FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II the Great
Shahenshah of Persia, 'Emperor' of Media,
Basileus of Lydia, King of Neo-Babylonia
Reign 559 BC-529 BC
Coronation Anshan, Persis
Born 590 BC or 576 BC
Birthplace Anshan, Persis
Died August?, 530 BC or 529 BC
Place of death Along the Syr Darya
Buried Pasargadae
Predecessor Cambyses I
Successor Cambyses II
Consort Cassadane of Persia
Issue Cambyses II
Smerdis
Artystone
Atossa
Unamed unknown
Royal House Achaemenid
Father Cambyses I of Persia
Mother Mandane of Media?

Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁,[1] Kūruš,[2] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Buzurg or کوروش کبیر Kurosh-e Kabeer (c. 590 BC or 576 — August 529 BC or 530 BC), also known as Cyrus II of Persia and Cyrus the Elder,[3] was a Persian Shāhanshāh (Emperor). He was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. The empire expanded under his rule, eventually conquering most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia, from Egypt and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, to create the largest state the world had yet seen.[4] Belligerents Lydian Empire Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates unknown others Strength Unknown1 Unknown1 Casualties and losses Heavy2 Heavy2 1 Herodotus states that the Lydian forces fell very short of the enemy. ... Belligerents Lydian Empire, Egyptian mercenaries Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates† unknown others Strength 100,000+ [1] 420,000 (Xenophon) 30,000 [2] to 50,000, [3] 196,000 (Xenophon) Casualties and losses Heavy Minimal The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...


During his twenty-nine to thirty year reign, Cyrus fought against some of the greatest states of his time, including the Median Empire, the Lydian Empire, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in August 529 BC or 530BC.[5] He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt during his short rule. Median Empire, ca. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ...


Beyond his nation, Cyrus left a lasting legacy on Jewish religion (through his Edict of Restoration), human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as on both Eastern and Western civilization. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Contents

Background

Etymology

The ancient historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the sun, a concept which has been interpreted as meaning "like the sun," by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, khor, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness.[6] However, some modern historians, such as Karl Hoffmann and Rüdiger Schmitt of the Encyclopædia Iranica, have suggested the translation "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest."[7] For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Sol redirects here. ... Karl Hoffmann (26 February 1915 – 21 May 1996) was a German historian who specialized in Indo-European and Indo-Iranian studies. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ...


In modern Persia, Cyrus is referred to as Kourosh-e Kabir, and, more recently, as Kourosh-e Bozorg — the Persian-derived name for Cyrus the Great. In the Bible, he is known as simply Koresh (Hebrew: כורש). He is also possibly mentioned in the Qur'an under the title "Dhul-Qarnayn" ذو القرنين, who conquered lands east and west. Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Dynastic history

A bas-relief found at Pasargadae shows a winged-figure thought to be Cyrus, depicted with four Assyrian wings, and wearing an Egyptian hemhem crown, and a Persian dress.
A bas-relief found at Pasargadae shows a winged-figure thought to be Cyrus, depicted with four Assyrian wings, and wearing an Egyptian hemhem crown, and a Persian dress.

Similar to other culture-heroes and founders of great empires, folk traditions abound regarding his family background. According to the Herodotus, he was the grandson of the Median king Astyages and was brought up by humble herding folk. In another version, he was presented as the son of poor parents who worked in the Median court. These folk stories are however contradicted by his own testimony according to which he was preceded as king of Persia by his father, grandfather and great-grandfather.[8] Before he united the Persians and Medes under a single empire, he was the ruler of Anshān, then a vassal kingdom of the Median Empire, in what is now part of Fars Province in southern Iran. In this area Cyrus would build Pasargadae, his future capital city. Image File history File links Relief_cyrus-cropped_level. ... Image File history File links Relief_cyrus-cropped_level. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... For other uses, see fars (disambiguation). ... Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ...


The dynasty had supposedly been founded by Achaemenes (c. 700 BC?), who was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan.[9] Inscriptions indicate that when the latter died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus I of Anshan and Ariaramnes of Persia. They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan and Arsames of Persia. However, the authenticity of these inscriptions has been called into question, thus blurring the history of Cyrus' predecessors.[10] This article is about Achaemenes, legendary founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Arsames (Old Persian Aršâma) was the son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler with Cambyses I. His name in the Greek sources is . ...


Cambyses is considered by Herodotus to be of good family but not a king,[11] and further notes his marriage to Princess Māndānā, who was the daughter of Princess Aryenis of Lydia (or of another wife according to Christian Settipani) and Astyages, king of the Medes. From their union, Māndānā bore only one son, Cyrus II, better known today as Cyrus the Great, whom Cambyses named after the child's grandfather. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Aryenis of Lydia was the daughter of King Alyattes of Lydia, the sister of King Croesus of Lydia, the wife of King Astyages of Media, the mother of Mandane of Media, and grandmother of Cyrus II. She was given in marriage to Astyages to seal a treaty between Cyaraxes of... Christian Settipani (born January 31, 1961) is the Technical Director of an IT company in the Paris area. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ...


