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Encyclopedia > Cytochrome

Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions. They are found in the mitochondrial inner membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes, in the chloroplasts of plants, in photosynthetic microorganisms, and in bacteria. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Structure of Heme b A haem or heme is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, or simply electron transport), is a series of protein complexers and lipid messengers spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Mitochondria structure : 1) Inner membrane 2) Outer membrane 3) Crista 4) Matrix In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means within the cytoplasm, reticulum means little net) is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (also spelled eucaryote) is an organism with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Leaf. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


The heme group is a highly conjugated ring system (which means its electrons are very mobile) surrounding a metal ion, which readily interconverts between the oxidation states. For many cytochromes the metal ion present is that of iron, which interconverts between Fe2+ (reduced) and Fe3+ (oxidized) states (electron-transfer processes) or between Fe2+ (reduced) and Fe5+ (formal, oxidized) states (oxidative processes). Cytochromes are thus capable of performing oxidation and reduction. Because the cytochromes (as well as other complexes) are held within membranes in an organized way, the redox reactions are carried out in the proper sequence for maximum efficiency. Structure of Heme b A haem or heme is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Electron transfer (ET) is the process by which an electron moves from one atom or molecule to another atom or molecule. ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ...


In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which is the principal energy-generating process undertaken by organisms which need oxygen to survive, other membrane-bound and soluble complexes and cofactors are involved in the chain of redox reactions, with the additional net effect that protons (H+) are transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The resulting transmembrane proton gradient (protonmotive force) is used to generate ATP, which is the universal chemical energy currency of life. ATP is consumed to drive cellular processes that require energy (such as rotation of flagella, transport of molecules across the membrane, and synthesis of macromolecules). Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells. ... A complex in chemistry is a reversible association of molecules, atoms, or ions through weak non-covalent chemical bonds. ... A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. ... Electrochemical potential is a thermodynamic measure that reflects energy from entropy and electrostatics and is typically invoked in molecular processes that involve diffusion. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ...


Several kinds of cytochrome exist and can be distinguished by spectroscopy, exact structure of the heme group, inhibitor sensitivity, and reduction potential:

See the articles on mitochondria and chloroplasts for more information on electron transport and related metabolic pathways. See cytochrome P450 oxidase for more on steroidogenesis and detoxification enzymes. Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... Cytochrome c (horse heart: PDB 1HRC) is a small heme protein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. ... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... Cytochrome f is the largest subunit of cytochrome b6f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1. ... Mitochondria structure : 1) Inner membrane 2) Outer membrane 3) Crista 4) Matrix In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, ETC, e-train, or simply electron transport), is any series of protein complexes and lipid-soluble messengers that convert the reductive potential of energized electrons into a cross-membrane proton gradient. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cytochrome P-450 (323 words)
The term CYTOCHROME P-450 refers to a group of enzymes with are located on the endoplasmic reticulum.
It is know that the gene for cytochrome P-450 has existed for more then 3.5 billion years.
The second table shows various drugs and the various cytochrome P-450 enzyme systems that either inhibit or induce that drugs metabolism.
Cytochrome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (323 words)
Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions.
Cytochromes are thus capable of performing oxidation and reduction.
Because the cytochromes (as well as other complexes) are held within membranes in an organized way, the redox reactions are carried out in the proper sequence for maximum efficiency.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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