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Encyclopedia > Cyrus II of Persia
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Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca. 576 – July 529 BC) founded the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid Dynasty of Anshan by unifying two Iranian tribes: the Medes and the Persians. He is perhaps best known for having declared the first ever charter of human rights (the Cyrus Cylinder) where he identifies himself as "King of Persia". Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??)language, هخامنشی - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) was an Iranian dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over... Anshan (or Anzan, in Persian انشان, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Indo-Iranian origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... The Persians of Iran (which was named Persia until 1935) are an Iranian people who speak the Farsi dialect of Persian and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university or institution. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Cyrus Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay Aryan language (Old Persian) cuneiform cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ...

Contents


Background

The name "Cyrus" (a Latin transliteration of the Greek Κῦρος) is the Greek version of the Old Persian Koroush or Khorvash, [in Persian khour means "sun" and vash is a suffix meaning "like"]. In modern Persian, Cyrus is referred to as Kouroush Bozorg — his Persian name with the Persian-derived "Great"). The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Persian (فارسی / پارسی), (local name in Iran/Persia, Afghanistan and Tajikistan: ‘Fârsi’), ‘Pârsi’ (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, western Pakistan, Bahrain, and elsewhere. ...


Cyrus, the son of a Persian noble and a Mede princess, was from the Achaemenid Dynasty, which ruled the kingdom of Anshan, in what is now southwestern Iran. Cyrus had two sons: Cambyses and Smerdis, as well as several daughters, of whom Atossa is significant since she married Darius I of Persia and was mother of Xerxes I of Persia. Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??)language, هخامنشی - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) was an Iranian dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over... Anshan (or Anzan, in Persian انشان, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... Cambyses or Cambese is Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Atossa (or Hutaosa) born 550 BC † 475 BC, was a queen of Persia. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Old Persian DārayawuÅ¡: He Who Holds Firm the Good), was the son of Hystaspes and Persian Emperor from 521 BC to 485 BC. His name in Modern Persian is داریوش (D... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ...


The king of Persia

In 559 BC, Cyrus succeeded his father Cambyses the Elder as King of Anshan. He apparently also soon managed to succeed Arsames to the throne of Persia though the latter was still living. Arsames was father of Hystaspes and would live to see his grandson become King Darius I of Persia. However, Cyrus was not yet an independent ruler. Like his predecessors before him, Cyrus had to recognize Median overlordship. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Anshan (or Anzan, in Persian انشان, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... Arsames was King of Persia, but while still alive gave up the thone to Cyrus II of Persia. ... Hystaspes (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa) can refer to two individuals: A semi-legendary king (kava), praised by Zoroaster as his protector and a true believer, son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp). ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Old Persian Dārayawuš: He Who Holds Firm the Good), was the son of Hystaspes and Persian Emperor from 521 BC to 485 BC. His name in Modern Persian is داریوش (D...


In his Histories, Herodotus gives a detailed description of the rise to power of Cyrus according to the best sources available to him. According to Herodotus, Cyrus was said to be part-Persian (Parsua) and part Mede and his overlord was his own grandfather Astyages who had conquered all Assyrian kingdoms apart from Babylonia. After the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign of an eventual overthrow by his grandson. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant Cyrus. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn, switched the baby with a stillborn child and reported Cyrus dead. Many years later, when Astyages discovered that his grandson was still alive, he ordered that the son of Harpagus be beheaded and served to his father on a dinner platter. Harpagus, seeking vengeance, convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people -- then in a state of vassalage to the Medes -- to revolt ca. 554 BC553 BC. Between 550 BC549 BC, with the help of Harpagus, Cyrus led the Persians and his armies to capture Ecbatana, and effectively conquered Media. While he seems to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BC he had officially assumed the title of 'king of Persia'. Thus the Persians gained dominion over the Iranian plateau. Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Indo-Iranian origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Astyages This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article concerns the Assyrian people. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Magi (Μάγοι) were Zoroastrian astrologer-priests from ancient Persia. ... Harpagus was a Median general in the 6th century BC. A courtier to Astyages, he is called the kingmaker for his defection to Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great), and, as such, is credited with having put Cyrus II on the throne. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Ecbatana (Hañgmatana in Old Persian, Agbatana in Aeschylus, written Agamtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun) was the capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), which was taken by Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidos (549 BC). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... The Iranian plateau covers much of Iran and Afghanistan. ...