According to Ctesias, Cyrus the Great married a daughter of Astyages named Amytis, which seems unlikely, as his wife would also be his aunt. A possible explanation is that Astyages married again, and his second wife bore him this daughter.[12] Cyrus' first wife, Cassandane, is equally obscure. According to Herodotus and the Behistun Inscription, she bore Cyrus at least two sons, Cambyses II and Smerdis.[13] Both sons later separately ruled Persia for a short period of time. Cyrus also had several daughters, of which two, Artystone[14] and Atossa, would marry Darius the Great. The latter is significant, as she gave birth to Xerxes I, Darius' successor.[15] Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Smerdis (also Bardia) was the son of Cyrus the Great whose name was allegedly usurped by an impostor, a magian reportedly named Gaumata. ... Artystone `(Greek Aρгνσгωη Artystōnē; Elamite Ir-taš-du-na, Ir-da-iš-du-na; from Persian *Artastūnā, pillar of Arta, the deified true[1]) was a Persian princess, daughter of king Cyrus the Great, and sister or half-sister of Atossa. ... Atossa or Hutaosa (550 BC-475 BC) was a Queen consort of Persia. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ...


Early life

Cyrus was born in 580 BC.[16] Little is known of his early years, as the sources detailing that part of his life are few, and have been damaged or lost.


Herodotus's story of Cyrus' early life belongs to a genre of legends in which abandoned children of noble birth, such as Oedipus and Romulus and Remus, return to claim their royal positions. His overlord was his own grandfather, Astyages, ruler of the powerful Median kingdom. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ...


After the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign that his grandson would eventually overthrow him. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn, summoned a herdsman of the king named Mithridates and ordered him to dispose of the child. Luckily for the young boy, the herdsman took him in and raised him as his own.[17][18] For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Harpagus was a Median general in the 6th century BC. A courtier to Astyages, he is called the kingmaker for his defection to Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great), and, as such, is credited with having put Cyrus II on the throne. ... The name Mithridates (more accurately, Mithradates) is helenized form of a Indo-Aryan Mithra-Datt, which means One given by Mithra. Mithra is the Indo-Aryan sun-god and Datt (Given by) derives from the Indo-European root da, to give. That name was borne by a large number of...


When Cyrus was ten years old, Herodotus claims that it was obvious that Cyrus was not a herdsman's son, stating that his behavior was too noble. Astyages interviewed the boy and noticed that they resembled each other. Astyages ordered Harpagus to explain what he had done with the baby, and after confessing that he had not killed the boy, the king tricked him into eating his own son.[19] Astyages was more lenient with Cyrus, and allowed him to return to his biological parents, Cambyses and Mandane.[20] While Herodotus' description may be a legend, it does give insight into the figures surrounding Cyrus the Great's early life.


Rise and military campaigns

Median Empire

The Median Empire, Lydian Empire, and Chaldean Empire, prior to Cyrus the Great's conquests.
The Median Empire, Lydian Empire, and Chaldean Empire, prior to Cyrus the Great's conquests.
Further information: Persian Revolt, Battle of Hyrba, Battle of the Median Border, Siege of Pasargadae Hill, Battle of Pasargadae, Battle of the Pasargadae Plain, and Siege of Ecbatana

After his father's death in 559 BC, Cyrus became king of Anshan. However, Cyrus was not yet an independent ruler. Like his predecessors, Cyrus had to recognize Mede overlordship. During Astyages' reign, the Median Empire may have ruled over the majority of the Ancient Near East, from the Lydian frontier in the west to the Parthians and Persians in the east. Download high resolution version (1306x735, 145 KB)Median Empire This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1306x735, 145 KB)Median Empire This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Median Empire, ca. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ...


In Herodotus' version, Harpagus, seeking vengeance, convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people to revolt against their feudal lords, the Medes. However, it is likely that both Harpagus and Cyrus rebelled due to their dissatisfaction with Astyages' policies.[17] From the start of the revolt in summer 553 BC or early 552 BC, then his first battles taking place in 552 BC, and with the help of Harpagus, Cyrus led his armies against the Medes until the capture of Ecbatana in 549 BC, effectively conquering the Median Empire. Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ...


While Cyrus seems to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BC, he officially assumed the title of King of Persia instead. Arsames, who had been the ruler of Persia under the Medes, therefore had to give up his throne. His son, Hystaspes, who was also Cyrus' second cousin, was then made satrap of Parthia and Phrygia. Arsames would live to see his grandson become Darius the Great, Shahanshah of Persia, after the deaths of both of Cyrus' sons. Hystaspes (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa) can refer to two individuals: A semi-legendary king (kava), praised by Zoroaster as his protector and a true believer, son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp). ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ...


Cyrus' conquest of Media was merely the start of his wars. Astyages had been allied with his brother-in-law Croesus of Lydia, (son of Alyattes II), Nabonidus of Babylon, and Amasis II of Egypt, who reportedly intended to join forces against Cyrus. A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Alyattes II, king of Lydia (619_560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae. ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in... Amasis II (also Ahmose or Ah-mes) was a pharaoh (570 - 526 BC) of the 26th dynasty, the successor of Wahibre. ...


Lydian Empire and Asia Minor

Further information: Battle of PteriaBattle of Thymbra, and Siege of Sardis
Croesus in Tribute of Croesus by Claude Vignon, 1629.
Croesus in Tribute of Croesus by Claude Vignon, 1629.

