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Encyclopedia > Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 B25.
ICD-9 078.5
MeSH D003587
Cytomegalovirus
CMV infection of a lung pneumocyte.
CMV infection of a lung pneumocyte.
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Herpesviridae
Genus: Cytomegalovirus
Species

see text The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1803x1202, 1705 KB)Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of a lung pneumocyte. ... The alveoli are lined with two types of cell, the Type I and Type II pneumocytes. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ...

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and -mega-, "large") is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5).[1] CMV belongs to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily of Herpesviridae, which also includes Roseolovirus, also known as Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6). The Alphaherpesvirinae contains herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus (which causes chickenpox and shingles). The Epstein-Barr virus [1] belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. The herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae Betaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of Herpesviridae primarily distinguished by reproducing less quickly than other subfamilies of Herpesviridae. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ... South Park episode, see Chickenpox (South Park episode). ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Virus latency is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). ...


CMV infections are frequently associated with salivary glands, though they may be found throughout the body. CMV infection can also be life threatening for patients who are immunocompromised (e.g. patients with HIV, organ transplant recipients, or neonates).[1] CMV viruses are found in many mammal species, but CMV species isolated from animals differ from human CMV in terms of genomic structure, and have not been reported to cause human disease. The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ...


In humans, CMV is found throughout all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups, and infects between 50% and 80% of adults in the United States as indicated by the presence of antibodies in much of the general population.[1] CMV is also the virus most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. CMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in areas of lower socioeconomic conditions and causes the most birth defects in industrialized countries of all the herpes viruses. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

Contents

Species

Name Abv. Host
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5 (CeHV-5) African green monkey
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 8 (CeHV-8) Rhesus monkey
Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5) Humans
Pongine herpesvirus 4 (PoHV-4)  ?
Aotine herpesvirus 1 (AoHV-1) (Tentative species)
Aotine herpesvirus 3 (AoHV-3) (Tentative species)



Pathogenesis

For most healthy individuals who acquire CMV after birth there are few symptoms.[1] Some persons with symptoms experience an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome [2], with prolonged fever, and a mild hepatitis. A very sore throat is also common. Once a person becomes infected, the virus latently persists in the body for the person's life and can exhaust the immune system at old age, increasing risk of mortality from other diseases. Recurrent disease rarely occurs unless the person's immune system is suppressed due to therapeutic drugs or disease. Initial CMV infection, which may have few symptoms, is always followed by a prolonged, inapparent infection during which the virus resides in cells without causing detectable damage or clinical illness. Severe impairment of the body's immune system by medication or disease (see below) may reactivate the virus from the latent or dormant state. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Infectious CMV may be shed in the bodily fluids of any previously infected person, and thus may be found in urine, saliva, blood, tears, semen, and breast milk. The shedding of virus may take place intermittently, without any detectable signs, and without causing symptoms. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The tear system. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...


Microscopically, CMV can be demonstrated by intranuclear inclusion bodies, which show that the virus replicates in the nucleus rather than the cytosol. These inclusion bodies stain dark pink on an H&E stain, and are also called "Owl's Eye" inclusion bodies. In mathematics, inclusion is a partial order on sets. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... H&E stained lung tissue sample from an end-stage emphysema patient. ...


CMV infection is important to certain high-risk groups.[3] Major areas of risk of infection include pre-natal or post-partum infants and immunocompromised individuals, such as organ transplant recipients, persons with leukemia, or those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CMV is considered an AIDS-defining infection, indicating that the T-cell count has dropped to low levels. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into postpartum period. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. ...


Lytically replicating virus disrupts the cytoskeleton, causing massive cell enlargement, which is the source of the virus' name. The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ...


Transmission and prevention

Transmission of CMV occurs from person to person. Seroprevalence is age-dependent: 58.9% of individuals aged 6 and over are infected with CMV while 90.8% of individuals aged 80 and over are positive for CMV.[4] Infection requires close, intimate contact with a person excreting the virus in their saliva, urine, or other bodily fluids. CMV can be sexually transmitted and can also be transmitted via breast milk, transplanted organs, and rarely from blood transfusions. Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a rate per 100,000 persons tested. ... A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


Although CMV is not highly contagious, it has been shown to spread in households and among young children in day care centers.[1] Transmission of the virus is often preventable because it is most often transmitted through infected bodily fluids that come in contact with hands and then are absorbed through the nose or mouth of a susceptible person. Therefore, care should be taken when handling children and items like diapers. Simple hand washing with soap and water is effective in removing the virus from the hands.


