FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Czech Republic
Česká republika
Czech Republic
Flag of Czech Republic Coat of arms of Czech Republic
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Pravda vítězí"  (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
AnthemKde domov můj? (in English: Where is My Home?)
Location of the  Czech Republic  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Categories: Czech Republic | National flags | Stub ... The Coat of arms of the Czech Republic The Coat of Arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions which make up the nation. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Å kroup‘s score of Kde domov můj Kde domov můj? (Where is My Home?) is the national anthem of the Czech Republic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Czech Republic ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Prague
50°05′N, 14°28′E
Official languages Czech
Demonym Czech
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Václav Klaus
 -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek
Independence (formed 9th century) 
 -  from Austria-Hungary October 28, 1918 
 -  Czechoslovakia dissolved January 1, 1993 
EU accession May 1, 2004
Area
 -  Total 78,866 km² (117th)
30,450 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  20081 estimate 10,403,136 (78th)
 -  2001 census 10,230,060 
 -  Density 132/km² (77th)
341/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 IMF estimate
 -  Total $248.902 billion (39th²)
 -  Per capita $24,236 (36th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 IMF estimate
 -  Total $175.309 billion (39th)
 -  Per capita $17,070 (36th)
Gini (1996) 25.4 (low) (5th)
HDI (2005) 0.891 (high) (32nd)
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .cz³
Calling code +4204
1 March 31, 2008 (See Population changes - 1st quarter of 2008).
2 Rank based on 2005 IMF data.
3 Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
4 Shared code 42 with Slovakia until 1997.

The Czech Republic (IPA: /ˈtʃɛk riˈpʌblɨk/) (Czech: , short form in Czech: Česko, IPA[ʧɛsko]), is a landlocked country in Central Europe and a member state of the European Union. The country has borders with Poland to the north, Germany to the west, Austria to the south, and Slovakia to the east. The capital and largest city is Prague (Czech: Praha), a major tourist destination. The country is composed of the historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia, as well as parts of Silesia. Not to be confused with capitol. ... The majority of the 10. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, including the period when the republics territory was part of federative Czechoslovakia. ... Mirek Topolánek (pronounced ) (born May 15, 1956 in Vsetín, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic) is the current prime minister of Czech Republic, from Civic Democratic Party. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... IMF redirects here. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... IMF redirects here. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .cz is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Czech Republic. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Following the break-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, continued to share the 42 country code, until 1997, with the Czech Republic adopting 420 and Slovakia adopting 421. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Ceska_Republika. ... Landlocked countries of the world according to The World Factbook. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... ...


The Czech lands were under Habsburg rule from 1526, later becoming part of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. The independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I. After the Munich Agreement, German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the consequent disillusion with the Western response and liberation of major part of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army, the Communist party gained the majority in 1946 elections. Following a coup in 1948, Czechoslovakia became a Communist-ruled state. Prague Spring of 1968, an attempt at reformation of the Communist regime, ended by invasion of armies of Warsaw Pact countries which didn't leave until after the 1989 Velvet Revolution. On January 1, 1993 the country peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German, Hungarian, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Italian, Polish, Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded on a remnant of the Holy... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... -1... Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ...


The Czech Republic made economic reforms such as massive privatization and flat tax. Annual gross domestic product growth has recently been around 6%. The country is the first former member of the Comecon to achieve the status of a developed country (2006) according to the World Bank.[1] The Czech Republic also ranks best compared to the former Comecon countries in the Human Development Index.[2] Origins People Theories Ideas Movements Topics Related Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the public sector (government) to the private sector (business). ... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ... GDP redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. President Václav Klaus is the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government (currently Mirek Topolánek). The Parliament has two chambers — the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, including the period when the republics territory was part of federative Czechoslovakia. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Mirek Topolánek (pronounced ) (born May 15, 1956 in Vsetín, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic) is the current prime minister of Czech Republic, from Civic Democratic Party. ... The Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Poslanecká snÄ›movna Parlamentu ÄŒeské republiky, abbr. ... The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: , usually referred to as Senát) is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Political map of Visegrád Group The Visegrád Group (Czech: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ; Slovak: ), also called the Visegrád Four (Slovak: ) or V4, is an alliance of four Central European states: Czech Republic Hungary Poland Slovakia The Visegrád Group originated in a summit meeting of the heads of state...

Contents

Name

See also: Names of the Czech Republic and Czech lands

After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech portion found itself without a common single-word name in English. In 1993, The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs suggested the name Czechia as an official alternative in all situations other than formal official documents and the full names of government institutions; however, this has not become widely used--though other languages have single-word names, e.g. Tschechien in German, and Czechy in Polish. The official website of the Czech Republic (www.czech.cz) run by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs does not use the name Czechia as of 2005. Its Czech equivalent is Česko. More than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia into Slovakia and the Czech Republic, the latter continues to be known by several competing names in English and Czech. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


History

Karlštejn
Karlštejn
Main articles: History of Czechoslovakia and History of the Czech lands

Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human settlement in the area dating back to the Neolithic era. In the classical era, from the 3rd century BC Celtic migrations, the Boii (see Bohemia) and later in the 1st century Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi settled there. During the Migration Period around the 5th century, many Germanic tribes moved westwards and southwards out of Central Europe. In an equally significant migration, Slavic people from the Black Sea and Carpathian regions settled in the area (a movement that was also stimulated by the onslaught of peoples from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). Following in the Germans' wake, they moved southwards into Bohemia, Moravia, and some of present day Austria. During the 7th century the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe. The Moravian principality arose in the 8th century (see Great Moravia). The Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Přemyslid dynasty. The kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire during the entire existence of this confederation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1044, 626 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prague ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1044, 626 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prague ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... KarlÅ¡tejn KarlÅ¡tejn (German: Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded in the 14th century by Charles IV. The castle served as a place for safekeeping the Empire coronation jewels, holy relics and other royal treasures. ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ... With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent country of Czechoslovakia (Slovak: ÄŒesko-Slovensko, Czech: ÄŒeskoslovensko) was formed, encouraged by, among others, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. ... The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Bohemians & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia and also Transylvania (from 1st century to 18... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar soldiers, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Czechs & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... PÅ™emyslid coat of arms. ... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Religious conflicts such as the 15th century Hussite Wars and the 17th century Thirty Years' War had a devastating effect on the local population. From the 16th century, Bohemia came increasingly under Habsburg control as the Habsburgs became first the elected and then hereditary rulers of Bohemia. After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia became part of Austrian Empire and later of Austria-Hungary. Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German, Hungarian, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Italian, Polish, Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded on a remnant of the Holy... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...

Štramberk
Štramberk

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 339 KB)A view at the town from the opposite hill near the cave of Šipka. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 339 KB)A view at the town from the opposite hill near the cave of Šipka. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Nový Jičín First documented 1211 Town status granted 1359-12-04 Area    - town 9. ...

From Independence to World War 2

Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918. This new country incorporated regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia (known as Subcarpathian Rus at the time) with significant German, Hungarian, Polish and Ruthenian speaking minorities.[3] Although Czechoslovakia was a unitary state, it provided what was at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities. However, it did not grant its minorities any territorial political autonomy, which resulted in discontent and strong support among some of the minorities to break away from Czechoslovakia. Adolf Hitler used the opportunity and, supported by Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German National Socialist Party, gained the largely German speaking Sudetenland through the 1938 Munich Agreement. Poland occupied Polish inhabited areas around Český Těšín. Hungary gained parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus as a result of the First Vienna Award in November 1938. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Konrad Henlein as SS-Gruppenführer Konrad Henlein (May 6, 1898 - May 10, 1945) was the most important pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists. ... The Sudetendeutsche nationalsozialistische Partei or Sudeten German National Socialist Party was created when the new state of Czechoslovakia outlawed the DNSAP, the German National Socialist Workers Party. At the end of WWI, the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up into its constituent nation states, and the new Czech-dominated government considered... the german inhabitants of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... Location of ÄŒeský Těšín Coordinates: , Country Region District Karviná First mentioned 1155 Government  - Mayor Vít Slováček (KDU-ÄŒSL) Area  - Total 33. ... The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial...

Český Krumlov
Český Krumlov

Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus gained greater autonomy, with the state renamed to "Czecho-Slovakia" (The Second Republic; see Occupation of Czechoslovakia). Slovakia seceded in March 1939 and allied itself with Hitler's coalition. The remaining Czech territory was occupied by Germany, transformed it into the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The Protectorate was proclaimed part of the Third Reich, and President and Prime Minister were subordinate to the Nazi Reichsprotektor ("imperial protector"). Subcarpathian Rus declared independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine on 15 March 1939 but was invaded by Hungary the same day and formally annexed on 16 March. Approximately 390,000 Czechoslovak citizens, including 83,000 Jews, were killed or executed, and hundreds of thousands of others were sent to prisons and concentration camps or as forced labour. A Nazi concentration camp existed at Terezin to the north of Prague. There was Czech resistance to Nazi occupation both home and abroad, most notably with the assassination of leading Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in Prague suburbs on May 27, 1942. The Czechoslovak government-in-exile and its army fighting against the Germans were acknowledged by Allies (Czechoslovak troops fought in Great Britain, North Africa, Middle East and Soviet Union). The occupation ended on 9 May 1945 with the arrival of Soviet and American armies and the Prague uprising. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 1,015 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 1,015 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... , Country Region District Commune River Elevation 492 m (1,614 ft) Coordinates , Area 22. ... Kutná Hora (help· info) medieval Czech: Hory Kutné) is a city in the Czech Republic, in Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia. ... == On the same day, Hitler met with Chamberlain at Berchtesgaden and demanded the swift return of the Sudetenland to the Third Reich under threat of war. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Protector is historical title with multiple meanings; this article also includes a few litteral equivalents thus rendered // Political & Administrative Heads of State in Europe in Iceland: one Sovereign was styled Beskytter af hele e Island (Protector of Land of Iceland) 25 Jun - 22 Aug 1809 (an intermezzo between Danish Governors... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... ... Czech resistance to Nazi occupation during World War II is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance. ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1945-46 almost the entire German minority of Czechoslovakia, about 2.7 million people, were expelled to Germany and Austria. During this time, thousands of Germans were held in prisons, detention camps, and used as forced labour. In the summer of 1945, there were several massacres. Only 250,000 Germans who had been active in the resistance against the Nazis or were necessary for the economy were not expelled, though many of them emigrated later. Following a Soviet-organised referendum, the Subcarpathian Rus has never returned under Czechoslovak rule and became part of the Ukrainian SSR, as the Zakarpattia Oblast in 1946. Germans expelled from the Sudetenland The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration and ethnic cleansing of German nationals (Reichsdeutsche) and ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from Germany and parts of territory formerly claimed by Germany in the first three years after World War II. The policy... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Communist era

