition exhibited by its output terminals to the flow of an alternating current (AC) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance. ... Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power, often known as power or electricity, involves the production and delivery of electrical energy in sufficient quantities to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. ...


Common battery types

various batteries
various batteries

From a user's viewpoint, at least, batteries can be generally divided into two main types - rechargeable and non-rechargeable (disposable). Each is in wide usage. Various batteries: two 9-volt, two AAA, two AA, and one each of C, D, a cordless phone battery, a camcorder battery, a 2-meter handheld ham radio battery, and a button battery; plus, a US quarter, for scale. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ...


Disposable batteries, also called primary cells, are intended to be used once, until the chemical changes that induce the electrical current supply are complete, at which point the battery is discarded. These are most commonly used in smaller, portable devices with either low current drain, only used intermittently, or used well away from an alternative power source. See also: waste. Waste inside a trash can Waste is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. ...


By contrast, rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be re-charged after they have been drained. This is done by applying externally supplied electrical current which causes the chemical changes that occur in use to be reversed. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.


The oldest form of rechargeable battery still in modern usage is the wet cell lead-acid battery. This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well-ventilated to deal with the explosive oxygen and hydrogen gases which are vented by these batteries during overcharging. The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries today. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 2, p Density, Hardness 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1, s Density, Hardness 0. ... Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries today. ...


A common form of lead-acid battery is the modern car battery. This can deliver about 10,000 watts of power at a nominal 12 volts (although the true open-circuit voltage is closer to 13.7 V) and has a peak current output that varies from 450 to 1100 amperes. The battery's electrolyte is sulfuric acid, which can cause serious injury if splashed on the skin or eyes. A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit for power. ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... Amp re can refer to: Amp re (car) Ampere (unit) Andr -Marie Amp re This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


A more expensive type of lead-acid battery called a gel battery (or "gel cell") contains a semi-solid electrolyte to prevent spillage. More portable rechargeable batteries include several "dry cell" types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances like mobile phones and laptops. Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (nicad or NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-Ion) cells. Laptop with touchpad. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd or NiCad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys. ... The National Institute of Mental Health is a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ... Lithium-ion batteries have a nominal voltage of 3. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ...


Common battery sizes

Disposable cells come in a number of standard sizes, so the same battery type can be used in a wide variety of appliances. Some of the major types used in portable appliances are listed below:

See also:List of battery sizes
US IEC ANSI Other Shape Voltage
N LR1 910A lady cylinder L 30.2 mm, D 12 mm 1.5 V
AAAA   25A MN2500 cylinder L 42 mm, D 8 mm 1.5 V
AAA LR03 24A R03,MN2400, AM4,UM4,HP16,micro cylinder L 44.5 mm, D 10.5 mm 1.5 V
AA LR6 15A R6,MN1500, AM3,UM3,HP7,mignon cylinder L 50 mm, D 14.2 mm 1.5 V
A     filament supply in early radio receivers rectangular prism various sizes. 1.5 V, 6 V
A     filament supply in early radio receivers cylinder L 50 mm, D 17 mm 1.5 V, 6 V
B     plate supply in early radio receivers rectangular prism various sizes, often with taps. 45 V, 60 V, 90 V, etc.
C     grid bias supply in early radio receivers rectangular prism various sizes, often with several taps. 4.5 V, 6 V, 9 V, etc.
C LR14 14A R14,UM2,MN1400,HP11,baby cylinder L 43 mm, D 23 mm 1.5 V
D LR20 13A R20,MN1300,UM1,HP2,mono cylinder L 58 mm, D 33 mm 1.5 V
F       cylinder L 87 mm, D 32 mm 1.5 V
G       cylinder L 105 mm, D 32 mm 1.5 V
J       cylinder L 150 mm, D 32 mm 1.5 V
  3R12   GP312S rectangular prism 67 mm × 62 mm × 22 mm 4.5 V
      lantern,996 rectangular prism 68 mm square × 115 mm 6 V (note)
PP3 6LR61 1604A 6F22,6R61,MN1604 rectangular prism 48 mm × 25 mm × 15mm 9 V (note)
PP9 6F100 1603   rectangular prism 51.6mm × 65.1 mm × 80.2 mm high 9 V (note)
  4R25X 908 MN908 square prism 110 mm high × 67.7 mm square, spring terminals 6 V (note)
  4R25 915   square prism 110 mm high × 67.7 mm square, screw terminals 6 V (note)
  4LR25-2 918A MN918 rectangular prism 127 mm × 136.5 mm × 73 mm high, screw terminals 6 V (note)
      radio,lantern,PC926 rectangular prism 127 mm × 136.5 mm × 73 mm high, screw terminals 12 V (note)

Note: 6 V, 9 V, and 12 V batteries are commonly made using multiple 1.5 V cells placed in series. See electrochemical cell. This is a list of battery sizes Note: 6 V, 9 V, and 12 V batteries are commonly made using multiple 1. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... In the physical sciences, potential difference is the difference in potential between two points in a conservative vector field. ... An AAA battery is 44. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... An electrochemical cell is a setup used for creating an electromotive force in a conductor separating two reactions. ...