CMV infection without symptoms is common in infants and young children; as a result, it is common to not exclude from school or an institution a child known to be infected. Similarly, hospitalized patients are not typically separated or isolated.


Specific situations

Pregnancy and congenital infection

CMV is part of the association known as TORCH infections that lead to congenital abnormalities. These include Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Herpes simplex, as well as CMV, among others. The incidence of primary CMV infection in pregnant women in the United States varies from 1% to 3%. Healthy pregnant women are not at special risk for disease from CMV infection. When infected with CMV, most women have no symptoms and very few have a disease resembling mononucleosis. It is their developing fetuses that may be at risk for congenital CMV disease. CMV remains the most important cause of congenital viral infection in the United States. TORCH infections are a group of infections that can lead to birth defects. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... This article is about the disease. ...


CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection in humans and intrauterine primary infections are second only to Down's syndrome as a known cause of mental retardation.[5]


For infants who are infected by their mothers before birth, two potential problems exist:

  • Generalized infection may occur in the infant, and symptoms may range from moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen (Hepatosplenomegaly) (with jaundice) to fatal illness. With supportive treatment most infants with CMV disease usually survive. However, from 80% to 90% will have complications within the first few years of life that may include hearing loss, vision impairment, and varying degrees of mental retardation.
  • Another 5% to 10% of infants who are infected but without symptoms at birth will subsequently have varying degrees of hearing and mental or coordination problems.

However, these risks appear to be almost exclusively associated with women who previously have not been infected with CMV and who are having their first infection with the virus during pregnancy. Even in this case, two-thirds of the infants will not become infected, and only 10% to 15% of the remaining third will have symptoms at the time of birth. There appears to be little risk of CMV-related complications for women who have been infected at least 6 months prior to conception. For this group, which makes up 50% to 80% of the women of child-bearing age, the rate of newborn CMV infection is 1%, and these infants appear to have no significant illness or abnormalities.[1] Hepatosplenomegaly is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly). ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). ...


The virus can also be transmitted to the infant at delivery from contact with genital secretions or later in infancy through breast milk. However, these infections usually result in little or no clinical illness in the infant.


To summarize, during a pregnancy when a woman who has never had CMV infection becomes infected with CMV, there is a potential risk that after birth the infant may have CMV-related complications, the most common of which are associated with hearing loss, visual impairment, or diminished mental and motor capabilities. On the other hand, infants and children who acquire CMV after birth have few, if any, symptoms or complications.


Recommendations for pregnant women with regard to CMV infection:

  • Throughout the pregnancy, practice good personal hygiene, especially handwashing with soap and water, after contact with diapers or oral secretions (particularly with a child who is in day care).
  • Women who develop a mononucleosis-like illness during pregnancy should be evaluated for CMV infection and counseled about the possible risks to the unborn child.
  • Laboratory testing for antibody to CMV can be performed to determine if a women has already had CMV infection.
  • Recovery of CMV from the cervix or urine of women at or before the time of delivery does not warrant a cesarean section.
  • The demonstrated benefits of breast-feeding outweigh the minimal risk of acquiring CMV from the breast-feeding mother.
  • There is no need to either screen for CMV or exclude CMV-excreting children from schools or institutions because the virus is frequently found in many healthy children and adults.

Childcare

Most healthy people working with infants and children face no special risk from CMV infection. However, for women of child-bearing age who previously have not been infected with CMV, there is a potential risk to the developing unborn child (the risk is described above in the Pregnancy section). Contact with children who are in day care, where CMV infection is commonly transmitted among young children (particularly toddlers), may be a source of exposure to CMV. Since CMV is transmitted through contact with infected body fluids, including urine and saliva, child care providers (meaning day care workers, special education teachers, therapists, as well as mothers) should be educated about the risks of CMV infection and the precautions they can take. Day care workers appear to be at a greater risk than hospital and other health care providers, and this may be due in part to the increased emphasis on personal hygiene in the health care setting.