Czechoslovakia uneasily tried to play the role of a "bridge" between the West and East. However, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia rapidly increased in popularity, particularly because of a general disappointment with the West (due to the pre-war Munich Agreement) and a favourable popular attitude towards the Soviet Union (due to the Soviets' role in liberating Czechoslovakia from German rule). In the 1946 elections, with 38% of the votes, the Communists became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament. They formed a coalition government with other parties of the National Front, and moved quickly to consolidate power. The decisive step took place in February 1948. During a series of events characterized by Communists as a "revolution" and by anti-Communists as a "takeover", the Communist People's Militias secured control of key locations in Prague, and a new, all-Communist government was formed. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana ÄŒeskoslovenska (KSÄŒ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was a (permanent) coalition (or rather group) of parties – since 1948 also of various associations and mass organisations – from 1945 to 1990 in Czechoslovakia. ... Peoples Militias (in Czech Lidové milice, in Slovak Ľudové milície) was a paramilitary organisation of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia during 1948 - 1989. ...


For the next forty-one years, Czechoslovakia was a Communist state within the eastern bloc (see Czechoslovakia: 1948-1989). This period was marked by a variety of social developments. The Communist government completely nationalized the means of production and established a command economy. The economy grew rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, but slowed down in the 1970s with increasing problems during the 1980s. The political climate was highly repressive during the 1950s (including numerous show trials), but became more open and tolerant in the 1960s, culminating in Alexander Dubček's leadership in the 1968 Prague Spring that tried to create "socialism with a human face" and perhaps even introduce political pluralism. This was forcibly ended by 21 August 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion. From then until 1989, the political establishment returned to censorship of opposition, though using more "carrot" than "whip" policy to ensure the populace's passivity. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...


Modern era

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to democracy through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution". However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened until on January 1, 1993, the country peacefully split into the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations, with the intention of creating a market economy. Non-violent protesters face armed policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government there;[1] it is seen as one of the most important of the Revolutions of 1989. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


From 1991 the Czech Republic (originally as part of Czechoslovakia, and now in its own right) has been a member of the Visegrad Group and from 1995 of the OECD. The Czech Republic joined NATO on March 12, 1999 and the European Union on May 1, 2004. Political map in 2004 The Visegrád group (also called the Visegrád 4 or V4) is an alliance of four Central European states: Poland Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Historically, the Visegrád group originated in 1335, when the Czech, the Polish and the Hungarian king held a meeting in... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

General map of the Czech Republic
General map of the Czech Republic
Labe near Děčín
Labe near Děčín
Map of the Czech Republic showing cities and main towns
Map of the Czech Republic showing cities and main towns
Moravian-Silesian Beskids
Moravian-Silesian Beskids
See also: Protected Areas of the Czech Republic

The Czech landscape is quite varied. Bohemia to the west consists of a basin, drained by the Elbe (Czech: Labe) and the Vltava rivers, and surrounded by mostly low mountains such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country, Sněžka, at 1,602 m (5,262 ft), is located here. Moravia, the eastern part of the country, is also quite hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder (Czech: Odra) River. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three different seas: the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea. The Czech Republic also leases the Moldauhafen, a 30,000-square-metre (7.4-acre) lot in the middle of the Hamburg Docks, which was awarded to Czechoslovakia by Article 363 of the Treaty of Versailles to allow the landlocked country a place where goods transported downriver could be transferred to seagoing ships. The territory reverts to Germany in 2028. A map of the Czech Republic, converted directly from a map in GIF format from the CIA World Factbook. ... A map of the Czech Republic, converted directly from a map in GIF format from the CIA World Factbook. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1729 KB) Valley of Labe near Děčín. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3456x2304, 1729 KB) Valley of Labe near Děčín. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Podmokly coat of arms. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 474 pixelsFull resolution (930 × 551 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing the Czech Republics main cities and towns, and nearby areas in neighbouring countries. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 474 pixelsFull resolution (930 × 551 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing the Czech Republics main cities and towns, and nearby areas in neighbouring countries. ... Moravian-Silesian Beskids (Czech: ) is a mountain range in the Czech Republic with a small part reaching to Slovakia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... In the Czech Republic there exist 6 types of Particularly Protected Areas (Czech: ) on the nationwide level. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Vltava   (Moldau in German and many other Germanic languages, Moldva in Hungarian, unrelated to the Moldova river of Romania) is the longest river in the Czech Republic, draining into the north from its source in Å umava through ÄŒeský Krumlov, ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice, and Prague (Praha), merging with the Elbe... Aerial view over the Karkonosze The Karkonosze (Polish; pronounced kár-ko-no-she) or KrkonoÅ¡e (Czech; IPA: ) is a mountain range in the Sudetes in Central Europe. ... A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Góry Sowie Sněžka-Åšnieżka Destroyed forest on the top of Wielka Sowa The Sudetes (IPA: ), also called Sudeten (in German; pronounced: ) or Sudety (pronounced in Czech, in Polish), are a mountain range in Central Europe. ... Snow Mountain (  Sněžka? in Czech; Åšnieżka in Polish; Schneekoppe in German) is the highest mountain in the Giant Mountains (KrkonoÅ¡e in Czech, Karkonosze in Polish), part of the Sudetes mountain range. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... The Morava (as it is called in Czech and Slovak languages) or the March (as it is known in German) is a river located in Central Europe. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... In real estate, a lot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner(s). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France...


Phytogeographically, the Czech Republic belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of the Czech Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests and Carpathian montane conifer forests. Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species. ... The Boreal Kingdom is a Floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good, which includes the temperate-to-arctic portions of North America and Eurasia. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... This palaearctic ecoregion covers a large area in Western Europe (France, Austria and Germany), with in particular Central Massive, Jura, Central German Uplands, Bavarian Plateau and Bohemian Massive. ...


