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Encyclopedia > Czechoslovakia
Československo
Czechoslovakia

1918 - 1939
1945 - 1992

 

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Czech: Pravda vítězí
("Truth prevails"; 1918-1989)
Latin: Veritas Vincit
("Truth prevails"; 1989-1992)
Anthem
Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska
Capital Prague
Language(s) Czech, Slovak, Rusyn, Polish
Government Republic
President
 - 1918-1935 Tomáš G. Masaryk (first)
 - 1989-1992 Václav Havel (last)
Prime Minister
 - 1918-1919 Karel Kramář
 - 1992 Jan Stráský
History
 - Independence from Austria-Hungary 28 October, 1918
 - German occupation 1939
 - Liberation 1945
 - Dissolution of Czechoslovakia 31 December, 1992
Area
 - 1993 127,900 km² (49,382 sq mi)
Population
 - 1993 est. 15,600,000 
     Density 122 /km²  (315.9 /sq mi)
Currency Czechoslovak koruna
Internet TLD .cs
Calling code +42
current ISO 3166-3 code:        CSHH
2Country code 42 was retired in Winter 1997. The number range was subdivided, and re-allocated amongst Czech Republic, Slovakia and Liechtenstein.

Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Československo; after 1990: Česko-Slovensko) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918 (upon declaring its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire) until 1992 (with a government-in-exile during the World War II period). On January 1, 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Motto: (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem:  Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU accession May... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links CoA_CSFRc. ... Categories: Czech Republic | National flags | Stub ... The large CoA (1918-1961) Several Coat of arms were used during Czechoslovakias history, some alongside each other. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Å kroup‘s score of Kde domov můj Kde domov můj? (Where is My Home?) is the national anthem of the Czech Republic. ... Nad Tatrou sa blýska is the national anthem of Slovakia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of presidents of Czechoslovakia. ... Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Karel Kramář: 14 November 1918 - 8 July 1919 Vlastimil Tusar: 8 July 1919 - 15 September 1920 Jan ÄŒerný: 15 September 1920 - 26 September 1921 Edvard BeneÅ¡: 26 September 1921 - 7 October 1922 Antonín Å vehla: 7 October 1922 - 18 March 1926 Jan ÄŒerný: 18... Karel Kramář Karel Kramář (December 27, 1860 - May 26, 1937) was a Czech politician. ... Jan Stráský Jan Stráský (24 December 1940, Plzeň) is a Czech politician. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... ISO 4217 Code CSK User(s) Czech Republic Slovakia Inflation 57. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .cs was for several years the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Czechoslovakia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... ISO 3166-3 is an international standard that defines codes for outdated ISO 3166-1 country codes and is part of ISO 3166. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ...

Contents

Basic characteristics

Form of state:

  • 1918–1938: a democratic republic
  • 1938–1939: after annexation of Sudetenland by Germany in 1938 gradually turned into a state with loosened connections between Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Ruthenia was annexed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region by Poland.
  • 1939–1945: De-facto split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. De jure Czechoslovakia continued to exist, a government-in-exile supported by the Western Allies was based in London; after German invasion of Russia also recognised by the USSR.
  • 1945–1948: a country governed by a coalition government with Communist ministers (including the prime minister and minister of interior) playing leading roles
  • 1948–1989: a Communist country with a centrally planned economy (from 1960 onwards officially a Socialist Republic):
  • 1990–1992: a federal democratic republic consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic

Neighbors: Germany (1945–1990: BRD and DDR), Poland, from 1945 Soviet Union (1992: Ukraine), Romania (until 1939), Hungary, Austria Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... Motto Pravda vítÄ›zí (Czech: Truth prevails) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Socialist republic  - 1975-1989 Gustáv Husák  - 1970-1988 Lubomír Å trougal Historical era Cold War  - Established 1960  - Constitution July 11, 1960  - Federation... This article is about federal states. ... From 1969 to 1990, the Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is the Czech Republic today. ... From 1969 to 1990, the Slovak Socialist Republic (Slovenská socialistická republika in Slovak; abbreviated SSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is Slovakia today. ... This article is about federal states. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... BRD is an unofficial abbreviation for Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German name of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Topography: Generally irregular terrain. Western area is part of north-central European uplands. Eastern region is composed of northern reaches of Carpathian Mountains and Danube River Basin lands. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany...