Recommendations for individuals providing care for infants and children:

  • Employees should be educated concerning CMV, its transmission, and hygienic practices, such as handwashing, which minimize the risk of infection.
  • Susceptible nonpregnant women working with infants and children should not routinely be transferred to other work situations.
  • Pregnant women working with infants and children should be informed of the risk of acquiring CMV infection and the possible effects on the unborn child.
  • Routine laboratory testing for CMV antibody in female workers is not specifically recommended due to its high occurrence, but can be performed to determine their immune status.

Immunocompromised patients

Primary CMV infection in the immunocompromised patient can cause serious disease. However, the more common problem is the reactivation of the latent virus.


In patients with a depressed immune system, CMV-related disease may be much more aggressive. CMV hepatitis may cause fulminant liver failure. Specific disease entities recognised in those people are cytomegalovirus retinitis (inflammation of the retina, characterised by a "pizza pie appearance" on ophthalmoscopy) and cytomegalovirus colitis (inflammation of the large bowel). Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ... CMV (Cytomegalovirus) is a DNA virus in the family Herpesviridae. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... In medicine the ophthalmoscope was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz and is an instrument that is used to look into the human eye. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ...


Infection with CMV is a major cause of disease and death in immunocompromised patients, including organ transplant recipients, patients undergoing hemodialysis, patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and HIV-infected patients. Because of this risk, exposing immunosuppressed patients to outside sources of CMV should be minimized. Whenever possible, patients without CMV infection should be given organs and/or blood products that are free of the virus. In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Patients without CMV infection who are given organ transplants from CMV-infected donors should be given prophylactic treatment with valganciclovir (ideally) or ganciclovir and require regular serological monitoring to detect a rising CMV titre, which should be treated early to prevent a potentially life-threatening infection becoming established. Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. ... Ganciclovir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, and there are many errors and omissions in this article. ...


Diagnosis

Most infections with CMV are not diagnosed because the virus usually produces few, if any, symptoms and tends to reactivate intermittently without symptoms. However, persons who have been infected with CMV develop antibodies to the virus, and these antibodies persist in the body for the lifetime of that individual. A number of laboratory tests that detect these antibodies to CMV have been developed to determine if infection has occurred and are widely available from commercial laboratories. In addition, the virus can be cultured from specimens obtained from urine, throat swabs, bronchial lavages and tissue samples to detect active infection. Both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for CMV are available as well, allowing physicians to monitor the viral load of CMV-infected patients. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ...


CMV should be suspected if a patient has symptoms of infectious mononucleosis but has negative test results for mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus, or if they show signs of hepatitis, but has negative test results for hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious liver disease caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... This page is for the disease. ...


For best diagnostic results, laboratory tests for CMV antibody should be performed by using paired serum samples. One blood sample should be taken upon suspicion of CMV, and another one taken within 2 weeks. A virus culture can be performed at any time the patient is symptomatic. Laboratory testing for antibody to CMV can be performed to determine if a woman has already had CMV infection. However, routine testing of all pregnant women is costly and the need for testing should therefore be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.


Serologic testing

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (or ELISA) is the most commonly available serologic test for measuring antibody to CMV. The result can be used to determine if acute infection, prior infection, or passively acquired maternal antibody in an infant is present. Other tests include various fluorescence assays, indirect hemagglutination, (PCR) and latex agglutination. Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ... Hemagglutination (also haemagglutination) is a more specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells. ...