Weather and climate

The Czech Republic has a temperate, continental climate with relatively hot summers and cold, cloudy winters, usually with snow. Most rains are during the summer. The temperature difference between summers and winters is relatively high due to its landlocked geographical position. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


Even within the Czech Republic, temperatures vary greatly depending on the elevation. In general, at higher altitudes the temperatures decrease and precipitation increases. Another important factor is the distribution of the mountains. Therefore the climate is quite varied. Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ...


At the highest peak (Sněžka, 1,602 m/5,260 ft) the average temperature is only −0.4 °C (31 °F), whereas in the lowlands of South Moravia, the average temperature is as high as 10 °C (50 °F). This also applies for the country's capital Prague, but this is due to urban factors. Snow Mountain ( (help· info) in Czech; Åšnieżka in Polish; Schneekoppe in German) is the highest mountain in the Giant Mountains (KrkonoÅ¡e in Czech, Karkonosze in Polish, Riesengebirge in German), part of the Sudetes mountain range. ... South Moravian Region (Czech: Jihomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia, with exception Jobova Lhota, that belongs to Bohemia. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


The coldest month is usually January followed by February and December. During these months there is usually snow in the mountains and sometimes in the major cities and lowlands. During March, April and May, the temperature usually increases rapidly and especially during April the temperature and weather tends to vary widely during the day. Spring is also characterized by high water levels in the rivers due to melting snow followed by floods at times.


The warmest month of the year is July, followed by August and June. On average, the summer temperatures are about 20 °C (68 °F) higher than during winter. Especially in the last decade,[citation needed] temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) are not unusual. Summer is also characterized by rain and storms.


Autumn generally begins in September, which is still relatively warm, but much drier. During October, temperatures usually fall back under 15° or 10°C (59° or 50°F) and deciduous trees begin to shed their leaves. By the end of November, temperatures usually range around the freezing point. For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

The majority of the 10. ...

Population

Population of the Czech lands[4]
Year Total Change Year Total Change
1857 7,016,531 1930 10,674,386 6.6%
1869 7,617,230 8.6% 1950 8,896,133 -16.7%
1880 8,222,013 7.9% 1961 9,571,531 7.6%
1890 8,665,421 5.4% 1970 9,807,697 2.5%
1900 9,372,214 8.2% 1980 10,291,927 4.9%
1910 10,078,637 7.5% 1991 10,302,215 0.1%
1921 10,009,587 -0.7% 2001 10,230,060 -0.7%

The vast majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs (94.2%). Significant minorities include the Slovaks (1.9%), Poles (0.5%), Vietnamese (0.44%) Germans (0.4%), and Romani.[5] Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ...


According to the Interior Ministry of the Czech Republic, there were 392,087 foreigners legally residing in the country at the end of 2007, making up 3.2% of the population, with the largest groups being Ukrainians, Slovaks and Vietnamese.[6]


Total fertility rate was low at 1.44 children born/woman. In 2007, immigration increased population by nearly 1%. The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


Religion

The Czech Republic, along with Estonia, has one of the least religious populations in all of Europe. According to the 2001 census, 59% of the country is agnostic, atheist, non-believer or no-organised believer, 26.8% Roman Catholic and 2.5% Protestant.[7] The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[8] 19% of Czech citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 50% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 30% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force", the lowest rate of EU countries after Estonia with 16%.[9] Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...


Politics

Václav Havel, the first President of the Czech Republic.
Václav Havel, the first President of the Czech Republic.
Václav Klaus, current President of the Czech Republic.
Václav Klaus, current President of the Czech Republic.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1031x1101, 226 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Václav Havel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1031x1101, 226 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Václav Havel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1077x864, 147 KB) From German wikipedia http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1077x864, 147 KB) From German wikipedia http://de. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Czech political scene supports a broad spectrum of parties ranging from the semi-reformed Communist Party on the far left to various nationalistic parties on the extreme right. ...

Political system

The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Parliament is bicameral, with the Chamber of Deputies (Czech: Poslanecká sněmovna) (200 members) and the Senate (81 members). States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Poslanecká snÄ›movna Parlamentu ÄŒeské republiky, abbr. ... The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: , usually referred to as Senát) is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. ...


Foreign policy

A key goal in foreign policy has been European integration.


According to The Economist, the Czech Republic has earned a reputation for promoting human rights at every turn. Czech officials have pushed Europe's weight behind democrats everywhere from Myanmar to Belarus, Moldova and Cuba. Czech foreign ministry has an entire unit devoted to helping dissidents in other countries.[10] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General...


Czech Republic is motivated by its experience of Nazi and communist oppression. Also, the country's first post-communist president Václav Havel is ex-dissident writer, who has set moral example and has attracted ex-dissidents to key government positions.[10] For example, every March since 2003, when Fidel Castro locked up 75 political opponents, activists have set up a cage in Wenceslas Square representing a Cuban prison cell. Frequent prison uniform-wearing protesters have included names such as the foreign minister, the mayor of Prague and musical stars.[10] Some EU officials have been irritated by Czech Republic's activism in human rights. Czech Republic and other countries stressing human rights have been in conflicts with EU countries who favor closer ties with dictatorships.[10] Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ...


