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Encyclopedia > Cytoplasm
Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (6) Golgi apparatus (7) cytoskeleton (8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytosol (12) lysosome (13) centriole.
Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (6) Golgi apparatus (7) cytoskeleton (8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytosol (12) lysosome (13) centriole.

Cytoplasm is a gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells. Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that is kept separate from the cytoplasm by a double membrane layer. Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Various organelles labeled. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells genetic material. ...

Contents

Constituents

The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions. The cytosol is the gooey, semi-transparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended. The cytoplasm holds organelles and protects them, such as the vacuole, endoplasmic recticulum, etc. Cytosol makes up about 70% of the cell and is composed of water, salts and organic molecules.[1] The cytoskeleton, various proteins, ribosomes and enzymes that are necessary for the cell to catalyze reactions are also found throughout the cytosol. The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm. The cytosol (cf. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... Inclusions (Cytoplasmic) are chemical substances that may or may not be present in a cell, depending on the cell type. ... The cytosol (cf. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ...


The organelles are the metabolic machinery of the cell and are like little organs themselves. Some major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol are the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and in plant cells chloroplasts. The inclusions are chemical substances that store nutrients, secretory products and pigment granules. [2] In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... The cytosol (cf. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Lysosomes are organelles in eukaryotic cells that contain digestive enzymes to digest macromolecules. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... Inclusions (Cytoplasmic) are chemical substances that may or may not be present in a cell, depending on the cell type. ...


Function

The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities are done. The functions for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell. The cytosol has enzymes that take molecules and break them down , so that the individual organelles can use them as they need to. The cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton which gives the cell its shape and can help in the movement of the cell.[3]


Footnotes

  1. ^ Cytoplasm Composition
  2. ^ Cytoplasm - Filling Fluid - from Biology4Kids.com
  3. ^ Cytoplasm

References

  • Alberts, Bruce et al. (2003). Essential Cell Biology, 2nd ed., Garland Science, 2003, ISBN 081533480X.

External links

  • Human Anatomy & Physiology, seventh edition By; Elain N Marieb and Latja Hoehn.
  • What is cytoplasm? - by Genevieve Thiers -2002
  • Glencoe Science Biology The Dynamics of Life

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Cytoplasm (278 words)
Cytoplasm is the colloidal, semi-fluid matter contained within the cell's plasma membrane, in which organelles are suspended.
In contrast to the protoplasm, the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus, the interior of which is made up of nucleoplasm.
The insoluble constituents of the cytoplasm are organelles (such as the mitochondria, the chloroplast, lysosomes, peroxysomes, ribosomes), several vacuoles, cytoskeletons as well as complex membrane structures (e.g.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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