An ELISA technique for CMV-specific IgM is available, but may give false-positive results unless steps are taken to remove rheumatoid factor or most of the IgG antibody before the serum sample is tested. Because CMV-specific IgM may be produced in low levels in reactivated CMV infection, its presence is not always indicative of primary infection. Only virus recovered from a target organ, such as the lung, provides unequivocal evidence that the current illness is caused by acquired CMV infection. If serologic tests detect a positive or high titer of IgG, this result should not automatically be interpreted to mean that active CMV infection is present. However, if antibody tests of paired serum samples show a fourfold rise in IgG antibody and a significant level of IgM antibody, meaning equal to at least 30% of the IgG value, or virus is cultured from a urine or throat specimen, the findings indicate that an active CMV infection is present. IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red... A false positive, also called a Type I error, exists when a test incorrectly reports that it has found a positive result where none really exists. ... Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test performed in patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


Relevance to blood donors

Although the risks discussed above are generally low, CMV assays are part of the standard screening for non-directed blood donation (donations not specified for a particular patient) in the U.S. CMV-negative donations are then earmarked for transfusion to infants or immunocompromised patients. Some blood donation centers maintain lists of donors whose blood is CMV negative due to special demands.[6] “Give blood” redirects here. ...


Treatment

No treatment is generally necessary for CMV infection in the healthy individual since the majority of infections resolve on their own. Antiviral drug therapy is now being evaluated in infants.


Ganciclovir treatment is used for patients with depressed immunity who have either sight-related or life-threatening illnesses. Valganciclovir (marketed as Valcyte) is an antiviral drug that is also effective and is given orally. The therapeutic effectiveness is frequently compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant virus isolates. A variety of amino acid changes in the UL97 protein kinase and the viral DNA polymerase have been reported to cause drug resistance. Foscarnet or cidofovir can be given in patients with CMV resistant to ganciclovir, though foscarnet is not as well tolerated as ganciclovir. Ganciclovir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, and there are many errors and omissions in this article. ... Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. ... Foscarnet sodium (Foscavir®, AstraZeneca) is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes viruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). ...


Vaccines are still in the research and development stage.


Genomics

As a result of efforts to create an attenuated-virus vaccine, there currently exist two general classes of CMV.

  • Clinical isolates comprise those viruses obtained from patients and represent the wild-type viral genome.
  • Laboratory strains have been cultured extensively in the lab setting and typically contain numerous accumulated mutations. Most notably, the laboratory strain AD169 appears to lack a 15kb region of the 200kb genome that is present in clinical isolates. This region contains 19 open reading frames whose functions have yet to be elucidated. AD169 is also unique in that it is unable to enter latency and nearly always assumes lytic growth upon infection.

An open reading frame or ORF is any sequence of DNA or RNA that can be translated into a protein. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, pp. 556; 566–9. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Bottieau E, Clerinx J, Van den Enden E, Van Esbroeck M, Colebunders R, Van Gompel A, Van den Ende J (2006). "Infectious mononucleosis-like syndromes in febrile travelers returning from the tropics.". J Travel Med 13 (4): 191-7. PMID 16884400. 
  3. ^ Bennekov T, Spector D, Langhoff E (2004). "Induction of immunity against human cytomegalovirus". Mt. Sinai J. Med. 71 (2): 86-93. PMID 15029400. 
  4. ^ Staras SAS, Dollard SC, Radford KW, et al. (2006). "Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1988–1994". Clin Infect Dis 43: 1143–51. PMID 17029132. 
  5. ^ (Article: Bio Protection And Licencing in Europe, p.5, Les Nouvelles, March 2000, ISSN 0270-174X)
  6. ^ United Blood Services FAQs. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Fletcher JM, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Dunne PJ, et al (2005). "Cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T cells in healthy carriers are continuously driven to replicative exhaustion". J. Immunol. 175 (12): 8218-25. PMID 16339561. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cytomegalovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2421 words)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), is a genus of Herpes viruses; in humans the species is known as Human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5).
Cytomegalovirus, or CMV, is found universally throughout all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups, and infects between 50% and 85% of adults in the United States by 40 years of age.
Specific disease entities recognised in those people are cytomegalovirus retinitis (inflammation of the retina, characterised by a "pizza pie appearance" on ophthalmoscopy) and cytomegalovirus colitis (inflammation of the large bowel).
TheFetus.net - Cytomegalovirus, splenomegaly -Donna Chriss-Price, RT, RDMS, Sandra K. Lawrence, MD¶, Philippe Jeanty, ... (2635 words)
Cytomegalovirus antibodies are identified in 44% to 100% of the adult population
Prenatal diagnosis of ascites caused by cytomegalovirus hepatitis.
Placental evidence of cytomegalovirus infection of the fetus and neonate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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