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Encyclopedia > Cyprus dispute
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Cyprus

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Politics and government of
Cyprus
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Cyprus coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... This entry is about politics of Cyprus, especially the island of Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. ...


See also: The two major communities of the de facto divided island nation of Cyprus held a referendum on settleing the Cyprus dispute on 24 April 2004. ... The President of Cyprus is the countrys head of state. ... Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Greek: Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος) born January 7, 1934) has been the president of the Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ... The House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosópon/Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of Cyprus. ... Political parties in Cyprus lists political parties in this country. ... Elections in Cyprus gives information on election and election results in Cyprus. ... The 2001 Parliamentary elections in Cyprus took place on 27th Mary Results ... The 2006 legislative election in Cyprus will take place on 21 May. ... The districts (επαρχίες) are the subnational subdivisions of Cyprus. ... Cyprus has historically followed a non-aligned foreign policy, although it increasingly identifies with the West in its cultural affinities and trade patterns, and maintains close relations with Greece. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


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The Cyprus dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The problem has involved Turkey, Greece, the United Kingdom, the USA, the United Nations and recently the European Union. Since 1974 the internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus has been divided. The dividing line which cuts across the country has created a physical and social barrier between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot Communities. The Turkish Cypriot community declared itself Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, condemned by UN Security Council Resolutions as legally invalid. It is recognised only by Turkey. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus Greek military junta The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, referred as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey was a military action against the island nation of Cyprus by Turkey that resulted in the partition of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition Only by Turkey  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1,295 sq mi   -  Water (%) 2. ... A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the UN Security Council. ...

Contents

Historical background prior to 1960

As with so much relating to the Cyprus Dispute, the starting date of the conflict is open to argument and controversy. Most Greek Cypriots will hypothesize an uninterrupted Greek presence on the island dating back four thousand years. As they will argue, this Greek identity has survived numerous foreign occupations that brought repeated misfortunes on the homogeneous population of Cyprus. At various times it has been ruled by the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire and the Knights Templar. In 1192 it came under the rule of the Lusignans, who established the Kingdom of Cyprus, and 300 years later, in 1489, it was seized by the Republic of Venice. In 1571 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. It was this conquest that established for the first time in history the Turkish presence on the island. As Turkish Cypriots will therefore point out, in spite of the historical fact of the Greek Cypriots been on the island for over two and a half thousand years, the island of Cyprus has also been their home for over four hundred years. However, the Turks of Cyprus have always struggled to accept their status as a minority, and have always demanded disproportional rights, a position rejected by the Greeks of Cyprus. Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... The Lusignan coat of arms: Barruly of ten, argent and azure The Lusignan family originated in Poitou in western France. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ...


In more contemporary terms, the Cyprus dispute has been less about who has the right to live on the island. Instead, it has been focused on which country has the greater right to control the island - Greece or Turkey. Starting in the early-nineteenth century, the Greek Cypriots sought to bring about an end to almost 250 years of Ottoman rule over the island and unite Cyprus with Greece, a process called enosis. This call for enosis grew louder after Britain took administrative control of the island in 1878, to prevent Ottoman homelands from falling under Russian control following the Congress of Berlin. Under the terms of the agreement reached between Britain and the Ottoman Empire, the island would remain an Ottoman territory. However, the Christian Greek-speaking inhabitants of the island saw the arrival of the British as a chance to lobby for the island's union with Greece. Britain refused to consider the idea.[citation needed] In 1570, the Turks first occupied Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Turkish Governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a...


When World War I began in 1914, Britain annexed Cyprus - the Ottoman Empire being one of the enemies of the Triple Entente. Soon afterwards, it offered it to Constantine I of Greece on condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British. Although the offer was supported by Eleftherios Venizelos, the Greek prime minister, it was rejected by the King, who wished to keep Greece out of the war.[citation needed] The offer therefore lapsed. After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the new Turkish government formally recognized Britain's ownership of Cyprus. In 1925 Britain declared Cyprus to be a Crown Colony. In the years that followed the determination for enosis continued. In 1931 this led to open revolution. A riot resulted in the death of six civilians, injuries to others, and the burning of the British Government House in Lefkosia. In the months that followed about 2,000 people were convicted of crimes in connection with the struggle for union with Greece. Britain reacted by imposing harsh restrictions.[citation needed] Military reinforcements were dispatched to the island, the constitution suspended,[citation needed] a special "epicourical" (reserve) police force was formed consisting of only Cyprioturks to fight Cypriot revolutionaries in order to internally divide the Cypriots,[citation needed] press censorship instituted, and political parties banned.[citation needed] Two bishops and eight other prominent citizens directly implicated in the struggle against Britain were exiled. In effect, the governor became a dictator[citation needed], empowered to rule by decree. Municipal elections were suspended, and until 1943 all municipal officials were appointed by the government.[citation needed] The governor was to be assisted by an Executive Council, and two years later an Advisory Council was established; both councils consisted only of appointees and were restricted to advising on domestic matters only. In addition, the flying of Greek or Turkish flags or the public display of portraits of Greek or Turkish heroes was forbidden.[citation needed] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ...