Armed forces

The Czech armed forces consist of the Army and Air Force and of specialized support units. In 2004, the Czech armed forces completely phased out conscription and transformed into a fully professional army and air force. The country has been a member of NATO since March 12, 1999. Defence spending is around 1.8% of GDP (2006). The Czech Armed Forces (Czech: Armáda České republiky) consists of Land and Air Forces and of specialized support units. ... The Czech Armed Forces (Czech: Armáda České republiky) consists of Land and Air Forces and of specialized support units. ... The Czech Air Force is the air force branch of the Czech Republic Army. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Regions and districts

Since 2000, the Czech Republic is divided into thirteen regions (Czech: kraje, singular kraj) and the capital city of Prague. Each region has its own elected Regional Assembly (krajské zastupitelstvo) and hejtman (usually translated as hetman or "president"). In Prague, their powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The Czech Republic consists of 13 kraje (singular - kraj; usually translated as Regions with capital R) and one capital city (hlavní mÄ›sto), marked by a *: South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Central Bohemian Region (StÅ™edočeský kraj) Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Vysočina Region (Kraj... The Czech Republic is divided into seventy-three districts (okresy, sing. ... The Czech Republic consists of 13 kraje (singular - kraj; usually translated as Regions with capital R) and one capital city (hlavní mÄ›sto), marked by a *: South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Central Bohemian Region (StÅ™edočeský kraj) Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Vysočina Region (Kraj... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Hetman (Czech: ) is the official title of the highest representative of a Czech Region, the highest administrative unit into which the Czech Republic is divided. ...


The older seventy-six districts (okresy, singular okres) including three 'statutory cities' (without Prague, which had special status) were disbanded in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial division and seats of various branches of state administration.[11] The Czech Republic is divided into seventy-three districts (okresy, sing. ... Okres (Czech and Slovak term meaning district in English; from Old Slavic окрьсть - around) refers to an administrative entity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ...

Map of the Czech Republic with regions.
Map of the Czech Republic with regions.
(Lic. plate) Region Capital Population (2004 est.) Population (2008 est.)
A Capital of Prague (Hlavní město Praha) 1,170,571 1,218,644
S Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) offices located in Prague (Praha) 1,144,071 1,208,145
C South Bohemian Region (Jihočeský kraj) České Budějovice 625,712 633,750
P Plzeň Region (Plzeňský kraj) Pilsen (Plzeň) 549,618 562,783
K Karlovy Vary Region (Karlovarský kraj) Karlovy Vary 304,588 307,975
U Ústí nad Labem Region (Ústecký kraj) Ústí nad Labem 822,133 833,218
L Liberec Region (Liberecký kraj) Liberec 427,563 434,751
H Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj) Hradec Králové 547,296 552,850
E Pardubice Region (Pardubický kraj) Pardubice 505,285 512,380
M Olomouc Region (Olomoucký kraj) Olomouc 635,126 641,809
T Moravian-Silesian Region (Moravskoslezský kraj) Ostrava 1,257,554 1,249,844
B South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj) Brno 1,123,201 1,142,013
Z Zlín Region (Zlínský kraj) Zlín 590,706 590,828
J Vysočina Region (Vysočina) Jihlava 517,153 514,146

Image File history File links CZ-cleneni. ... Image File history File links CZ-cleneni. ... A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Statistics Capital: Prague Area:11,014 km² Population:1,128,674 (2002) Map Central Bohemian Region ( Czech: Středočeský kraj) is an administrative unit ( Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... South Bohemian Region (in Czech Jihočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mostly in the southern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in southwestern Moravia. ... Czech Republic South Bohemian ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice 55. ... Plzeň Region (Czech: Plzeňský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) in the western part of Bohemia in the Czech Republic. ... Plzeň (Czech name) or Pilsen (German equivalent, sometimes used in English) is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic. ... Carlsbad Region (Czech: Karlovarský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Czech Republic Karlovy Vary Karlovy Vary 59. ... Ústí nad Labem Region (Czech: Ústecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Ústí nad Labem (help· info) (-Czech, German: Aussig an der Elbe) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Usti nad Labem Region. ... Liberec Region (Czech: Liberecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the northernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Town hall Liberec ( , German: Reichenberg, Romany: Libertsis) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Liberec Region. ... Hradec Králové Region (Czech: Královéhradecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Bohemia. ... Hradec Králové (help· info) (German: Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. ... Pardubice Region (Czech: Pardubický kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mainly in the eastern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in northwestern Moravia. ... Pardubice (German: Pardubitz) capital of the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic on the Labe (Elbe) river. ... Olomouc Region (Czech: Olomoucký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (Morava) and in a small part of the historical region of Silesia (Slezsko). ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... , Official name: Moravskoslezský kraj Country Communes 21  - Bílovec  - Bohumín  - Bruntál  - ÄŒeský Těšín  - FrenÅ¡tát pod RadhoÅ¡tÄ›m  - Frýdek-Místek  - Frýdlant nad Ostravicí  - Hlučín  - Jablunkov  - Karviná  - KopÅ™ivnice  - KravaÅ™e  - Krnov  - Nový Jičín  - Odry  - Opava  - Orlová  - Ostrava  - RýmaÅ™ov... , Country Region Little District Parts 16  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice Center Masarykovo námÄ›stí  - elevation 260 m... South Moravian Region (Czech: Jihomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. ... , Country Czech Republic Region Parts 29  - Bohunice  - Bosonohy  - Bystrc  - Brno-Center  - ÄŒernovice  - Chrlice  - Ivanovice  - Jehnice  - Jundrov  - Kníničky  - Kohoutovice  - Komín  - Královo Pole  - Líšeň  - Maloměřice and ObÅ™any  - Medlánky  - Brno-North  - Nový Lískovec  - OÅ™ešín  - Å˜ečkovice and Mokrá Hora  - Slatina  - Brno-South... Zlín Region (Czech: Zlínský kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia. ... Czech Republic Zlín (Zlínský) Zlín 118. ... Vysočina Region (Czech: kraj Vysočina), also known as Jihlava Region, is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the south-west of the historical region of Moravia. ... Jihlava â–¶(?) (German Iglau) is a city in the Czech Republic. ...