Czechoslovakia 1920-1938, physical
Czechoslovakia 1920-1938, physical

Climate: Predominantly continental but varied from the moderate temperatures of Western Europe in the west to more severe weather systems affecting Eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union in the east.


Official names

  • 1918–1920: Czecho-Slovak Republic (abbreviated RČS); short form Czecho-Slovakia
  • 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR); short form Czechoslovakia
  • 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic; short form Czecho-Slovakia
  • 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR); short form Czechoslovakia
  • 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR); Czechoslovakia
  • April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic (Czech version) and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic (Slovak version),
  • afterwards: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (ČSFR, with the short forms Československo in Czech and Česko-Slovensko in Slovak)
See also: Hyphen War

Motto Pravda vítÄ›zí (Czech: Truth prevails) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Socialist republic  - 1975-1989 Gustáv Husák  - 1970-1988 Lubomír Å trougal Historical era Cold War  - Established 1960  - Constitution July 11, 1960  - Federation... // Main article: Velvet Revolution Although in March 1987 Gustáv Husák nominally committed Czechoslovakia to follow the program of perestroika, he nevertheless cautioned the party in October 1987 not to hasten solutions too quickly so as to minimize the risks that could occur. ... The Hyphen War (in Czech Pomlčková válka, in Slovak Pomlčková vojna — literally Dash War) was the tongue-in-cheek name given to the conflict over what to call Czechoslovakia after the fall of Communism. ...

History

Main article: History of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovak lands inside Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1911
     Czechs      Austrians/
     Germans
     Slovaks      Hungarians      Romanians      Poles

     Ruthenians (Rusyns and Ukrainians) With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent country of Czechoslovakia (Slovak: ÄŒesko-Slovensko, Czech: ÄŒeskoslovensko) was formed, encouraged by, among others, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Image File history File links Czech_and_Slovak_peoples_in_Austro-Hungarian_Empire. ... Image File history File links Czech_and_Slovak_peoples_in_Austro-Hungarian_Empire. ...

Foundation

Czechoslovakia was founded in October 1918 as one of the successor states of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. It consisted of the present-day territories of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia. Its territory included some of the most industrialized regions of the former Austria-Hungary. It was a democratic republic throughout the pre-World War II period, but was characterized by ethnic problems due to the fact that the second and third largest ethnic groups (Germans and Slovaks, respectively) were not satisfied with the political and economic dominance of the Czechs, and that most Germans and Hungarians of Czechoslovakia had never really accepted the creation of the new state. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ...

Czechoslovakia 1930: linguistic
Czechoslovakia 1930: linguistic

Nationalities of Czechoslovakia 1921


total population 13.5 mill.
Czech 6.8 mill. 50 %
German 3.2 mill. 23 %
Slovak 2.34 mill. 15 %
Hungarian ca. 0.8 mill. 5.5 %
Ruthenian ca. 0.5 mill. 3.5 %
others ca. 0.5 mill. 4 %

The original ethnic composition of the new state was 51% Czechs, 16% Slovaks, 22% Germans, 5% Hungarians and 4% Rusyns.[1] Many of the Germans, Hungarians, Ruthenians and Poles[2] and also some Slovaks, felt disadvantaged in Czechoslovakia, because the political elite of the country introduced a centralized state and most of the time did not allow political autonomy for the ethnic groups. This policy, combined with increasing Nazi propaganda especially in the industrialized German speaking Sudetenland, led to increasing unrest among the Non-Czech population. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Czechoslovakia in 1928
Czechoslovakia in 1928

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ...

World War II

After the Munich Agreement of 1938 in which the UK and France forced Czechoslovakia to cede the German-speaking Sudetenland to Nazi Germany despite existing treaties in what is commonly known as part of the Western Betrayal. The still-democratic state briefly existed as a basically non-functioning entity at the mercy of its fascist neighbours. In 1939 Czechoslovakia was invaded by Nazi Germany and divided into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the puppet Slovak State. Much of Slovakia and all of Subcarpathian Ruthenia was annexed by Hungary. For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was a part of the Hungarian kingdom (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ...


