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Encyclopedia > Cyprus reunification referendum, 2004
Cyprus

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This article is part of the series:
Politics of Cyprus,
Subseries of the Politics series General info: Large flag of Cyprus Dimensions: 503x302 pixels Source: Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook License: Originally public domain, modifications under GFDL Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. ... This entry is about politics of Cyprus, especially the island of Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. ... Look up Politics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political...

Cyprus dispute
Reunification referendum The Cyprus Dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ...

President: Tassos Papadopoulos
Political parties
Elections in Cyprus
Foreign relations of Cyprus

The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος in Greek) born January 7, 1934) is the president of The Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ... Political parties in Cyprus lists political parties in this country. ... Elections in Cyprus gives information on election and election results in Cyprus. ... Cyprus has historically followed a non-aligned foreign policy, although it increasingly identifies with the West in its cultural affinities and trade patterns, and maintains close relations with Greece. ...

Northern Cyprus

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus(TRNC) {NOTE: the name is not accepted by UN} , in Turkish Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, is a self-proclaimed state occupying the northern third of the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Politics of Northern Cyprus
Constitution
President: Mehmet Ali Talat
Prime Minister: Ferdi Sabit Soyer
Political parties in TRNC
Elections in TRNC
Foreign Relations of TRNC
Since 1974, Cyprus has been divided de facto into the internationally recognized southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which controls the northern one-third of the island. ... M.A. Talat, President of TRNC Mehmet Ali Talat (July 6, 1952) is the President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a wannabe de facto state which controls the northern third of the island of Cyprus (which is considered a puppet of the Turkish Army by the internationally-recognized... F.S. Soyer, TRNC PM Ferdi Sabit Soyer (b. ... Political parties in Cyprus lists political parties in this country. ... Northern Cyprus elects a president and a legislature. ... The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, due to its current unrecognized status internationally, has for most of its existence been dependent upon Turkey to facilitate its contacts with the outside world. ...

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The two sectors of the divided island of Cyprus held a referendum on reunification on 24 April 2004. Voters in the controlled area of Republic of Cyprus (whose claim to sovereignty over the entire island is almost universally acknowledged) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (a breakaway state created following the Greek coup d'état and Turkish invasion of 1974 and recognised solely by Turkey) were asked to choose between ratifying or rejecting a United Nations proposal for reunification called the Annan Plan. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people or oneself. ... Official language Turkish Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa) (35° 10′28″N, 33° 21′25″E) Founder Rauf DenktaÅŸ President Mehmet Ali Talat Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer House Speaker Fatma EkenoÄŸlu Area  - Total  - % water 3,355 km² 2. ... This article is about the History of Cyprus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to bring about the reunification of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic. ...

Contents


Results

Voting sectors Yes No  Turnout 
 Northern sector  64.90% 35.09% 87%
 Southern sector   24.17%   75.83%  88%


The participation in the referendum of post-1974 northen Cyprus settlers from mainland Turkey was disputed by many Greek Cypriots, but this was not deemed a matter of relevance to the referendum.


Since the Greek Cypriots did not approve the plan and implementation of the plan was dependent on its approval by both communities, the Annan Plan became null and void. That meant that, while officially the whole of Cyprus entered the European Union on 1 May 2004, the de facto EU border runs along the Green Line, dividing the country between the Greek Cypriot-ruled and Turkish Cypriot-ruled areas. EU law is currently not applied in the Turkish Cypriot-ruled north. Had the plan been ratified by both sides, Cyprus would have entered the EU as the United Cyprus Republic. May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Several demarcation lines are known as the Green Line: Israel: The Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 armistice line established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The Annan Plan was a rejected United Nations proposal to bring about the reunification of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic. ...


Reasons for rejection

Divided Cyprus
Enlarge
Divided Cyprus

The main reason for the 75 percent "no" vote among Greek Cypriots in the referendum was the general perception that the Annan Plan was unbalanced and excessively pro-Turkish, and that it would not safeguard Greek Cypriot rights in the north. Map of Cyprus from CIA World Factbook. ... Map of Cyprus from CIA World Factbook. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the Greek-speaking population of the island of Cyprus. ...