The struggle for enosis was put on hold during World War II, during which time as the British Prime minister promised to satisfy the Cypriot demand for enosis, many Cypriots joined the British armed forces.[citation needed] In return, both sides expected that Britain be prepared to discuss their political wishes at the end of the war.[citation needed] In 1946, the British government announced plans to invite Cypriots to form a Consultative Assembly to discuss a new constitution. As a demonstration of good will, the British also allowed the return of the 1931 exiles.[citation needed] Instead of reacting positively, as expected by the British, the Greek Cypriot military hierarchy reacted angrily because there had been no mention of enosis.[citation needed] The Cypriot Orthodox Church had expressed its disapproval, and twenty-two Greek Cypriots declined to appear, stating that enosis was their sole political aim. The efforts to bring about enosis now increased, helped by active support from the Church of Cyprus, which was the main political voice of the Greek Cypriots at the time.[citation needed] However, it did not have the sole right to speak for the Greek Cypriots. The Church's main opposition came from the Cypriot Communist Party (officially the Progressive Party of the Working People; Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού; or AKEL), which viewed itself as the alternative political voice to the Cypriot Orthodox Church, also wholeheartedly supported the Greek national goal of enosis. However AKEL was considered by the British military forces and Colonial administration in Cyprus as the pro-Soviet Union Communist party on the island and therefore was opposed to its existence.[citation needed] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The ancient Church of Cyprus is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent (autocephalous) Eastern Orthodox churches, which are in communion and in doctrinal agreement with one another but not all subject to one patriarch. ... The Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) (Greek: Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού) is a socialist party in Cyprus. ... The Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) (Greek: Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού) is a socialist party in Cyprus. ... The ancient Church of Cyprus is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent (autocephalous) Eastern Orthodox churches, which are in communion and in doctrinal agreement with one another but not all subject to one patriarch. ...


The Greek Cypriots desire which went back to the 1930s to be united with Greece could not be stifled, the issue was hotly contested with the Papagos Government,[citation needed] whose attempt to defend the principle of Cypriot self determination at the United Nations was particularly threatening to the UK. The British Government turned to the US Secretary of state John Foster Dulles, who recruited the votes in the UN to defeat the Greek challenge.[citation needed] At the same time, British foreign secretary Harold Macmillan prevailed upon Turkey to alter its policy on Cyprus and make vigorous representations as to its claims and rights on the island.[citation needed] By 1954 a number of Turkish mainland institutions were ready to be used as regards the Cyprus issue like the National Federation of Students, the Committee for the defence of Turkish rights in Cyprus, the Welfare organisation of refugees from Thrace and the Cyprus Turkish Association.[citation needed] Above all the Turkish trade Unions were to prepare the right climate for the main target, the division of the island into two parts, the Greek and the Turkish part, thus keeping the British military presence and installations on the island intact guarding and controlling the oil/energy supply from the region.[citation needed] This AngloTurkish diversionary plan for the island was to be promoted by a special Turkish Cypriot paramilitary organisation [TMT] which should act as a counter balance to the Greek Cypriot "Enosis" fighting organisation of [EOKA][citation needed] In 1950, Michael Mouskos, Bishop Makarios of Kition (Larnaca), was elevated to Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus. In his inaugural speech, he vowed not to rest until union with "mother Greece" had been achieved. In Athens, enosis was a common topic of conversation, and a Cypriot native, Colonel George Grivas, was becoming known for his strong views on the subject. In anticipation of an armed struggle to achieve enosis, Grivas visited Cyprus in July 1951. He discussed his ideas with Makarios but was disappointed by the archbishop's contrasting opinion as he proposed a political struggle rather than an armed revolution against the British. From the beginning, and throughout their relationship, Grivas resented having to share leadership with the archbishop. Makarios, concerned about Grivas's extremism from their very first meeting, preferred to continue diplomatic efforts, particularly efforts to get the United Nations involved. The feelings of uneasiness that arose between them never dissipated. In the end, the two became enemies. In the meantime, in August [Papagos Government] 1954, Greece's UN representative formally requested that self-determination for the people of Cyprus be included on the agenda of the General Assembly's next session.[citation needed] Turkey following the British advice, rejected the idea of the union of Cyprus and Greece.[citation needed] A part of the Turkish Cypriot community felt rather negatively to the Greek Cypriot enosis movement, and had generally abstained from direct action with the excuse that under British rule the Turkish Cypriot minority status and identity were protected (British diplomacy was the first to invent (1930) the terms "Greek Cypriot" and "Turkish Cypriot" thus dividing the Cypriots into two[citation needed]) . The probable but never scientifically proven attitude of the Cypriot Turks was that, when Britain withdrew, control of Cyprus should simply revert to Turkey,[citation needed] although Turkey gave up all rights and claims to Cyprus in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. Meanwhile, with strong encouragement from British diplomacy, Turkish Cypriot identification with Turkey had grown stronger, and after 1954 the Turkish government had become increasingly involved as Turkey was invited to do so by Great Britain[citation needed] and this would serve the Turkish deep-state aspiration for the re-creation of the Ottoman Empire[citation needed]. In the late summer and fall of 1954, the Cyprus problem intensified. On Cyprus, the colonial government threatened advocates of enosis with up to five years' imprisonment[citation needed]. In December, the UN General Assembly announced the decision "not to consider the problem further for the time being, because it does not appear appropriate to adopt a resolution on the question of Cyprus." Reaction to the setback at the UN was immediate and violent, resulting in the worst rioting in Cyprus since 1931.[citation needed] Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... Makarios III (Greek: Μακάριος Γ`; born Mihalis Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος), August 13, 1913 – August 3, 1977) was the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church (1950-1977) and first President of the Republic of Cyprus (1960-1977). ... Athens (ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern αι Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and η Αθήνα nowadays (IPA : singular see below: Origin of the name ) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