Economy

The Czech Republic possesses a developed,[12] high-income[13] economy with a GDP per capita of 82% of the European Union average. One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has seen a growth of over 6% annually in the last three years. Recent growth has been led by exports to the European Union, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. However, the rate of corruption remains one of the highest among OECD countries. Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


The public budgets remain in deficit despite strong growth of the economy in recent years. However, the 2007 deficit has been 1.58% GDP (according to EU accounting rules), far less than originally expected.


Most of the economy has been privatized, including banks and telecommunications. The current right-center government plans to continue with privatization, including the energy industry and the Prague airport. It has recently agreed to the sale of a 7% stake of the energy producer ČEZ, with the sale of the Budějovický Budvar brewery also mooted. CEZ Group is a conglomerate of 96 companies (including the parent company ÄŒEZ, a. ... BudÄ›jovický Budvar is a brewery in the Czech Republic that are known for brewing the original Budweiser Budvar beer. ...


The country has fully implemented the Schengen Agreement and therefore has abolished border controls with all of its neighbours (Germany, Austria, Poland, Slovakia) on December 21, 2007.[14] The Czech Republic is a member of the WTO. For other uses, see Schengen. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


The last Czech government had expressed a desire to adopt the euro in 2010, but the current government has postponed it due to budget deficits. An exact date has not been set up, but the Finance Ministry described adoption by 2012 as realistic[15] if public finance reform passes. However, the most recent draft of the euro adoption plan omits giving any date. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Education

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Czech education as the 15th best in the world, being higher than the OECD average.[16] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Transport

Prague Airport is the main international airport. Czech Republic has 46 airports, out of which two have over 3,047 meter runaways.


Energy

In 2005, according to the Czech Statistical Office, 65.4% of electricity was produced in steam, combined, and combustion power plants (mostly coal); 30% in nuclear plants; and 4.6% from renewable sources, including hydropower. Russia (via pipelines through Ukraine) and, to a lesser extent, Norway (via pipelines through Germany) supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas. Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ...


Communications

See also: Internet in the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic has the most Wi-Fi subscribers in the European Union.[17][18] By the beginning of 2008 there was over 800 mostly local WISPs[19][20] with about 350 000 subscribers in 2007. Mobile internet is quite popular. Plans based on either GPRS, EDGE, UMTS or CDMA2000 are being offered by all three mobile phone operators (T-Mobile, Vodafone, Telefonica O2) and by a data-only wireless operator U:fon. Government-owned Český Telecom slowed down broadband penetration. At the beginning of 2004, local loop unbundling began, and alternative operators started to offer ADSL (and also SDSL). This, and later privatisation of Český Telecom helped drive down prices. On July 1, 2006, Český Telecom was renamed to Telefónica O2 Czech Republic. As of January 2006, ADSL2+ is offered in many variants, both with data limit and without with speeds up to 10 Mbit/s. Cable internet is gaining popularity with its higher download speeds beginning at 2 Mbit/s up to 20 Mbit/s. The biggest ISP, UPC (which has bought another CATV internet provider Karneval in 2007) is providing its service in big cities (Prague, Brno, Ostrava) General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. ... Mobile phone technology: Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution Processor technology: Explicit Data Graph Execution Biology: Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered Category: ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... CDMA2000 is a hybrid 2. ... T-Mobile logo T-Mobile is a multinational mobile phone operator. ... Vodafone Group Plc is a mobile network operator headquartered in Newbury, Berkshire, England, UK. It is the largest mobile telecommunications network company in the world by turnover and has a market value of about £84. ... Telefónica S.A. (NYSE: TEF) (TYO: 9481) is the national telephone network operator (telco) in Spain. ... Local loop unbundling (LLU) is the regulatory process of allowing multiple telecommunications operators use of connections from the telephone exchanges central office to the customers premises. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Former ÄŒeský Telecom logo Former Eurotel logo Telefónica O2 Czech Republic is the largest telecommunications company in the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... , Country Czech Republic Region Parts 29  - Bohunice  - Bosonohy  - Bystrc  - Brno-Center  - ÄŒernovice  - Chrlice  - Ivanovice  - Jehnice  - Jundrov  - Kníničky  - Kohoutovice  - Komín  - Královo Pole  - Líšeň  - Maloměřice and ObÅ™any  - Medlánky  - Brno-North  - Nový Lískovec  - OÅ™ešín  - Å˜ečkovice and Mokrá Hora  - Slatina  - Brno-South... , Country Region Little District Parts 16  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice Center Masarykovo námÄ›stí  - elevation 260 m...


Tourism

Tourists in Prague.
Tourists in Prague.
Sněžka is the highest point in the Czech Republic.
Sněžka is the highest point in the Czech Republic.

The Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism: in 2001, the total earnings from tourism reached 118.13 billion CZK, making up 5.5% of GNP and 9.3% of overall export earnings. The industry employs more than 110,000 people - over 1% of the population.[21] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x800, 384 KB) Packed with tourists on a busy summer day in Malá Strana (Little Quarter), Prague. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x800, 384 KB) Packed with tourists on a busy summer day in Malá Strana (Little Quarter), Prague. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Snow Mountain (  Sněžka? in Czech; Åšnieżka in Polish; Schneekoppe in German) is the highest mountain in the Giant Mountains (KrkonoÅ¡e in Czech, Karkonosze in Polish), part of the Sudetes mountain range. ... Charles Bridge Since the end of the Soviet era in Eastern Europe the Czech Republic, and in particular the Czech capital Prague, has become one of the major tourist destinations in Europe. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


There are several centres of tourist activity: The historic city of Prague is the primary tourist attraction, and the city is also the most common point of entry for tourists visiting other parts of the country.[22] Most other cities in the country attract significant numbers of tourists, but the spa towns such as Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně and Františkovy Lázně are particularly popular holiday destinations. Other popular tourist sites are the many castles and chateaux, such as those at Karlštejn, Konopiště and Český Krumlov. Away from the towns, areas as Český ráj, Šumava and the Krkonoše Mountains attract visitors seeking outdoor pursuits. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Czech Republic Karlovy Vary Karlovy Vary 59. ... , Country  Czech Republic Region District Commune Elevation 578 m (1,896 ft) Coordinates , Area 51. ... The spa in FrantiÅ¡kovy LáznÄ› FrantiÅ¡kovy LáznÄ› (German Franzensbad) is a town in Cheb District of Karlovy Vary Region in the western Czech Republic, near the town of Cheb with about 5,200 Inhabitants. ... KarlÅ¡tejn KarlÅ¡tejn (German: Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded in the 14th century by Charles IV. The castle served as a place for safekeeping the Empire coronation jewels, holy relics and other royal treasures. ... KonopiÅ¡tÄ› is a château (castle) located in the Czech Republic, about 50 km southeast of Prague, outside the city of BeneÅ¡ov. ... , Country Region District Commune River Elevation 492 m (1,614 ft) Coordinates , Area 22. ... The Å umava (English: Bohemian forest)   listen? is a low mountain range in Central Europe. ...


The country is also famous for its love of puppetry and marionettes. The Pilsner style beer originated in western Bohemian city of Plzeň. A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object — a puppet— in real time to create the illusion of life. ... A marionette is a type of puppet with strings controlled by a puppeteer from above. ... Pilsener or pilsner is a type of lager beer. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Pilsen redirects here. ...


Culture

Cuisine

See also: Czech cuisine
Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (Roast pork with dumplings and cabbage)
Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (Roast pork with dumplings and cabbage)

Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common, and beef and chicken are also popular. Goose, duck, rabbit and wild game are served. Fish is rare, with the occasional exception of fresh trout, and carp, which is served at Christmas. Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (Roast pork with dumplings and cabbage) Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding counties. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1784x1300, 540 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Czech cuisine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1784x1300, 540 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Czech cuisine ... Genera Abramis Aristichthys Barbodes Carassius Cirrhinus Ctenopharyngodon Cyprinus Epalzeorhynchos Henicorhynchus Hypophthalmichthys Labeo Mylopharyngodon and others Carp is a common name for various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fishes originally from Eurasia and southeast Asia. ...


Aside from Slivovitz, Czech beer and wine, Czechs also produce two uniquely Czech liquors, Fernet Stock and Becherovka. Kofola is a non-alcoholic Czech soft drink somewhat similar in look and taste to Coca-Cola. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Map of Czech Republic made up of beer caps. ... Many regions of the Czech Republic have large wine producing areas. ... A bottle and glass of Fernet Stock Fernet Stock is a herbal bitter liqueur made in Plzeň-Božkov, Czech Republic. ... Becherovka bottle Becherovka   is a herbal bitter liqueur made in Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic, flavored with anise seeds, cinnamon, and approximately 32 other herbs, first sold in 1807. ... Kofola is a carbonated soft drink produced in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in the Czech Republic
See also: Czech Republic national football team

Sport plays a significant part in the life of many Czechs who are generally loyal supporters of their favourite teams or individuals. The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are football and ice hockey, both drawing the largest attention of both the media and supporters. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, floorball and others. Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event and sinking several days after. The events considered the most important by Czech fans are: the Ice Hockey World Championship, Olympic Ice hockey tournament, the Euro, the football World Cup and qualification matches for such events. In general, any international match of the Czech ice hockey or football national team draws attention, especially when played against a traditional rival: Germany in football; Russia, Sweden and Canada in ice hockey; and Slovakia in both. First international Hungary 2 - 1 Bohemia (Budapest, Hungary; 5 April 1903) Turkey 1 - 4 Czech Republic (Istanbul, Turkey; 23 February 1994) Biggest win Czech Republic 8 - 1 Andorra (Liberec, Czech Republic; 4 June 2005) Czech Republic 7 - 0 San Marino (Liberec, Czech Republic; 7 October 2006) Biggest defeat Bohemia 0... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red urethane track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... A floorball match between Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is a gay indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by UEFA (the Union of European Football Associations). ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the... The team qualification may refer to: Certification A process of deciding the running order in many auto racing events This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Music

See also: Music of the Czech Republic

Music in the Czech Republic has roots both in high-culture opera and symphony and in the traditional music of Bohemia and Moravia. Cross-pollination and diversity are important aspects of Czech music: Composers were often influenced by traditional music; jazz and bluegrass music have become popular; pop music often consisted of English language hits sung in Czech. Music in the Czech Republic has roots both in high culture opera and symphony and in the folk musics of Bohemia and Moravia. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Traditional Music is a quasi-synonym for folk music. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ...


