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Encyclopedia > Cytochrome P450 oxidase
Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1)
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Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1)

Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1.14) important in animal physiology. The cytochrome P450 mixed-function monooxygenase system is probably the most important element of Phase I metabolism in animals (metabolism in this context being the chemical modification or degradation of chemicals including drugs and endogenous compounds). Cytochrome P450 sequence homologs have been determined in all lineages of life, including mammals, birds, fish, insects, worms, sea squirts, sea urchins, plants, fungi, slime molds, bacteria and archaea. Gen w/ Deepview from PDB:1OG2 File links The following pages link to this file: Cytochrome P450 oxidase Categories: Free use images | Protein images ... Gen w/ Deepview from PDB:1OG2 File links The following pages link to this file: Cytochrome P450 oxidase Categories: Free use images | Protein images ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Ribbon diagram of the catalytically perfect enzyme TIM. An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes, or speeds up, a chemical reaction. ... EC numbers (Enzyme Commission numbers) are a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Phase I metabolism is the first phase in elimination. ... The term homologue or homolog has several meanings: In biology, homologues are structures that are alike because of shared ancestry. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Aves redirects here. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: the most abundant species of fish in the world. ... Classes & Orders Subclass:Apterygota Orders Archaeognatha (Bristletails) Thysanura (Silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass:Pterygota Infraclass: Paleoptera (paraphyletic) Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Exopterygota Orders (lower Exopterygota) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies... A worm is an elongated soft-bodied invertebrate animal. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Image:Coarsespinedseaurchinsm. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Divisions Chytridiomycota Deuteromycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Fungus growing on a tree in Borneo A fungus (plural fungi) is a eukaryotic organism that digests its food externally and absorbs the nutrient molecules into its cells. ... Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea (pronounced /ɑːˌkiːə/), also called Archaebacteria (pronounced /ˈɑːkɪbakËŒtɪərɪə/), are a major division of living organisms. ...


P450s are membrane-associated proteins, either in the inner membrane of mitochondria or in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells where they metabolise thousands of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the liver, these substrates include toxins, drugs, and other unneeded and potentially harmful molecules. Cytochromes P450 are present in many other tissues of the body including the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and play important roles in hormone synthesis and breakdown, cholesterol synthesis, and vitamin D metabolism. In most animals, including humans, hepatic cytochromes P450 are the most widely studied of the P450 enzymes. In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... The liver is one of the largest internal organs of the human body. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Cholesterol chemical structure Cholesterol is a steroid, a lipid, and an alcohol, found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


The name refers to "pigment at 450 nm", so named for the characteristic Soret peak formed by absorbance of light at wavelengths near 450 nm when the heme iron is reduced (with sodium dithionite) and complexed to carbon monoxide. Sodium dithionite (aka Sodium Hydrosulfite) is a toxic, white crystalline powder with a weak sulforous odor. ... Carbon monoxide, chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable and highly toxic gas. ...

Contents


Molecular biology

Mammalian cytochrome P450 oxidases have about 500 amino acids and a heme (hæm) group at the active site. Most can metabolize multiple substrates, and many can catalyze multiple reactions, which accounts for their central importance in metabolizing the potentially endless variety of endogenous and exogenous molecules. Most animal cytochromes P450 have a cofactor cytochrome P450 reductase and require the nucleoside cofactor NADPH and molecular oxygen (O2) to function. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Structure of Heme b A haem or heme is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


The Human Genome Project has identified 63 human genes coding for the various cytochrome P450 enzymes [1]. The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavoured to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the genes present in it. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Nomenclature

Genes encoding for the P450 enzymes, and the enzymes themselves, are designated with the abbreviation CYP, followed by an Arabic numeral indicating the gene family, a capital letter indicating the subfamily, and another numerals for the individual gene. The convention is to italicise when referring to the gene. For example, CYP2E1 is the gene that encodes for the enzyme CYP2E1 – one of the enzymes involved in paracetamol metabolism. There is a Nomenclature Committee that keeps track of and assigns new names [2]. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Arabic numerals (or Hindu-Arabic numerals) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... In typography, italic type refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. ... Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) (EC 1. ... Paracetamol (INN) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...