The exact dates of the Lydian conquest are unknown, but it must have taken place between Cyrus' overthrow of the Mede kingdom (550 BC)) and his conquest of Babylon (539 BC). It was common in the past to give 547 BC as the year of the conquest due to some interpretations of the Nabonidus Chronicle, but this position is currently not much held.[21] The Lydians first attacked the Achaemenid Empire's city of Pteria in Cappadocia. Croesus laid siege to the city, and captured its inhabitants as slaves. Meanwhile, The Persians invited the citizens of Ionia, who were part of the Lydian kingdom, to revolt against their ruler. The offer was rebuffed, and thus Cyrus levied an army and marched against the Lydians, increasing his numbers while passing through nations in his way. The Battle of Pteria was effectively a stalemate, with both sides suffering heavy casualties by nightfall. Croesus retreated to Sardis the following morning.[22] Belligerents Lydian Empire Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates unknown others Strength Unknown1 Unknown1 Casualties and losses Heavy2 Heavy2 1 Herodotus states that the Lydian forces fell very short of the enemy. ... Belligerents Lydian Empire, Egyptian mercenaries Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates† unknown others Strength 100,000+ [1] 420,000 (Xenophon) 30,000 [2] to 50,000, [3] 196,000 (Xenophon) Casualties and losses Heavy Minimal The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the... Image File history File links Croesus. ... Image File history File links Croesus. ... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Nabonidus Chronicle records the events during the rule of the last king of Babylonia (King Nabonidus) before the Persian king Cyrus conquered the kingdom in October 539 BCE. However the Chronicles are currently damaged, leaving many blanks and spaces (or lacunas) throughout the script. ... Pteria was the capital of the White Syrians in northern Cappadocia. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Belligerents Lydian Empire Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates unknown others Strength Unknown1 Unknown1 Casualties and losses Heavy2 Heavy2 1 Herodotus states that the Lydian forces fell very short of the enemy. ...


While in Sardis, Croesus sent out requests for his allies to send aid to Lydia. However, near the end of winter, before the allies could unite, Cyrus pushed the war into Lydian territory and besieged Croesus in his capital, Sardis. Shortly before the final Battle of Thymbra between the two rulers, Harpagus advised Cyrus to place his dromedaries in front of his warriors; the Lydian horses, not used to the dromedaries' smell, would be very afraid. The strategy worked; the Lydian cavalry was routed. Cyrus defeated and captured Croesus. Cyrus occupied the capital at Sardis, conquering the Lydian kingdom in 546 BC.[22] According to Herodotus, Cyrus spared Croesus' life and kept him as an advisor, but this account conflicts with some translations of the contemporary Nabonidus Chronicle, which interpret that the king of Lydia was slain.[23] A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Belligerents Lydian Empire, Egyptian mercenaries Achaemenid Empire Commanders Croesus unknown others Cyrus the Great Harpagus Abradates† unknown others Strength 100,000+ [1] 420,000 (Xenophon) 30,000 [2] to 50,000, [3] 196,000 (Xenophon) Casualties and losses Heavy Minimal The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the... Binomial name Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 Dromedary range The Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) (often referred to simply as the Dromedary) is a large even-toed ungulate native to northern Africa, Greater Middle East area and western India, also the land of east Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. ...


Before returning to the capital, a Lydian named Pactyes was entrusted by Cyrus to send Croesus' treasury to Persia. However, soon after Cyrus' departure, Pactyes hired mercenaries and caused an uprising in Sardis, revolting against the Persian satrap of Lydia, Tabalus. With recommendations from Croesus that he should turn the minds of the Lydian people to luxury, Cyrus sent Mazares, one of his commanders, to subdue the insurrection, but demanded that Pactyas be returned alive. Upon Mazares' arrival, Pactyas fled to Ionia, where he had hired mercenaries. Mazares marched his troops into the Greek country and captured the cities of Magnesia and Priene, where Pactyas was captured and sent back to Persia for punishment. Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mazares was a Median general who defected to Cyrus the Great when the latter overthrew his grandfather, Astyages and formed the Persian Empire. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Magnesia on the Maeander is an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, located on the Maeander river upstream from Ephesus. ... Priene (mod. ...


Mazares continued the conquest of Asia Minor, but died of unknown causes during his campaign in Ionia. Cyrus sent Harpagus to complete Mazares' conquest of Asia Minor. Harpagus captured Lycia, Cilicia and Phoenicia, using the technique of building earthworks to breach the walls of besieged cities, a method unknown to the Greeks. He ended his conquest of the area in 542 BC, and returned to Persia.[17] Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ...


Neo-Babylonian Empire

Further information: Battle of Opis
See also: Siege of Kapisa
Superimposed on modern borders, the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus' rule extended approximately from Turkey, Israel, and Armenia in the west to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and to the Indus River in the east. Persia became the largest empire the world had ever seen.
Superimposed on modern borders, the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus' rule extended approximately from Turkey, Israel, and Armenia in the west to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and to the Indus River in the east. Persia became the largest empire the world had ever seen.