Political leaders in both controlled area of Republic of Cyprus and Greece also influenced the Greek Cypriot vote by strongly opposing the plan. Tassos Papadopoulos, president of the Republic of Cyprus, spoke out against the plan in an emotional speech broadcast live on television. Two days before the referendums, Cyprus's biggest party, AKEL, decided to reject the Annan Plan because of its perceived bias. List of Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis decided to maintain a "neutral" position over the plan, but the Greek opposition leader George Papandreou (of the PASOK party) urged Cypriots to vote in favour, also because the plan had been promoted by his political party while it was still on power and Mr. Papandreou himself was the foreign minister of Greece during the last PASOK term. Mr. Papandreou even stated that the plan was laid out during his term and that both parts were ready for "a final common agreement" before his party lost the elections. Mr. Papandreou's involvement in conceiving and negotating crucial points of the plan has been a source of controversy in Greece, at least during the referendum days. Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος in Greek) born January 7, 1934) is the president of The Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ... The Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) (Greek: Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού) is a socialist party in Cyprus. ... Costas Caramanlis Costas Caramanlis (in Greek Kostas or Konstantinos Karamanlis, Κωστας or Κωνσταντινος Καραμανλης) (born September 14, 1956) became Prime Minister of Greece on March 10, 2004 following his partys victory in the March 7 parliamentary elections. ... For George Papandreous grandfather, also called George Papandreou, see George Papandreou, senior. ... Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ...


Many Greek Cypriots opposed the plan as it meant endorsing a confederal state with a weak central government and considerable local autonomy, rather than the status quo ante of Greek Cypriot majority rule over a minority Turkish population. The plan would have cemented the division of Cyprus into two political entities and safeguarded the presence of settlers from mainland Turkey, both of which were felt to be illegitimate and unfair outcomes. Any solution other than a return to the status quo ante was deemed unacceptable by many Greek Cypriots, and opinion polls conducted over the entire period of the negotiations from start to finish had always shown around 80% opposition to the proposals. A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Look up Status quo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present current, existing state of affairs. ...


There were reservations over the fate of property or humanitarian disputes, which could no longer be brought before an International Court according to the plan, but would have to be settled by a third party set by the warrant forces. An embargo on weapon imports to the Greek Cypriot side, until the Turkish Cypriot side would be able to fully support itself also caused reservations among Greek Cypriots, in part because it did not apply to the Turkish forces.


On the Turkish Cypriot side, the plan was felt to be excessively pro-Greek, but most Turkish Cypriots were willing to accept it as a means of ending their prolonged international isolation and exclusion from the wider European economy. It was opposed by their leadership, with the Turkish Cypriot "president" Rauf Denktash actively advocating a no vote. However, his "Prime Minister" Mehmet Ali Talat favoured the plan's acceptance, while Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan also supported it. Turkey saw a resolution of the Cyprus issue as being an essential first step to eventual Turkish membership of the EU as well as a way of defusing tensions with Greece. Descendants of Turks who settled in Cyprus following the Ottoman conquest in 1571. ... The economy of Europe is comprised of more than 665 million people in 48 different states. ... Rauf R. DenktaÅŸ Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ (pronounced Denktash; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish Cypriot political leader. ... M.A. Talat, President of TRNC Mehmet Ali Talat (July 6, 1952) is the President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a wannabe de facto state which controls the northern third of the island of Cyprus (which is considered a puppet of the Turkish Army by the internationally-recognized... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954) became prime minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ...


The Grey Wolves (a Turkish right-wing nationalist group belonging to the MHP nationalist party) actively advocated a "no" vote. There were some limited riots caused by the Grey Wolves party activists against pro-ratification supporters during the pre-vote period. At least 50 such activists had arrived in northern Cyprus during the pre-voting period. However, the referendum itself passed off peacefully and was deemed free and fair. Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar in Turkish) is the common name for a member of the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP), a right-patriotic) movement founded by Alparslan TurkeÅŸ in 1961. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Nationalist Movement Party (Can also be translated as Natioanlist Action Party) (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi), far-right nationalist political party in Turkey. ...


Both sides also had reservations over the fate of property or humanitarian disputes, which could no longer be brought before an International Court according to the plan, but would have to be settled in Cyprus, within the EU.


Although the plan was published on 1 April 2004, it continued to be modified until only 24 hours before the referendum, enabling opponents to argue that people were being asked to vote on something they had not even seen and whose consequences could not be fully analysed. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reaction

TRNC "president" Rauf Denktash responded to the referendum outcome by declaring that, with the Annan Plan rejected, his "no" campaign had reached its objective. He rejected calls for his immediate resignation, but announced the following month that he would not be standing for a fifth presidential term in 2005. Republic of Cyprus president Tassos Papadopoulos, emphasised that his people had rejected just the Annan plan and not all solutions to the Cyprus problem. "They are not turning their backs on their Turkish Cypriot compatriots," he said soon after the results were declared. "They have simply rejected this particular solution on offer." Official language Turkish Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa) (35° 10′28″N, 33° 21′25″E) Founder Rauf DenktaÅŸ President Mehmet Ali Talat Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer House Speaker Fatma EkenoÄŸlu Area  - Total  - % water 3,355 km² 2. ... Rauf R. DenktaÅŸ Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ (pronounced Denktash; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish Cypriot political leader. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος in Greek) born January 7, 1934) is the president of The Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ...