CYP Families in humans

Humans have 18 families of cytochrome P450 genes and 43 subfamilies (Nelson, 2003):

  • CYP1 drug metabolism (3 subfamilies, 3 genes, 1 pseudogene) – CYP1A1 CYP1A2 CYP1B1
  • CYP2 drug and steroid metabolism (13 subfamilies, 16 genes, 16 pseudogenes) – CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1
  • CYP3 drug metabolism (1 subfamily, 4 genes, 2 pseudogenes) – CYP3A4
  • CYP4 arachidonic acid or fatty acid metabolism (5 subfamilies, 11 genes, 10 pseudogenes)
  • CYP5 thromboxane A2 synthase (1 subfamily, 1 gene)
  • CYP7A bile acid biosynthesis 7-alpha hydroxylase of steroid nucleus (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP7B brain specific form of 7-alpha hydroxylase (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP8A prostacyclin synthase (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP8B bile acid biosynthesis (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP11 steroid biosynthesis (2 subfamilies, 3 genes)
  • CYP17 steroid biosynthesis (1 subfamily, 1 gene) 17-alpha hydroxylase
  • CYP19 steroid biosynthesis (1 subfamily, 1 gene): aromatase forms estrogen
  • CYP20 unknown function (1 subfamily, 1 gene)
  • CYP21 steroid biosynthesis (1 subfamily, 1 gene, 1 pseudogene)
  • CYP24 vitamin D degradation (1 subfamily, 1 gene)
  • CYP26A retinoic acid hydroxylase important in development (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP26B probable retinoic acid hydroxylase (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP26C probable retinoic acid hydroxylase (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP27A bile acid biosynthesis (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP27B vitamin D3 1-alpha hydroxylase activates vitamin D3 (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP27C unknown function (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP39 7-alpha hydroxylation of 24-hydroxycholesterol (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP46 cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (1 subfamily member)
  • CYP51 cholesterol biosynthesis (1 subfamily, 1 gene, 3 pseudogenes) lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6, EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with twenty carbons and four cis double bonds, the first at the omega-6 position (20:4n-6). ... Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. ... Prostacyclin is a member of the family of lipid molecules known as eicosanoids. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ... Estrogens (also oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cholesterol chemical structure Cholesterol is a steroid, a lipid, and an alcohol, found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid which is the compound from which all steroids are derived. ...

Other specific CYP functions

A subset of cytochrome P450 enzymes play important roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenals, gonads, and peripheral tissue: Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Grays Fig. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ...

  • CYP11A1 (also known as P450scc or P450c11a1) in adrenal mitochondria effects “the activity formerly known as 20,22-desmolase” (20α-hydroxylase, 22-hydroxylase, cholesterol side chain scission).
  • P450c11β in inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex conducts 11β-hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, 18-methyloxidase activities.
  • P450c11AS, only in mitochondria of the adrenal zona glomerulosa conducts 11β-hydroxylase, 18-hydroxylase, 18-methyloxidase activities.
  • CYP17A1 (P450c17), in endoplasmic reticulum of adrenal cortex conducts 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities.
  • CYP21A1 (P450c21) in adrenal cortex conducts 21-hydroxylase activity.
  • CYP19A (P450arom, aromatase) in endoplasmic reticulum of gonads, brain, adipose tissue, and elsewhere catalyzes aromatization of androgens to estrogens.
  • CYP102 (also known as P450BM3) monooxygenation of C15 and C16 fatty acid chains.

Mitochondria structure : 1) Inner membrane 2) Outer membrane 3) Crista 4) Matrix In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), acts as the control center of the central nervous system. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...

References

Further reading

  • Cytochrome P450 Homepage (run by David Nelson)
  • Kiril's Directory of P450 resources
  • The Insect P450 Site (run by Rene Feyereisen)
  • Human CYP Allele Nomenclature Committee
  • P450 Database, Moscow
  • Ronald W. Estabrook A Passion for P450s (Rememberances of the Early History of Research on Cytochrome P450). Drug Metab. Disp. URL accessed on January 3, 2006.
  • Ortiz de Montellano PR (Ed.) (1995). Cytochrome P450: structure, mechanism, and biochemistry. (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0306451417
  • Narhi LO, Fulco AJ (1986). Characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000-dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase induced by barbituates in Bacillus megaterium. J Biol Chem 261 (16), 7160-7169. PMID 3086309 Free Fulltext (PDF)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cytochrome P450 oxidase - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1012 words)
Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1.14) important in animal physiology.
Cytochrome P450 homologs have been sequenced from all lineages of life, including mammals, birds, fish, insects, worms, sea squirts, sea urchins, plants, fungi, slime molds, bacteria and archaea.
Cytochromes P450 are present in many other tissues of the body including the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and play important roles in hormone synthesis and breakdown (including estrogen and testosterone synthesis and metabolism), cholesterol synthesis, and vitamin D metabolism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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