In 539 BC, towards the end of September, Cyrus' armies, under the command of Gubaru, the governor of Gutium, attacked Opis on the Tigris river and defeated the Babylonians after a minor uprising. With Opis subjugated, the Persians took control of the vast canal system of Babylonia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (813x358, 53 KB)[edit] Summary The Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (superimposed on modern borders). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (813x358, 53 KB)[edit] Summary The Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (superimposed on modern borders). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Gubaru (c601 BC - ?) was the Median governor of Babylon following the conquest of that city by Persian ruler Cyrus the Great. ... Guti can refer to: José María Gutiérrez, usually known as Guti, Spanish football (soccer) player Guti, people in ancient Mesopotamia. ... Originally a Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


On October 10, the city of Sippar was seized without a battle, with little to no resistance from the populace. It is probable that Cyrus engaged in negotiations with the Babylonian generals to obtain a compromise on their part and therefore avoid an armed confrontation.[24] Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time, and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.[25] is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ...


Two days later, on October 12 (Julian calendar; October 7 by the Gregorian calendar), Gubaru's troops entered Babylon, again without any resistance from the Babylonian armies. Herodotus explains that to accomplish this feat, the Persians diverted the Euphrates river into a canal so that the water level dropped "to the height of the middle of a man's thigh," which allowed the invading forces to march directly through the river bed to enter at night.[26] On October 29, Cyrus himself entered the city of Babylon and arrested Nabonidus. He then assumed the titles of "king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four sides of the world." is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ...


Prior to Cyrus' invasion of Babylon, the Neo-Babylonian Empire had conquered many kingdoms. In addition to Babylonia itself, Cyrus incorporated its subnational entities into his Empire, including Syria and Judea. Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Before leaving Babylon, Cyrus also issued the "Edict of Restoration" (Ezra 1:1-4), which freed the Jewish exiles by allowing them to return to their native land; this effectively ended the Babylonian captivity. His wife died on 498 B.C. The return of the exiles re-established the Jewish population in their homeland.[27] For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ...


According to the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great, Cyrus' dominions must have comprised the largest empire the world had ever seen. At the end of Cyrus' rule, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from Asia Minor and Judah in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...


Death

Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006).
Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006).

The details of Cyrus' death can vary by account. Ctesias reports only that Cyrus met his death while warring against tribes north-east of the headwaters of the Sry Darya. The account of Herodotus provides further details, in which Cyrus met his fate in a fierce battle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm and Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe regions of modern-day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, following the advice of Croesus to attack them in their own territory.[28] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x931, 617 KB)[edit] Description Tomb of Cyrus II of Persia at Pasargadae. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x931, 617 KB)[edit] Description Tomb of Cyrus II of Persia at Pasargadae. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... The Kyzyl Kum (Uzbek: red sand; also called Qyzylqum) is a desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ...


The Massagetae were related to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot. In order to acquire her realm, Cyrus first sent an offer of marriage to their ruler Tomyris, a proposal she rejected. He then commenced his attempt to take Massagetae territory by force, beginning by building bridges and towered war boats along his side of the river Araxes, or Sry Dara, which separated them. Sending him a warning to cease his encroachment in which she stated she expected he would disregard anyway, Tomyris challenged him to meet her forces in honorable warfare, inviting him to a location in her country a day's march from the river, where their two armies would formally engage each other. He accepted her offer, but, learning that the Massagetae were unfamiliar with wine and its intoxicating effects, he set up and then left camp with plenty of it behind, taking his best soldiers with him and leaving the least capable ones. Tomyris's army general son Spargapises and 1/3 of the Massagetian troops killed the group Cyrus had left there, and, finding the camp well-stocked with food and the wine, unwittingly drank themselves into inebriation, diminishing their capability to defend themselves when they were then overtaken by a surprise attack. They were successfully defeated, and although he was taken prisoner, Spargapises committed suicide once he regained sobriety. Upon learning of what had transpired, Tomyris denounced Cyrus' tactics as underhanded and swore vengeance, leading a second wave of troops into battle herself. Cyrus was ultimately killed and his forces suffered massive casualties in what Herodotus referred to as the fiercest battle of his career, and the ancient world. When it was over, Tomyris ordered the body of Cyrus brought to her, then decapitated him and dipped his head in a vessel of blood, in a symbolic gesture of revenge for his bloodlust and the death of her son.[29][30] Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Tomyris was, according to Herodotus, a queen of the Massagetae. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


An alternative account from Xenophon's Cyropaedia contradicts the others, claiming that Cyrus died peaceably at his capital..[31] Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


Tomb

http://www.persiandna.com/images/tomb.jpg Cyrus' remains were supposedly interred in the city of Pasargadae, where today a tomb still exists which many believe to be his. Both Strabo and Arrian give descriptions of the tomb, based on eyewitness reports from the time of Alexander the Great's invasion. Though the city itself is now in ruins, the burial place of Cyrus the Great has remained largely intact; and the tomb has been partially restored to counter its natural deterioration over the years. According to Plutarch, his epitaph said, Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...