There was varied reaction from Cyprus's Guarantor Powers, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that he believed the result spelled an end for Turkish Cypriot isolation, and that by rejecting the Annan Plan, "southern Cyprus (was) the loser". A spokesman for the Greek government stressed that efforts to reunite Cyprus should not be halted, pointing out that in the EU framework it is "in the interest of everyone to continue efforts to reconcile Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots". Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954) became prime minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ...


The British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw said, "We will respect the choice which Greek Cypriots have expressed today. But I hope that they will continue to reflect on whether this choice is the right one for them." The general international reaction to the result was similar to that of Britain: one of deep disappointment, particularly among those bodies that had worked on the Annan Plan and on EU accession arrangements. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Jack Straw The Right Honourable John Whitaker Jack Straw (born August 3, 1946, Buckhurst Hill) is a British Labour Party politician. ...

  • United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan: A unique and historic chance to resolve the Cyprus problem has been missed.
  • European Commission: The European Commission deeply regrets that the Greek Cypriot community did not approve the comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem, but it respects the democratic decision of the people.
  • US State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher: We are disappointed that a majority of Greek Cypriots voted against the settlement plan. Failure of the referendum in the Greek Cypriot community is a setback to the hopes of those on the island who voted for the settlement and to the international community.
  • European Commissioner for Enlargement Günter Verheugen: I feel cheated by the Greek Cypriot government... There is a shadow now over the accession of Cyprus. What we will seriously consider now is finding a way to end the economic isolation of the Turkish Cypriots.
  • UN Special Envoy Álvaro de Soto: This evening I'm biting my tongue.

Loukis Loukaides, the Cypriot judge on the European Court of Human Rights, has since called on Greek Cypriot political leaders to abandon the Annan Plan as a basis for negotiations, arguing that its basic philosophy violates fundamental human rights and the EU acquis communautaire. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat and the seventh and current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Richard Boucher is the name of at least two people: Rick Boucher - Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Virginia Richard A. Boucher - United States Department of State spokesman, and former Ambassador and diplomat. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive of the European Union. ... Günter Verheugen Günter Verheugen (born April 28, 1944, in Bad Kreuznach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) is a German and European politician. ... Álvaro de Soto (born 16 March 1943) is a Peruvian diplomat and a senior official of the United Nations. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights, often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints from Council of Europe member states. ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ...


See also

This article is about the History of Cyprus. ... The Cyprus Dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... The Enlargement of the European Union is the growth in size of the European Union, from the six founding member states in 1952, to the 25 current member states. ...

External link

  • The Annan plan: text and commentary from the UN
  • No to the Annan Plan: campaign against the Annan Plan
  • Oxi sto Sxedio Anan: campaign against the Annan Plan in Greek
  • The UN Annan Plan Proposal For the settlement of the Cyprus question: legal analysis of the Annan Plan
  • Le Monde Diplomatique: Implications for the "No" Vote in Cyprus
  • BBC News: prior to the vote
  • BBC News: results coverage
  • UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office: Press Release

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Cyprus (2292 words)
Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, Kýpros; Turkish: Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, Kypriakí Dimokratía, Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti) is a Eurasian island country in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey (Anatolia).
Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, Kýpros; Turkish: Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, Kypriakí Dimokratía; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is a Eurasian island nation in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian peninsula (Asia Minor) or modern-day Turkey.
Cyprus was placed under British control on 4 June 1878 as a result of the Cyprus Convention, which granted control of the island to Britain in return for British support of the Ottoman Empire in the Russian-Turkish War.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Cypriot Annan Plan referendum, 2004 (1500 words)
The peoples of Cyprus were asked to choose between ratifying or rejecting a 5th revision of a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute known as the Annan Plan for Cyprus.
Although the plan was published on 1 April 2004, it continued to be modified until only 24 hours before the referendum, enabling opponents to argue that people were being asked to vote on something they had not even seen and whose consequences could not be fully analysed.
Failure of the referendum in the Greek Cypriot community is a setback to the hopes of those on the island who voted for the settlement and to the international community.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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