The relevant European standard is IEC 60086-1 Primary batteries - Part 1: General (BS397 in the UK).


The relevant US standard is ANSI C18.1 American National Standard for Dry Cells and Batteries-Specifications.


An extensive series of articles on many aspects of batteries and their use in portable equipment is available at Buchmann.ca (http://www.buchmann.ca/).


Summary

Disposable

  • Zinc-carbon battery
  • Alkaline battery
  • Silver-oxide battery
  • Lithium battery
  • Zinc-air battery

2 AAA Alkaline batteries Alkaline batteries are a type of power cell dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/Mn02). ... Zinc-air batteries is a non-rechargeable electro-chemcial battery powered by the oxidation of zinc with oxygen from the air. ...

Rechargeable

Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries today. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd or NiCad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel and cadmium as the active chemicals. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A Nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but without the expensive and environmentally unfriendly metal cadmium. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... A NaS battery is a type of battery contructed from Sodium (Na) and Sulfur (S). ...

Battery capacity

The capacity of a battery to store charge is often expressed in ampere hours (1 A·h = 3600 coulombs). If a battery can provide one ampere (1 A) of current (flow) for one hour, it has a real-world capacity of 1 A·h. If it can provide 1 A for 100 hours, its capacity is 100 A·h. Likewise, 20 A for 2 hours equals 40 A·h capacity. But... Amp re can refer to: Amp re (car) Ampere (unit) Andr -Marie Amp re This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The coulomb, symbol C, is the SI unit of electric charge, and is defined in terms of the ampere: 1 coulomb is the amount of electric charge (quantity of electricity) carried by a current of 1 ampere flowing for 1 second. ...


While a battery that can deliver 10 A for 10 hours can be said to have a capacity of 100 A·h, that is not how the rating is determined by the manufacturers. A 100 A·h rated battery most likely will not deliver 10 A for 10 hours. Battery manufacturers use a standard method to determine how to rate their batteries. Their rating is based on tests performed over 20 hours with a discharge rate of 1/20 (5%) of the expected capacity of the battery. So a 100 ampere-hour battery is rated to provide 5 A for 20 hours. The efficiency of a battery is different at different discharge rates. When discharging at 1/20 of their capacity, batteries are more efficient than at higher discharge rates.


To calculate the 5% discharge rate of a battery, take the manufacturer's ampere-hour rating and divide it by 20. For example, you have a AA cell rated at 1300 mA h (milliampere hours). The 5% discharge rate from which this rating was derived would be 1300 mA·h / 20 h = 65 mA.


Battery explosion

Under extreme conditions, certain types of batteries can explode violently. A battery explosion is usually caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery (such as the recharging of a non-rechargable battery or shorting a car battery).


With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates currents of very high magnitude. A short circuit malfunction in a battery placed in parallel with other batteries ("jumped") can cause its neighbour to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, leading to overheating and possible explosion.


When a non-rechargeable battery is recharged at a high rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and a possible explosion. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury.


Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery.


Overcharging, which is charging a battery beyond its electrical capacity, can also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used.


See also

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Wikipedia Energy Directory

  • Energy directory compiles various energy technologies and issues featured at Wikipedia, with emphasis on clean, renewable energy systems.

With batteries, the memory effect, also known as lazy battery effect, is an effect observed in some rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge. ... Directory of Energy Topics Covered at WikiPedia Focusing on Energy, in this case as an electrical, chemical or motive power, with emphasis on clean, renewable sources. ...

People/inventors

Luigi Galvani Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737–December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 - March 5, 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery. ... Slavoljub Eduard Penkala (April 20, 1871 - February 5, 1922) was an engineer and inventor from Croatia. ... John Frederic Daniell (March 12, 1790 - March 13, 1845) was an English chemist and physicist. ... Moritz Hermann von Jacobi (September 21, 1801 - March 10, 1874) was a Prussian engineer and physicist born in Potsdam. ... Nikola Tesla (July 9/July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943) was a physicist, inventor, and electrical engineer of unusual intellectual brilliance and practical achievement. ... Georges Leclanché (1839 - September 14, 1882) was a French electrical engineer. ...

