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Encyclopedia > Cytosol

The cytosol (cf. cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a portion of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways and glycolysis. They also act as intracellular receptors and form part of the ribosomes, enabling protein synthesis. It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Overview of signal transduction pathways In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in... Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway by which a 6-carbon glucose (Glc) molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes, the cytosol surrounds the cell organelles; this is collectively called cytoplasm. In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced because of the large tonoplast (central vacuole) that takes up most of the cell interior volume. The portion of cytosol in the nucleus is called nucleohyaloplasm. Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The cytosol also surrounds the cytoskeleton, which is made of fibrous proteins (e.g. microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments). In many organisms, the cytoskeleton maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures (e.g. transport vesicles). The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... This article or section should be merged with actin Microfilaments or actin filaments are made up of two twisted monomeric actin subunits. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... // Intermediate filaments (IFs) are important structural proteins which are located both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The cytosol is a "soup" with free-floating particles, but is highly organized on the molecular level. As the concentration of soluble molecules increases within the cytosol, an osmotic gradient builds up toward the outside of the cell. Water flows into the cell, making the cell bigger. To prevent the cell from bursting apart, molecular pumps in the plasma membrane, the cytoskeleton, the tonoplast or the cell wall (if present), are used to counteract the osmotic pressure. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ...


Cytosol mostly consists of water, dissolved ions, small molecules, and large water-soluble molecules (such as protein). It contains about 20% to 30% protein. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Normal human cytosolic pH is (roughly) 7.0 (i.e. neutral), whereas the pH of the extracellular fluid is 7.4. The correct title of this article is . ... The correct title of this article is . ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ...


References

Life: The Science of Biology. Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller. Sunderland, MA. Sinauer Associates, Inc. 2004. ISBN 0-7167-9856-5 (ILM USA)


  Results from FactBites:
 
SparkNotes: Intracellular Components: The Cytoskeleton and Cytosol (658 words)
The cytoskeleton is composed of protein filaments and is found throughout the inside of a eukaryotic cell.
The cytosol is the main component of the cytoplasm, the fluid that fills the inside of the cell.
The interior of a cell is composed of organelles, the cytoskeleton, and the cytosol.
Cytosol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (252 words)
The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here.
Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, and they act as intracellular receptors and form part of the ribosomes, enabling further protein synthesis.
This is made of fibrous proteins (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures, e.g., transport vesicles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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