Following the War the ante bellum arrangement was restored, with the exception of Subcarpathian Ruthenia which was annexed by the Soviet Union as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the territory passed to the hands of Ukraine where it remains today. State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


Communist Czechoslovakia

After World War II, pre-war Czechoslovakia was reestablished, the Beneš decrees concerned the expropriation of wartime "traitors" and collaborators accused of treason but also all ethnic Germans (see Potsdam Agreement) and Hungarians. They also ordered the removal of citizenship for people of German and Hungarian ethnic origin who decided to acquire the German and Hungarian citizenship during the occupation. (These provisions were cancelled for the Hungarians, but not for the Germans, in 1948). This was then used to confiscate their property and expel around 90% of the ethnic German population of Czechoslovakia. The people who remained were collectively accused of supporting the Nazis (after the Munich Agreement, in December 1938, 97.32% of adult Sudetengermans voted for NSDAP in elections). Almost every decree explicitly stated that the sanctions did not apply to anti-fascists although the term Anti-fascist was not explicitly defined. Some 250,000 Germans, many married to Czechs, some anti-fascists, but also people required for the post-war reconstruction of the country remained in Czechoslovakia. The Benes Decrees still cause controversy between nationalist groups in Czech Republic, Germany, Austria and Hungary.[3] Motto Pravda vítÄ›zí (Czech: Truth prevails) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Socialist republic  - 1975-1989 Gustáv Husák  - 1970-1988 Lubomír Å trougal Historical era Cold War  - Established 1960  - Constitution July 11, 1960  - Federation... The BeneÅ¡ decrees (Czech: ; German: ; Slovak: ; Hungarian: ) refers to a series of laws enacted by the Czechoslovak government of exile during World War II in absence of Czechoslovak parliament (see details in Czechoslovakia: World War II (1939 - 1945)). Today, the term is most frequently used for the part of them... The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... Citizen redirects here. ... The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Carpathian Ruthenia was occupied by (and in June 1945 formally ceded to) the Soviet Union. In 1946 parliamentary election the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia emerged as the winner in the Czech lands (the Democratic Party won in Slovakia). In February 1948 the Communists seized power. Although they would maintain the fiction of political pluralism through the existence of the National Front, except for a short period in the late 1960s (the Prague Spring) the country was characterised by the absence of liberal democracy. While its economy remained more advanced than those of its neighbours in Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia grew increasingly economically weak relative to Western Europe. In the religious sphere, atheism was officially promoted and taught. // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... The Democratic Party (Demokratická strana) is a political party in Slovakia without parliamentary representation. ... The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was a (permanent) coalition (or rather group) of parties – since 1948 also of various associations and mass organisations – from 1945 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Atheist redirects here. ...


In 1968, in response to a brief period of liberalization, the Eastern Bloc countries invaded Czechoslovakia. In 1969, Czechoslovakia was turned into a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic. Under the federation, social and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the state were largely eliminated. A number of ministries, such as Education, were formally transferred to the two republics. However, the centralized political control by the Communist Party severely limited the effects of federalization. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... This article is about federal states. ... From 1969 to 1990, the Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is the Czech Republic today. ... From 1969 to 1990, the Slovak Socialist Republic (Slovenská socialistická republika in Slovak; abbreviated SSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is Slovakia today. ...


The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia, represented (among others) by Václav Havel. The movement sought greater political participation and expression in the face of official disapproval, making itself felt by limits on work activities (up to a ban on any professional employment and refusal of higher education to the dissidents' children), police harassment and even prison time. For the Pearl Jam song, see Dissident (song). ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ...


After 1989

In 1989 the country became democratic again through the Velvet Revolution. This occurred at around the same time as the fall of communism in Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland. Within three years communist rule had been totally eradicated from Europe. Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Unlike Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the end of communism in this country did not automatically mean the end of the "communist" name: the word "socialist" was removed from the name on March 29, 1990, and replaced by "federal". Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


In 1992, due to growing nationalist tensions, Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved by parliament. Its territory became the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which were formally created on January 1, 1993. The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Heads of state and government

This is a list of presidents of Czechoslovakia. ... List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Karel Kramář: 14 November 1918 - 8 July 1919 Vlastimil Tusar: 8 July 1919 - 15 September 1920 Jan Černý: 15 September 1920 - 26 September 1921 Edvard Beneš: 26 September 1921 - 7 October 1922 Antonín Švehla: 7 October 1922 - 18 March 1926 Jan Černý: 18... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa (KSČ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ...