Related electrical topics

In the physical sciences, potential difference is the difference in potential between two points in a conservative vector field. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... The efficiency of an entity (a device, component, or system) in electronics and electrical engineering is defined as useful power output divided by the total electrical power consumed (a fractional expression). ... Electricity is a property of certain subatomic particles (e. ... An electrochemical cell is a setup used for creating an electromotive force in a conductor separating two reactions. ... Electrochemical potential is a thermodynamic measure that reflects energy from entropy and electrostatics and is typically invoked in molecular processes that involve diffusion. ... Electrochemistry is the science of the reactions that can take place at the interface of an electronic conductor (the electrode, which can be a metal or a semiconductor including graphite) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte). ... An electromotive force (emf) is the force, measured in volts, that is produced by interaction between a current and a magnetic field, at least one of which is changing. ... Electroplating is the coating of an electrically conductive item with a layer of metal using electrical current. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... In telecommunication, the term local battery has the following meanings: 1. ... A power supply unit (sometimes abbreviated power supply or PSU) is a device that supplies electrical power to a device or group of devices. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Amphibian Animal Abstract algebra Ada programming language Applied mathematics Algebra A Plus Cuisine of the United States Arthropod Active Server Pages Biology Bird Biochemistry Bicycle Bubble tea Botany Battery (electricity) Cell (biology) Bear Bubble and squeak Bash Bat Chordate Chess Cryptography...

Related electronics concepts

Left: Series  / Right: Parallel Arrows indicate direction of current flow. ... A secondary cell is any kind of electrolytic cell in which the electrochemical reaction of interest is reversible. ... An electrode is a conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e. ... Electrolytic capacitors An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types, making them valuable in relatively high-current and low-frequency electrical circuits. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system. ... This lemon cell battery can be made with almost any fruit. ... A jump start is a colloquial term for a method of starting an automobile or other internal combustion engine-powered vehicle having a discharged battery. ... Stone lantern A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... A recent innovation in electrical energy storage is the use of flywheel energy storage, also called flywheel power storage. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... This article or section should be merged with Impedance matching. ... In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation gives the electrode potential (E), relative to the standard electrode potential, (E0), of the electrode couple or, equivalently, of the half cells of a battery. ... Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) uses the ability of certain materials to conduct electricity without resistance (superconductivity) to store electrical power. ... Demand for electricity from the worlds various grids varies over the course of the day and from season to season. ...

Chemicals used in construction

General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 1960 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Lemon yellow at STP Atomic properties Atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12 (IIB), 6, d Density, Hardness liquid 13. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Density, Hardness 7140 kg/m3, 2. ... Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting taste. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 5, p Density, Hardness 6697 kg/m3, 3 Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic properties Atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Density, Hardness 8650 kg/m3, 2 Appearance Silvery gray metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Density, Hardness 10490 kg/m3, 2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8908 kg/m³, 4. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A Nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but without the expensive and environmentally unfriendly metal cadmium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Lithium, Li, 3 Series Alkali metal Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 2, s Density, Hardness 535 kg/m3, 0. ... A Hydride is a chemical compound or form of a bond between hydrogen with a metal usually found in group 1 of the Periodic table, usually with a more electropositive element or group. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cobalt, Co, 27 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7 , 4, d Density, Hardness 7470 kg/m3, 6. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Rubidium, Rb, 37 Series Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 5, s Density, Hardness 1532 kg/m3, 0. ...

Related inventions

The Baghdad Battery is the common name for a number of artifacts apparently discovered in the village of Khuyut Rabboua (near Baghdad, Iraq) in 1936. ... The Voltaic Pile was invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... This is a list of inventions, listed in chronological order. ... This is a list of inventors. ... SBD (Smart Battery Data) is a method to monitor a rechargeable battery pack, initiated by Duracell and Intel. ...

Other

A gas-electric hybrid engine is a combination of a gasoline/petrol or diesel internal combustion engine with an electric motor to power a vehicle. ... A hybrid car or hybrid electric vehicle is a vehicle which relies not only on batteries but also on an internal combustion engine which drives a generator to provide the electricity and may also drive the wheels directly. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... Waste inside a trash can Waste is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. ... CMOS (pronounced see-moss) is the name used for a major class of integrated circuits. ... Telecomunications/Computing A Battery room is a room in a facility used to house batteries for large-scale custom-built backup power systems. ...

External links

  • Electrochemistry Encyclopedia NONRECHARGEABLE BATTERIES (http://electrochem.cwru.edu/ed/encycl/art-b02-batt-nonr.htm)
  • Battery Glossary & Terminology (http://www.windsun.com/batteries/battery_Glos.htm)
  • Battery Technologies (http://www.freeenergynews.com/Directory/Battery/index.html) - Directory page covering theory, research and development, and market devices that improve the trend toward clean, renewable energy. (FreeEnergyNews)
  • Jet-Powered Computers, a look at future battery technologies by Fred Hapgood (http://hotwired.wired.com/wired_online/4.10/batteries/index.html)
  • The Microturbine, battery technology as "the Next Big Thing" by Fred Hapgood (http://fhapgood.fastmail.fm/microturbine.htm)
  • Exide Technologies, a typical manufacturer of batteries for industrial and other applications (http://www.exide.com/)
  • Batteries in a Portable World - A Handbook on rechargeable batteries for non-engineers (http://www.buchmann.ca/default.asp) - Has a comprehensive FAQ section on rechargeable batteries

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