O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know you will come, I am Cyrus who won the Persians their empire. Do not therefore grudge me this little earth that covers my body.[32]

Cuneiform evidence from Babylon proves that Cyrus died in August 530 BC{,[5] and that his son Cambyses II had become king. His younger son, Smerdis, died before Cambyses left to invade the eastern front. From Herodotus' account, Cambyses killed his brother to avoid a rebellion in his absence. Cambyses continued his father's policy of expansion, and managed to capture Egypt for the Empire, but soon died after only seven years of rule. An imposter named Gaumata, claiming to be Smerdis, became the sole ruler of Persia for seven months, until he was killed by Darius the Great. Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Darius I the Great (c. ...


Iran is planning on submerging the tomb of King Cyrus (Coresh), the Persian King known for authorizing the Jewish exiles to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Holy Temple. According to a report by Omedia, an Iranian organization is demanding that the International Criminal Court take action against those responsible. The Iranian ayatollahs are planning on destroying the tomb as part of a general campaign to sever the Persian people from their non-Islamic heritage; Cyrus was thought to be a Zoroastrian and was one of the first rulers to enforce a policy of religious tolerance on his huge kingdom. Journalist Ran Porat quoted a young Iranian who said that the measures being taken by the Islamic Republic's regime include the destruction of archaeological sites significant to this heritage." The government is in the final stages of constructing a dam in southern Iran that will submerge the archaeological sites of Pasargad and Persopolis - the ancient capital of the Persian Empire," the report states. "The site, which is considered exceptional in terms of its archaeological wealth and historical importance, houses the tomb of the Persian King Cyrus." Cyrus, who lived from 576-530 BCE, liberated Babylonian Jews from their exile in the famous Declaration of Cyrus (mentioned in the book of Ezra in both Hebrew and Aramaic). A group of Iranian academics opposed to the regime's policies founded a group called the Pasargad Heritage Foundation with hopes of getting the United Nations involved in protecting the historical site. Most recently, the foundation filed a petition with the International Criminal Court against the Iranian official in charge of maintaining the sites, charging him and his bureau with "crimes against humanity, due to the systematic state-sanctioned destruction of the culture of the ancient Iranian world and its historical heritage ([7])."


Cyrus was praised in the Tanach (Isaiah 45:1-6), though he was also criticized for believing the false report of the Cuthites, who wanted to halt the building of the Second Temple. They accused the Jews of conspiring to rebel, so Cyrus in turn stopped the construction of the temple, which would not be completed until 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, the grandson of Queen Esther.


Legacy

Cyrus the Great allowed the Hebrew exiles to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Cyrus the Great allowed the Hebrew exiles to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.

Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as a soldier. By pursuing a policy of generosity instead of repression, and by favoring local religions, he was able to make his newly conquered subjects into enthusiastic supporters.[33] Due in part to the political infrastructure he created, the Achaemenid empire endured long after his demise. Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ... Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ... This article is about the Hebrew people. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...


The rise of Persia under Cyrus's rule had a profound impact on the course of world history. Persian philosophy, literature and religion all played dominant roles in world events for the next millennia. Despite the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century CE by the Islamic Caliphate (Arab Empire), Persia continued to exercise enormous influence in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, and was particularly instrumental in the growth and expansion of Islam. Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... For the religion in the country of Iran, see Religion in Iran The cultural continent of Greater Iran. ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Many of the dynasties that followed the Achaemenids (Seleucid, Sassanid, Pahlavi) have claimed to continue the line begun by Cyrus. Mohammad Reza Shah celebrated the 2500th anniversary of the Iranian monarchy in 1971, though it would be toppled a mere eight years later. Even some today consider him equal, if not greater than Alexander the Great, in size and scope. The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Religion

The only known example of his religious policy is his treatment of the Jews in Babylon. The Bible records that a remnant of the Jewish population returned to the Promised Land from Babylon, following an edict from Cyrus to rebuild the temple. This edict is fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra. As a result of Cyrus' policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. He is the only Gentile to be designated as a messiah, a divinely-appointed king, in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:1-6). However, at the time, there was also Jewish criticism of him after he was lied to by the Cuthites, who wanted to halt the building of the Second Temple. They accused the Jews of conspiring to rebel, so Cyrus in turn stopped the construction of the temple, which would not be completed until 516 BC, during the reign of Darius the Great.[34] Cyrus the Great figures in the Old Testament as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The word gentile is an anglicised version of the Latin word gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe. ... Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , Aramaic/Syriac: , ; Arabic: ‎, ) Literally, Messiah means The Anointed (One), typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A stone (2. ...


Some contemporary Muslim scholars have suggested that the Qur'anic figure of Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the Great. This theory was proposed by Sunni scholar Abul Kalam Azad and endorsed by Shi'a scholars Allameh Tabatabaei, in his Tafsir al-Mizan and Makarem Shirazi and Sunni scholar Abul Ala Maududi.[35] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (Urdu: ابو الاعلى مودودی, Arabic: أبو الأعلى المودودي; alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, and Mawdudi) (September 25, 1903) - September 22, 1979),[1] also known as Mawlana (Maulana) Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi, is considered an influential Islamic thinker of the 20th century. ...