International agreements and membership

After WWII, active participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, United Nations and its specialized agencies; signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... UN redirects here. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


Administrative divisions

  • 1918–1923: different systems on former Austrian territory (Bohemia, Moravia, small part of Silesia) and on former Hungarian territory (Slovakia and Ruthenia): three lands [země] (also called district units [obvody]) Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia plus 21 counties [župy] in today's Slovakia plus two(?) counties in today's Ruthenia; both lands and counties were divided in districts [okresy]
  • 1923–1927: like above, except that the above counties were replaced by six (grand) counties [(veľ)župy] in today's Slovakia and one (grand) county in today's Ruthenia, and the number and frontiers of the okresy were changed on these two territories
  • 1928–1938: four lands [in Czech: země / in Slovak: krajiny]: Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia; divided in districts [okresy]
  • late 1938–March 1939: like above, but Slovakia and Ruthenia were promoted to "autonomous lands"
  • 1945–1948: like 1928–1938, except that Ruthenia became part of the Soviet Union
  • 1949–1960: 19 regions [kraje] divided in 270 districts [okresy]
  • 1960–1992: 10 regions [kraje], Prague, and (since 1970) Bratislava (capital of Slovakia); divided in 109–114 districts (okresy]); the kraje were abolished temporarily in Slovakia in 1969–1970 and for many functions since 1991 in Czechoslovakia; in addition, the two republics Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic were established in 1969 (without the word Socialist since 1990)

This article deals with historic administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia up to 1992, when the country was split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the divisions were changed. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Okres (Czech and Slovak term meaning district in English; from Old Slavic окрьсть - around) refers to an administrative entity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ...

Population and ethnic groups

Population (1991): 15. ...

Politics

Main article: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938

After WWII, monopoly on politics held by Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Gustáv Husák elected first secretary of KSC in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to KSC. All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, grouped under umbrella of the National Front. Human rights activists and religious activists severely repressed. This article is part of the article History of Czechoslovakia The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... The politics and government of Communist Czechoslovakia (1948 - 1989) were characterised by the following points: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia A monopoly on political power was held by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Gustáv Husák (January 10, 1913 in Dúbravka (today part of Bratislava, Slovakia) - November 18, 1991 in Bratislava) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Communist leader of Czechoslovakia and of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was a (permanent) coalition (or rather group) of parties – since 1948 also of various associations and mass organisations – from 1945 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia. ...


Constitutional development

Czechoslovakia had the following constitutions throughout its history (1918 – 1992):

  • Temporary Constitution of November 14, 1918 [democratic], see: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938
  • The 1920 Constitution (The Constitutional Document of the Czechoslovak Republic) [democratic, in force till 1948, several amendments], see: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938
  • The Communist 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution
  • The Communist 1960 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic with major amendments in 1968 (Constitutional Law of Federation), 1971, 1975, 1978, and in 1989 (at which point the leading role of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was abolished). It was amended several more times during 1990-1992 (e. g. 1990, name change to Czecho-Slovakia, 1991 incorporation of the human rights charter)

is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is part of the article History of Czechoslovakia The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... This article is part of the article History of Czechoslovakia The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... The Ninth-of-May (1948) Constitution was a constitution of Czechoslovakia in force from 1948 to 1960. ... The 1960 Constitution was Czechoslovakias second post-World War II constitution, and, though extensively revised through later amendments, it continued in effect until the end of Czechoslovakia in 1992. ... The Constitutional Law of Federation was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 – 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Czecho-Slovakia (in Czech and in Slovak ÄŒesko-Slovensko) was the official short name of the country of Czechoslovakia used instead of the form Czechoslovakia: until 1920 (according to some sources until 1923) then again from late 1938 to early 1939 finally again from April 1990 to the Velvet Divorce...

Economy

After WWII, economy centrally planned with command links controlled by communist party, similar to Soviet Union. Large metallurgical industry but dependent on imports for iron and nonferrous ores. In the mid-1980s, Czechoslovakia was one of Eastern Europes most industrialized and prosperous countries. ...