Literature

See also: Czech literature

Czech literature is the literature of the historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and the Czech-speaking part of Silesia, (now part of the Czech Republic, formerly of Czechoslovakia). This most often means literature written by Czechs, in the Czech language, although Old Church Slavonic, Latin, and German were also used, mostly in the early periods. Modern authors from the Czech territory who wrote in other languages (e.g. German) are generally considered separately, and their writing usually existed in parallel with Czech-language literature and did not interact with it. Thus Franz Kafka, for example, who wrote in German (though he also knew Czech rather well), falls within Austrian literature, though he lived his entire life in Bohemia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Czech (pronounced ; čeština IPA: in Czech) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Kafka redirects here. ... !This article is in the process of being edited! The efforts are part of the German wikipedias winter article review. ...


Czech literature is divided into several main time periods: the Middle Ages; the Hussite period; the years of re-Catholicization and the baroque; the Enlightenment and Czech reawakening in the 19th century; the avantgarde of the interwar period; the years under Communism and the Prague Spring; and the literature of the post-Communist Czech Republic. Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions when Czech society lived under oppression and no political activity was possible. On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the 1960s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to create political freedom and to establish a confident, politically aware nation.


International rankings

Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... Democracy index map. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...

See also

Culture

This page aims to list articles related to the Czech Republic. ... Until 1989, the foreign policy of Czechoslovakia had followed that of the Soviet Union. ... Map of the Czech Republic This is a complete list of cities, towns and villages in the Czech Republic as of 2005: // List of cities (statutární město in Czech) Brno České Budějovice Havířov Hradec Králové All Czech municipalities A - I Jihlava Karlovy Vary Karviná Kladno... The Postal codes in the Czech Republic consists of 5 numbers, usually written with a space following the third digit. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 3. ... Public holidays in the Czech Republic Categories: | | ... Railways: total: 9,435 km standard gauge: 9,341 km 1. ... There are number of spa towns in the Czech Republic. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... This is a partial list of famous Czech, Czech-speaking/writing people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Music in the Czech Republic has roots both in high culture opera and symphony and in the folk musics of Bohemia and Moravia. ... This list contains an incomplete enumeration of Czech bands. ... The National Theatre in Prague is known as the Alma Mater of Czech Opera, and as the national monument of Czech history and art. ... Czech language television channels include the following: Public channels (governed by public law), see also Ceska Televize. ... Vepřo-knedlo-zelo (Roast pork with dumplings and cabbage) Czech cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by the cuisines of surrounding counties. ... Karlovy Vary - venue The Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is a film festival held annually in July in Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), Czech Republic. ...

References

  1. ^ Velinger, Jan (2006-02-28). World Bank Marks Czech Republic's Graduation to 'Developed' Status. Radio Prague. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  2. ^ Statistics of the Human Development Report.
  3. ^ Tab. 3 Národnost československých státních příslušníků podle žup a zemí k 15.2.1921 (PDF) (Czech).
  4. ^ Czech Statistic Office
  5. ^ Zjišťování národnosti ve sčítání lidu, domů a bytů v období 1921 - 2001 (PDF) (Czech). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  6. ^ Largest number of children since 1993 born in CzechRep last year, Czech.cz, March 20, 2008
  7. ^ Obyvatelstvo hlásící se k jednotlivým církvím a náboženským společnostem (Czech). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  8. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  9. ^ Social values, Science and Technology (PDF) (English). Eurobarometer (June 2005). Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  10. ^ a b c d The Economist: Czechs with few mates
  11. ^ The death of the districts, Radio Prague January 3, 2003.
  12. ^ Getting to know Czech Republic, from Czech.cz, the official site of the Czech Republic
  13. ^ World Bank 2007
  14. ^ Czech Republic to join Schengen. The Prague Post (2006-12-13). Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  15. ^ Czech government adopts euro adoption plan. EUbusiness (2007-04-11). Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  16. ^ OECD.org
  17. ^ 2007 WiFi survey EN
  18. ^ openspectrum.info - Czech Republic
  19. ^ Wi-Fi: Poskytovatelé bezdrátového připojení. internetprovsechny.cz. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  20. ^ Bezdrátové připojení k internetu. bezdratovepripojeni.cz. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.
  21. ^ Promotion Strategy of the Czech Republic in 2004 - 2010. Czech Tourism. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  22. ^ CZECH SIGHTS. Discover Czech. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  • Some of the material comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio Prague (Czech: Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

External links

Find more about Czech Republic on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Czech Republic

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Government

  • Governmental website
  • Presidential website
  • Portal of the Public Administration

Parliament

  • Chamber of Deputies
  • Senate

News

  • Czech News Agency news
  • Prague Daily Monitor
  • The Prague Tribune
  • Radio Prague

Statistics

  • Economic & Social Data Ranking

Travelling

  • CzechTourism
  • Czech Republic at Wikitravel


  Results from FactBites:
 
Prague-Czech-Republic-Travel.com - Czech Republic discount hotels and apartments accommodation, cheap travel to Prague (169 words)
Czech Republic travel, Prague - cheap hotels, apartments, pensions, hostels, accommodation, bed and breakfast, tours, tourism
Travel to Prague, Czech Republic hotels and apartments
Originally built in 1926 by renowned Czech architect...
czech republic map and information page (377 words)
Formerly part of Czechoslovakia and landlocked in the middle of Europe, the Czech Republic is about the size of the U.S. State of New York.
The Czech Republic maps and information pages are currently being revised, and will be posted soon.
Landforms In essence, the Czech Republic is a large plateau surrounded by mountains, with a large slice of central lowland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m