Politics and philosophy

During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast region of conquered kingdoms, achieved partly through retaining and expanding Median satrapies. Further organization of newly conquered territories into provinces ruled by vassal kings called satraps, was continued by Cyrus' successor Darius the Great. Cyrus' empire demanded only tribute and conscripts from many parts of the realm. Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Russian prince Taking Tribute, by Nicholas Roerich, 1908 (Moscow). ...


Cyrus' conquests began a new era in the age of empire building, where a vast superstate, comprising many dozens of countries, races, religions, and languages, were ruled under a single administration headed by a central government. This system lasted for centuries, and was retained both by the invading Seleucid dynasty during their control of Persia, and later Iranian dynasties including the Persian Parthians and Sassanids.[36] A superstate is an agglomeration of nations, often linguistically and ethnically diverse, under a single political-administrative structure. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...


In 1992, he was ranked #87 on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. On December 10, 2003, in her acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi evoked Cyrus, saying: Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Shirin Ebadi at a press conference in November 2005. ...

I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2,500 years ago that he 'would not reign over the people if they did not wish it.' He promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should be studied in the history of human rights.[37]

Cyrus' legacy has been felt even as far away as Iceland[38] and colonial America. Many of the forefathers of the United States of America sought inspiration from Cyrus the Great through works such as Cyropaedia. Thomas Jefferson, for example, had two personal copies of the book, "which was a mandatory read for statesmen alongside Machiavelli's The Prince."[39] For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Cyropaedia (lit. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ...


In a recent segment of ABC's Nightline with Ted Koppel, Ted Koppel mentioned Cyrus the Great, when he was talking about the new documentary film being made in his honor, and had this to say of him: The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Nightline is a late-night hard and soft news program broadcast by ABC in the United States, and has a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world. ... Photo by Bob DAmico/ABC Ted Koppel, anchor of the ABC News program Nightline. ...


“Cyrus the Great is genuinely one of history's towering figures. America's own founders such as Thomas Jefferson were influenced by Cyrus the Great in the field of Human Rights.”[40][41] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Cyrus Cylinder

The Cyrus Cylinder artifact was inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform at Cyrus' command after his conquest of Babylon.
The Cyrus Cylinder artifact was inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform at Cyrus' command after his conquest of Babylon.
United Nations Under-Secretary General Shashi Tharoor with replica of the Cyrus Cylinder at UN headquarters, New York
United Nations Under-Secretary General Shashi Tharoor with replica of the Cyrus Cylinder at UN headquarters, New York
Main article: Cyrus Cylinder

The cylinder has been considered as the world's first known charter of human rights, as there are passages in the text have been interpreted as expressing Cyrus’ respect for humanity. It promotes a form of religious tolerance and freedom,.[42] He allowed his subjects to continue worshipping their gods, despite his own religious beliefs, and he even restored the temples of foreign gods.[43] In 1971, the United Nations published a translation of the document in all the official U.N. languages. A replica of the Cyrus Cylinder has reportedly been on display at United Nations headquarters in New York City as a tribute to Cyrus' display of respect and tolerance.[44] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Young Shashi Tharoor Shashi Tharoor (Born 9 March 1956 in London) was the official candidate of India for the succession to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2006, and came second out of seven official candidates in the race. ... This article is about the state. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Nevertheless, some scholars have rejected this view, arguing that the concept of human rights is alien to the historical context.[45]


Family tree

Further information: the full Achaemenid family tree
 
 
 
Achaemenes
King of Persia*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Teispes
King of Persia*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ariaramnes
Ruler of Persia*
 
Cyrus I
Ruler of Anshan*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arsames
Ruler of Persia*
 
Cambyses I
Ruler of Anshan*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hystaspes
Prince
 
Cyrus II
King of Persia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Darius I
King of Persia
 
Cambyses II
King of Persia
 
Smerdis
Prince (imposter Gaumata ruled as Smerdis*)
 
Artystone
Princess
 
Atossa
Princess
 
 
 
* Unconfirmed rulers, due to the Behistun Inscription.
Cyrus the Great
Born: c. 590 BC or 576 BC Died: 529 BC
Preceded by
Cambyses I
King of Persia
559 BC–529 BC
Succeeded by
Cambyses II
Preceded by
Astyages
King of Media
550 BC–529 BC