  • Industry: Extractive and manufacturing industries dominated sector. Major branches included machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. Industry wasteful of energy, materials, and labor and slow to upgrade technology, but country source of high-quality machinery and arms for other communist countries.
  • Agriculture: Minor sector but supplied bulk of food needs. Dependent on large imports of grains (mainly for livestock feed) in years of adverse weather. Meat production constrained by shortage of feed, but high per capita consumption of meat.
  • Foreign Trade: Exports estimated at US$17.8 billion in 1985, of which 55% machinery, 14% fuels and materials, 16% manufactured consumer goods. Imports at estimated US$17.9 billion in 1985, of which 41% fuels and materials, 33% machinery, 12% agricultural and forestry products other. In 1986, about 80% of foreign trade with communist countries.
  • Exchange Rate: Official, or commercial, rate Kcs 5.4 per US$1 in 1987; tourist, or noncommercial, rate Kcs 10.5 per US$1. Neither rate reflected purchasing power. The exchange rate on the black market was around Kcs 30 per US$1, and this rate became the official one once the currency became convertible in the early 1990s.
  • Fiscal Year: Calendar year.
  • Fiscal Policy: State almost exclusive owner of means of production. Revenues from state enterprises primary source of revenues followed by turnover tax. Large budget expenditures on social programs, subsidies, and investments. Budget usually balanced or small surplus.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... The turnover tax is a sales tax used in planned economies to fund the jurisdiction and control demand for some product. ...

Resource base

After WWII, country energy short, relying on imported crude oil and natural gas from Soviet Union, domestic brown coal, and nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints a major factor in 1980s. This article is part of the main article: Czechoslovakia Minerals, Oil and Power Plants Minerals and Mining Czechoslovakia had significant quantities of coal and lignite. ...


Transportation and communications

This article is part of the main article: Czechoslovakia Overview Railroads: In 1985 total of 13,141 kilometers, of which 12,883 kilometers standard gauge, 102 kilometers broad gauge, and 156 kilometers narrow gauge; 2,866 kilometers double tracked and 3,221 kilometers electrified. ...

Society and social groups

Social groups Czechoslovakia, of all the East European countries, entered the postwar era with a relatively balanced social structure and an equitable distribution of resources. ...

Education

Education free at all levels and compulsory from age six to fifteen. Vast majority of population literate. Highly developed system of apprenticeship training and vocational schools supplemented general secondary schools and institutions of higher education. This article is part of the main article: Czechoslovakia History Before the Communist Era Czechoslovakia (and its succession states) had a tradition of academic and scholarly endeavor in the mainstream of European thought and a history of higher education dating from the Middle Ages. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Socialist Czechoslovakia

In 1991: Roman Catholics 46.4%, Evangelic Lutheran 5.3%, Atheist 29.5%, n/a 16.7%, but there were huge differences between the 2 constituent republics – see Czech Republic and Slovakia


Health, social welfare and housing

Main article: Health and Social Welfare in Communist Czechoslovakia

After WWII, free health care was available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health-care centers supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. There became substantial improvement in rural health care during the 1960s and 1970s. This article is part of the main article: Czechoslovakia Characteristics In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia had a comprehensive and universal system of social security under which everyone was entitled to free medical care and medicine, in theory at least. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Mass media

The mass media in Czechoslovakia was controlled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this informational monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewed by the government's Office for Press and Information. Control As in all East European communist countries, the mass media in Czechoslovakia was controlled by the Communist party (KSÄŒ). Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. ... The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


Sports

The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer in the international scene, with 8 appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second-place in 1934 and 1962. The team also won the European Football Championship in 1976 and came in third in 1980. First International Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia (Antwerp, Belgium; 28 August 1920) Last International Belgium 0 - 0 Czechoslovakia (Brussels, Belgium; 17 November 1993) Largest win Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia (Antwerp, Belgium; 28 August 1920) Czechoslovakia 7 - 0 Yugoslavia (Prague, Czechoslovakia; 28 October 1925) Worst defeat Hungary 8 - 3 Czechoslovakia (Budapest, Hungary... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... The 1934 Football World Cup was hosted by Mussolinis Italy. ... In 1962 the Football World Cup returned to the continent of South America. ... The UEFA European Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football Championship... The 1976 European Football Championship (Euro 76) final tournament was held in Yugoslavia. ... The 1980 European Football Championship (Euro 80) final tournament was held in Italy. ...