Cyrus' wars

Cyrus' wars were only just beginning. Astyages had been in alliance with his brother-in-law Croesus of Lydia (son of Alyattes), Nabonidus of Babylon, and Amasis II of Egypt. These reportedly intended to unite their armies against Cyrus and his Persians. But before the allies could unite, Cyrus defeated Croesus at Pterium and captured him, and occupied his capital at Sardis -- overthrowing the Lydian kingdom (546 BC). According to Herodotus, Cyrus spared Croesus' life and kept him as an advisor. An alliance can be: an agreement between two parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. ... Croesus (the Latin transliteration of the Greek Kροισος, in Persian قارون Qârun), who was legendary for his enormous wealth, was king of Lydia from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. He was the son of Alyattes and continued his fathers policy of conquering... Lydia was an ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, known to Homer as Mæonia. ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabu-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who reigned from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in his region. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32°32′11″ N 44°25′15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Amasis II (also Ahmose or Ah-mes) was a pharaoh (570 - 526 BC) of the 26th dynasty, the successor of Wahibre. ... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ...


In 538 BC, Cyrus defeated Nabonidus at Opis and occupied Babylon. According to the Babylonian inscription, this was probably a bloodless victory. Cyrus assumed the titles of 'king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four sides of the world'. Judging from the countries listed as subject to his successor Darius on the first tablet of the great Behistun Inscription (written before any new conquests could have been made other than Egypt), Cyrus' dominions must have comprised the largest empire the world had yet seen -- stretching from Asia Minor and Judah in the west, as far as the Indus valley in the east. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Originally a Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, (located in present-day Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Judah (יְהוּדָה Praise, Standard Hebrew YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew YÉ™hûḏāh) is the name of several Biblical and historical figures. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Administration of the Empire

Cyrus organized the empire into provincial administrations called satrapies. The administrators of these provinces, called satraps, had considerable independence from the emperor, and from many parts of the realm Cyrus demanded no more than tribute and conscripts. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ...

 Cyrus Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
Cyrus Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cyrus Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay Aryan language (Old Persian) cuneiform cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon. ... A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university or institution. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

The Cyrus Cylinder: World's first charter of human rights

Upon his taking of Babylon, Cyrus issued a declaration, inscribed on a clay barrel known as the Cyrus Cylinder, and containing an account of his victories and merciful acts, as well as a documentation of his royal lineage. It was discovered in 1879 in Babylon, and today is kept in the British Museum. Many historians consider it to be the first declaration of human rights. A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university or institution. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Cyrus Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay Aryan language (Old Persian) cuneiform cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum in London is the United Kingdoms - and one of the worlds - largest and most important museums of human history and culture. ...


The royal history given on the cylinder is as follows: The founder of the dynasty was King Achaemenes (ca. 700 BC) who was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan. Inscriptions indicate that when the latter died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus I of Anshan and Ariaramnes of Persia. They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan and Arsames of Persia. Cambyses is considered by Herodotus and Ctesias to be of humble origin. But they also consider him as being married to Princess Mandane of Media (ماد), a daughter of Astyages, King of the Medes and Princess Aryenis of Lydia. Cyrus II was the result of this union. This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Teispes was the son of Achaemenes. ... Cyrus I was King of Anshan from c. ... Ariaramnes (Old Persian Ariyâramna, Peace of the Aryans) was an uncle of Cyrus the Great, probably a great-uncle and the king of Persia. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Arsames (Old Persian Aršâma) was the son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler with Cambyses I. His name in the Greek sources is . ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... This article is about the noble title. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Astyages This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Indo-Iranian origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... This article is about the noble title. ...


Death of Cyrus

Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
Reconstruction of the Tomb of Cyrus the Great
Reconstruction of the Tomb of Cyrus the Great

Cyrus died in battle, but the Achaemenid empire was to reach its zenith long after his death. According to Herodotus, Cyrus met his death in a battle with the Massagetae -- a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm and Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe region. The queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, prevailed after Cyrus had previously defeated Tomyris' son Spargapises. The Massagetae were related to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot. Ctesias reports only that Cyrus met his death in the year 529 BC, while warring against tribes northeast of the headwaters of the Tigris. He was buried in the town of Pasargadae. Both Strabo and Arrian give descriptions of his tomb, based on reports of men who saw it at the time of Alexander the Great's invasion. Pasargadae File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pasargadae File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Reconstruction of the Tomb of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Reconstruction of the Tomb of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Massagetae were an Iranian people of antiquity. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (from Russian step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are... Tomyris was, according to Herodotus, a queen of the Massagetae. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Aramaic Assyrian: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Tomb of Cyrus II Pasargadae was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archeological site. ... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c 92-c 175), known in English as Arrian, was a Roman historian. ... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ...