This article is about Achaemenes, legendary founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Arsames (Old Persian Aršâma) was the son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler with Cambyses I. His name in the Greek sources is . ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Hystaspes (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa) can refer to two individuals: A semi-legendary king (kava), praised by Zoroaster as his protector and a true believer, son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp). ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Smerdis (also Bardia) was the son of Cyrus the Great whose name was allegedly usurped by an impostor, a magian reportedly named Gaumata. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Atossa or Hutaosa (550 BC-475 BC) was a Queen consort of Persia. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004). Achaemenid Inscriptions lrm;, 2nd edition (in Persian), Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications, page 19. ISBN 964-358-015-6. 
  2. ^ Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP). Old Persian: Grammar, Text, Glossary, translated into Persian by S. Oryan (in Persian), page 393. ISBN 964-421-045-X. 
  3. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis I. IX; see also M.A. Dandamaev "Cyrus II", in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  4. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie [1995]. "13", The Ancient Near East: C. 3000-330 BC. Routledge, pp. 647. ISBN 0-4151-6762-0. 
  5. ^ a b Cyrus' date of death can be deduced from the last reference to his own reign (a tablet from Borsippa dated to 12 August 530 BC) and the first reference to the reign of his son Cambyses (a tablet from Babylon dated to 31 August); see R.A. Parker and W.H. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology 626 B.C. - A.D. 75, 1971.)
  6. ^ ; Plutarch, Artaxerxes 1. 3 [1]; Photius, Epitome of Ctesias' Persica 52 [2]
  7. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger, Encyclopædia Iranica. Cyrus; The Name, p. 515516 (PDF).
  8. ^ Amélie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East: C.3000 - 330 BC, Routledge Publishers, 1995, p.661, ISBN 0415167620
  9. ^ This is the traditional view, based on the Behistun Inscription and Herodotus. However, some scholars consider that Cyrus was unrelated with Achaemenes or Darius the Great, calling Cyrus' family Teispid instead of Achaemenid; see M. Waters, "Cyrus and the Achaemenids", Iran 42, 2004 (Achemenet.com > ressources > sous presse), with previous bibliography.
  10. ^ Shahbazi, A. Sh., Encyclopædia Iranica. Arsama, p. 546 (PDF).
  11. ^ M. Dandamaev, "Cambyses I". In spite of Herodotus' statements, Cambyses reign is attested in some Cyrus Babylonian inscriptions.
  12. ^ "It seems inevitable to assume that Astyages had another wife. [...] According to Ctesias of Cnidus, their son Cyrus married a daughter of Astyages. That would be his aunt, which is most unusual." [3]
  13. ^ Jona Lendering, Cyrus (Old Persian Kuruš; Hebrew Kores): founder of the Achaemenid empire. // Herodotus Historias 3. 2, 30; Behistun 1. 29-30. The Behistun Inscription just states that Cambyses and Smerdis were full brothers, but doesn't mentions Cassandane.
  14. ^ Artystone: Queen of Persia, married to Darius I the Great.
  15. ^ Atossa: Daughter of the Persian king Cyrus the Great.
  16. ^ Most sources give either 576 BC or 590 BC as Cyrus' birth year; a conclusive answer is not fully clear.
  17. ^ a b c Harpagus: Median general, 'kingmaker' of the Persian king Cyrus the Great.
  18. ^ Stories of the East From Herodotus, Chapter V: The Birth and Bringing Up of Cyrus, p. 66–72.
  19. ^ Stories of the East From Herodotus, p. 79–80
  20. ^ Stories of the East From Herodotus, Chapter VI: Cyrus Overthroweth Astyages and Taketh the Kingdom to Himself, p. 84.
  21. ^ Rollinger, Robert, "The Median "Empire", the End of Urartu and Cyrus' the Great Campaign in 547 B.C."; Lendering, Jona, "The End of Lydia: 547?".
  22. ^ a b Herodotus, The Histories, Book I, 440 BC. Translated by George Rawlinson.
  23. ^ Croesus: Fifth and last king of the Mermnad dynasty.
  24. ^ Tolini, Gauthier, Quelques éléments concernant la prise de Babylone par Cyrus, Paris. "Il est probable que des négociations s’engagèrent alors entre Cyrus et les chefs de l’armée babylonienne pour obtenir une reddition sans recourir à l’affrontement armé." p. 10 (PDF)
  25. ^ The Harran Stelae H2 - A, and the Nabonidus Chronicle (Seventeenth year) show that Nabonidus had been in Babylon before October 10, 539, because he had already returned from Harran and had participated in the Akitu of Nissanu 1 [April 4], 539 BCE).
  26. ^ Missler, Chuck, The Fall of Babylon Versus The Destruction of Babylon, p. 2 (PDF)
  27. ^ Ancient History Sourcebook: Cyrus the Great: The Decree of Return for the Jews, The Cyrus Cylinder.
  28. ^ [4] "Ancient History Sourcebook: Herodotus: Queen Tomyris of the Massagetai and the Defeat of the Persians under Cyrus"
  29. ^ Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae, Defeats Cyrus the Great in Battle Herodotus, The Histories
  30. ^ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/tomyris.html Ancient History Sourcebook: Herodotus: Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae and the Defeat of the Persians under Cyrus]
  31. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia VII. 7; M.A. Dandamaev, "Cyrus II", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, p. 250. See also H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg "Cyropaedia", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, on the reliability of Xenophon's account.
  32. ^ Life of Alexander, 69, in Plutarch: The Age of Alexander, translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert (Penguin Classics, 1973), p.326.
  33. ^ Schaff, Philip, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III, Cyrus the Great
  34. ^ Goldwurm, Hersh (1982). History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era. ArtScroll, pp. 26. ISBN 0-8990-6454-X. 
  35. ^ Dhul-Qarnayn: Encyclopedia - Dhul-Qarnayn
  36. ^ Wilcox, Peter; MacBride, Angus (1986). Rome's Enemies: Parthians And Sassanid Persians. Osprey Publishing, pp. 14. ISBN 0850456886. 
  37. ^ Nobel acceptance speech by Shirin Ebadi, "All Human Beings Are To Uphold Justice" (translated); accessed 24 August 2006. (The quote is not authentic.)
  38. ^ Jakob Jonson: "Cyrus the Great in Icelandic epic: A literary study". Acta Iranica. 1974: 49-50
  39. ^ Interview with Cliff Rogers, United States Military Academy Link: [5]
  40. ^ Ted Koppel, ABC's Nightline
  41. ^ See last 3 minutes of the videoclip to view Ted Koppel's statement: Link: [6]
  42. ^ WHAT IS NEW HORIZONS AND WHY, Center For Inquiry West (CFI) Website, Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  43. ^ The Forgotten Empire; the World of Ancient Persia, The British Museum Website; Retrieved January 12, 2007
  44. ^ United Nations Press Release 14 October 1971 (SG/SM/1553/HQ263).
  45. ^ A. Kuhrt "The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid imperial policy" in Journal of Studies of the Old Testament 25 pp. 83-97; B. van der Spek, "Did Cyrus the Great introduce a new policy towards subdued nations? Cyrus in Assyrian perspective" in Persica 10 pp. 273-285; M. Dandamaev A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, pp. 52-53; J. Wisehöfer, Ancient Persia from 550 BC to 650 AD, 2006 1996, p. 82.