The Czechoslovak national ice hockey team won many medals from the world championships and Olympic games. The Czechoslovak national mens ice hockey team was one of the worlds premiere teams during the Soviet dominated international hockey era, often fighting Sweden for second place but sometimes beating the Soviets. ...


Emil Zátopek, winner of four Olympic gold medals in athletics, is considered one of the top athletes in history. Emil Zátopek (IPA: ) (September 19, 1922 - November 22, 2000) was a Czech athlete probably best known for his amazing feat of winning three gold medals in athletics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ...


The famous tennis players Ivan Lendl, Miloslav Mečíř and Martina Navrátilová were born in Czechoslovakia. For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Ivan Lendl (IPA: ) (born March 7, 1960, in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic)) is a former World No. ... Miloslav Mečíř (IPA: ) (born May 19, 1964) is a former professional tennis player from Slovakia. ... Martina Navrátilová (b. ...


Culture

This is a partial list of famous Czech, Czech-speaking/writing people. ... This is a list of Slovaks. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Postage stamps

This list of people of stamps of Czechoslovakia is intended to end with the division into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ...

From creation to dissolution—overview

For other uses, see Timeline (disambiguation). ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... The creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 was the culmination of the long struggle of the Czechs against their Austrian rulers and of the Slovaks against Hungarisation and their Hungarian rulers. ... Czechoslovakia in 1928 The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. ... // In February 1948, when the Communists definitively took power in Czechoslovakia, the country was declared a peoples republic — a preliminary step toward socialism and, ultimately, communism. ... // Main article: Velvet Revolution Although in March 1987 Gustáv Husák nominally committed Czechoslovakia to follow the program of perestroika, he nevertheless cautioned the party in October 1987 not to hasten solutions too quickly so as to minimize the risks that could occur. ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Ninth-of-May (1948) Constitution was a constitution of Czechoslovakia in force from 1948 to 1960. ... Motto Pravda vítÄ›zí (Czech: Truth prevails) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Socialist republic  - 1975-1989 Gustáv Husák  - 1970-1988 Lubomír Å trougal Historical era Cold War  - Established 1960  - Constitution July 11, 1960  - Federation... From 1969 to 1990, the Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is the Czech Republic today. ... From 1969 to 1990, the Slovak Socialist Republic (Slovenská socialistická republika in Slovak; abbreviated SSR) was the official name of that part of Czechoslovakia that is Slovakia today. ... Motto Czech/Slovak: Pravda vítÄ›zí/víťazí Latin: Veritas Vincit (Truth prevails; 1990-1992) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Republic President  - 1989-1992 Václav Havel Prime Minister  - 1992 Jan Stráský History  - post-Velvet... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... The Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state and ally of National Socialist (Nazi) Germany during World War II on the territory of present-day Slovakia (with the exception of the southern and eastern parts of present-day Slovakia. ... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ "The War of the World", Niall Ferguson Allen Lane 2006.
  2. ^ Playing the blame game, Prague Post, July 6th, 2005
  3. ^ East European Constitutional Review

Czechoslovak Republic The Prague Post is an English-language weekly newspaper covering the Czech Republic and Central and Eastern Europe. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Czechoslovakia

This article gives an overview of countries (including puppet-countries) that existed in Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... // After World War II, the Soviet Union put in place five-year plans in the East European countries imitating their own five-year plans in order to recover from the war. ... One of the banners of the demonstrators, 1968 N.Gorbanevskaya, 2005 Lobnoye mesto, 2005 The 1968 Red Square demonstration (Russian: Демонстрация 25 августа 1968 года) took place on August 25, 1968 at Red Square to protest the invasion of Czechoslovakia as done by the Soviet Union and allies of the Warsaw Pact that...

External links

Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов), (June 2 (O.S.) = June 15 (N.S.), 1914 - February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just sixteen months later. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Yale redirects here. ...


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Czechoslovakia would have celebrated, on October 8, 1938, the twentieth anniversary of her foundation by Thomas G. Masaryk, in a spirit of a humanitarian liberalism which in her foreign policy turned toward the Western democracies.
Czechoslovakia was accused by them of disturbing the peace of Europe, of mistreating most cruelly her minorities, and of being an outpost of Bolshevism in the heart of Europe.
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