Cyrus' Legacy

Enlarge
Cyrus II allowing Hebrew pilgrims to return to and rebuild Jerusalem

Cyrus was distinguished no less as statesman than as a soldier. His statesmanship was particularly evident in his treatment of newly conquered peoples. By pursuing a policy of generosity instead of repression, and by favoring local religions, he was able to make his new subjects into enthusiastic supporters. A good example of this policy is his treatment of the Jews in Babylon. The Bible records that a remnant of the Jewish population returned to the Promised Land from Babylon, following an edict from Cyrus to rebuild the Temple, fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra. Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ... Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ...


Cyrus' spectacular conquests continued the age of empire building, established by his predecessors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, and carried out by his successors, including the Greeks and Romans. His exploits, real and legendary, were used as moral instruction or as a source of inspiration for political philosophies.


The Cyropaedia of Xenophon, based on the latter's knowledge of the great king's upbringing, was an influential political treatise in ancient times, and again during the Renaissance. Cyropaedia (lit. ... Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance *French Renaissance *German Renaissance *English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


The English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne named his 1658 discourse after the benevolent ruler. Entitled The Garden of Cyrus, it may well be a Royalist criticism upon the autocratic rule of Cromwell. Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 - October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... The Garden of Cyrus or The Quincuniall, or Lozenge, or Network Plantations of the Ancients, naturally, artificially, mystically considered is a work written by Sir Thomas Browne. ... Cromwell is the name of the following places: Cromwell, New Zealand Cromwell, Connecticut, United States of America Cromwell, Indiana, United States of America Cromwell, Iowa, United States of America Cromwell, Minnesota, United States of America Cromwell Township, Minnesota, United States of America Cromwell Township, Pennsylvania, United States of America People...


Cyrus was still being cited in the twenty-first century. In accepting her 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi said: (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2001-2100. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes requested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Shirin Ebadi Shirin Ebadi (Persian: شیرین عبادی; born June 21, 1947) is an Iranian lawyer and human rights activist. ...

I am an Iranian. A descendant of Cyrus The Great. The very emperor who proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2500 years ago that "... he would not reign over the people if they did not wish it." And [he] promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus The Great is one of the most important documents that should be studied in the history of human rights.


Preceded by:
Camyses I
King of Persia
559–529
Succeeded by:
Cambyses II
Preceded by:
Astyages
Great King of Media
550–529
Succeeded by:
Cambyses II


Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: == ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Astyages This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: == ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ...


See also

Cyrus the Great figures in the Old Testament as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ...

External links

  • Seder Olam Rabbah (part 2) - Solomon's Temple, and Zerrubabel
  • A more detailed profile of him
  • Cyrus' Cylinder, The First Charter of Human Rights - See the cuneiform, read a translation.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Persia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1898 words)
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus, did away with Smerdis, another son of Cyrus, in order to have unchallenged power, but when Cambyses was absent on a successful raid into Egypt, an imposter claiming to be Smerdis appeared, and usurped the throne.
The religion of Persia itself was Zoroastrianism, and the unity of Persia may be attributed in part to the unifying effect of that broadly established faith.
After Alexander the Great’s death, Persia fell for the most part to Seleucus I and his successors (the Seleucids), but their grasp on the vast territories was weak administratively, although they did introduce a vital Hellenistic culture, mingling Greek with Persian elements.
Persian Empire, Persopolis - Crystalinks (2708 words)
Persia's earliest known kingdom was the proto-Elamite Empire, followed by the Medes; but it is the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians.
Cyrus rallied the Persians together, and in 550 BC defeated the forces of Astyages, who was then captured by his own nobles and turned over to the triumphant Cyrus, now Shah of the Persian kingdom.
Cyrus was killed during a battle against the Massagetae or Sakas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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