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Encyclopedia > Cytotoxins

Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance or an immune cell. // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ...

Cytotoxicity can be measured by the MTT assay. MTT assay is a laboratory test and a standard colorimetric assay (an assay which measures changes in colour) for measuring cellular proliferation (cell growth). ...

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) describes the cell-killing ability of certain lymphocytes, which requires the target cell being marked by an antibody. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, on the other hand, does not have to be mediated by antibodies; nor does complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which is mediated by the complement system. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody or immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ...

Three groups of cytotoxic T lymphocytes are distinguished: antigenic (immunized) T lymphocytes, killer cells, and natural killer cells. T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... A K cell (or a killer cell) is a lymphocyte with immunoglobulin Fc receptors, which allow it to bind to and kill antibody-coated cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). ... Natural NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ...

See Also

  • Promega Corporation is a supplier of cytotoxicity assays used for drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry.

  Results from FactBites:
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The vacuolating cytotoxin is encoded by a 3864 bp ORF in the vacA gene.
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Intratumor Administration of Interleukin 13 Receptor-targeted Cytotoxin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Malignant ... (5139 words)
IL-13 cytotoxin (100 ng/ml), or IL-13 (100 ng/ml) for 48 h.
the excipient (0.2% HSA in PBS) or the IL-13 cytotoxin i.t.
IL-13 Cytotoxin Causes Apoptosis in GBM Cells in Vitro.
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