The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Photius (b. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Nabonidus Chronicle records the events during the rule of the last king of Babylonia (King Nabonidus) before the Persian king Cyrus conquered the kingdom in October 539 BCE. However the Chronicles are currently damaged, leaving many blanks and spaces (or lacunas) throughout the script. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... USMA redirects here. ... Photo by Bob DAmico/ABC Ted Koppel, anchor of the ABC News program Nightline. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Nightline is a late-night hard and soft news program broadcast by ABC in the United States, and has a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world. ... Photo by Bob DAmico/ABC Ted Koppel, anchor of the ABC News program Nightline. ...

References

Ancient sources

Modern sources The Cyrus Cylinder. ... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Nabonidus Chronicle records the events during the rule of the last king of Babylonia (King Nabonidus) before the Persian king Cyrus conquered the kingdom in October 539 BCE. However the Chronicles are currently damaged, leaving many blanks and spaces (or lacunas) throughout the script. ... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Babylonian Chronicles are series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Cyropaedia (lit. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

  • Moorey, P.R.S., The Biblical Lands, VI. Peter Bedrick Books, New York (1991). ISBN 0-87226-247-2
  • Frye, Richard N., The Heritage of Persia. Weidenfeld and Nicolson (1962), 40, 43-4, 46-7, 70, 75, 78-90, 93, 104, 108, 122, 127, 206-7. ISBN 1-56859-008-3
  • Olmstead, A. T., History of the Persian Empire [Achaemenid Period]. University of Chicago Press (1948). ISBN 0-226-62777-2
  • Palou, Christine; Palou, Jean, La Perse Antique. Presses Universitaires de France (1962).
  • Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991, Christian Settipani, p. 146, 152 and 157

Christian Settipani (born January 31, 1961) is the Technical Director of an IT company in the Paris area. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Iran Chamber Society

Other

Persondata
NAME Cyrus the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cyrus II of Persia; Cyrus the Elder; Kourosh
SHORT DESCRIPTION Achaemenid Shah of Persia
DATE OF BIRTH 576 or 590 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Anshan, Persian Empire
DATE OF DEATH July 529 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Along the Syr Darya

This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase the Great, or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. ... Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng Ramkhamhaeng the Great (c. ... King Naresuan the Great (1555 - April 25, 1605, also sometimes called Naret or the Black Prince, Thai สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช) was king of Siam (today Thailand) from 1590 until his death in 1605. ... King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... This article is about a Siamese king. ... His Majesty King Rama I of Siam (portrait in the National History Museum, Bangkok) Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke or Rama I the Great, was king of Thailand from 1782 to 1809. ... King Chulalongkorn the Great or Rama V (royal name: Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua; Thai: ) (September 20, 1853 – October 23, 1910) was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty of Thailand. ... Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ; IPA: ; Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;  ) (born Saturday,December 5, 1927 in the Year of the Rabbit), is the current King of Thailand. ... Birth name Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... King Mengrai (or Mangrai) (1239-1317) was the founder of the Lao kingdom Lannathai. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan AnÅ¡an or Anzan (Persian انشان AnÅ¡an, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... Persia redirects here. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cyrus Charter of Human Rights - First Charter of Right of Nations - Cyrus Cylinder of he Rights of Nations, First ... (3753 words)
Cyrus had no thought of forcing conquered people into a single mould, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Persian Crown.
Cyrus the Great is the founding father of Persia and the mighty Persian Empire.
For his acts of kindness, Cyrus the Great is immortalized in the Bible in several passages and called "the anointed of the Lord".
The Father and Liberator; Cyrus the Great - (CAIS) (2285 words)
However, according to Herodotus, Cyrus was killed near the Aral Sea in July or August 529BCE during a campaign to protect the north­eastern borders of his empire from incursions by the Massagetae.
Cyrus the Great is famed as a triumphant conqueror, a superb warrior, and the founder of the greatest empire the world has ever seen.
Cyrus was also eulogized by many other writers and his actual or legendary exploits were used as moral instruction or as a source of inspiration for political philosophies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m