EOKA campaign and creation of TMT, 1955-59

In January 1955, Grivas founded the National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (Ethniki Organosis Kyprion AgonistonEOKA). On April 1, 1955, EOKA opened a campaign against British rule in a well-coordinated series of attacks on police, military, and other government installations in Nicosia, Famagusta, Larnaca, and Limassol. This resulted in the deaths of over 100 British servicemen and personnel and some Greek Cypriots suspected of collaboration. As a result of this a number of Greek Cypriots began to leave the police. This however did not affect the Colonial police force as they have already created the solely Turkish Cypriot (Epicourical) reserve force to fight EOKA paramilitaries. At the same time, it led to tensions between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities. In 1957 the Turkish Resistance Organization (Türk Mukavemet Teskilati TMT), which was already formed to fight EOKA took action. In response to the growing demand for enosis, a number of Turkish Cypriots became convinced by the Turkish Deep-state that the only way to protect the interests and identity of the Turkish Cypriot population in the event of enosis would be to divide the island - a policy known as taksim ("partition" in Turkish) - into a Greek sector in the South and a Turkish sector in the North only 45 nautical miles from Turkey (1957). EOKA (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of British troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... EOKA (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of British troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Famagusta (Greek: Αμμόχωστος, Ammochostos; Turkish: GazimaÄŸusa; Italian: Famagosta) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and capital of the Famagusta District. ... District Larnaka  - Mayor Andreas Moyseos Population (2001)  - City 72,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... District Limassol Government  - Mayor Andreas Christou Population (2001)  - City 162,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


By now the island was on the verge of civil war. Several attempts to present a compromise settlement had failed. Therefore, beginning in December 1958, representatives of Greece and Turkey, the so called "mother lands" opened discussions of the Cyprus issue. Participants for the first time discussed the concept of an independent Cyprus, i.e., neither enosis nor taksim. Subsequent talks always headed by the British yielded a so called compromise agreement supporting independence, laying the foundations of the Republic of Cyprus. The scene then naturally shifted to London, where the Greek and Turkish representatives were joined by representatives of the Greek Cypriots, the Turkish Cypriots (represented by Arch. Makarios and Dr Fazil Kucuk with no significant decision making power), and the British. The Zurich-London agreements that became the basis for the Cyprus constitution of 1960 were supplemented with three treaties - the Treaty of Establishment, the Treaty of Guarantee, and the Treaty of Alliance. The general tone of the agreements was one of Keeping the British sovereign bases and military and monitoring facilities intact. Some Greek Cypriots, especially members of organizations such as EOKA, expressed disappointment because enosis had not been attained. In a similar way some Turkish Cypriots especially members of organizations such as TMT expressed their disappointment as they had to postpone their target for TAXIM (division), however most Cypriots that were not influenced by the three so called guarantor powers, Greece Turkey and Britain, welcomed the agreements and set aside their demand for "Enosis" and taksim. According to the Treaty of Establishment, Britain retained sovereignty over 256 square kilometers, which became the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area, to the northwest of Larnaca, and the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area to the southwest of Limassol. Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Fazil Küçük (1906-1984) was the first and only Turkish Cypriot Vice President of the 1960 Republic of Cyprus. ... EOKA (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of British troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... District Larnaka  - Mayor Andreas Moyseos Population (2001)  - City 72,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... District Limassol Government  - Mayor Andreas Christou Population (2001)  - City 162,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: http://www. ...


Cyprus achieved independence on August 16, 1960. is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


Constitutional breakdown and intercommunal talks, 1960-74

Main article: Cypriot Civil War

According to constitutional arrangements, Cyprus was to become an independent, non-aligned republic with a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice-president. General executive authority was vested in a council of ministers with a ratio of seven Greeks to three Turks. (The Greek Cypriots represented 78% of the population and the Turkish Cypriots 18%. The remaining 4% was made up by the three minority communities: the Latins, Maronites and Armenians.) A House of Representatives of fifty members, also with a seven-to-three ratio, were to be separately elected by communal balloting on a universal suffrage basis. In addition, separate Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot Communal Chambers were provided to exercise control in matters of religion, culture, and education. According to Article 78(2) any law imposing duties or taxes shall require a simple majority of the representatives elected by the Greek and Turkish communities respectively taking part in the vote. Legislation on other subjects was to take place by simple majority but again the President and the Vice-President had the same right of veto--absolute on foreign affairs, defence and internal security, delaying on other matters--as in the Council of Ministers. The judicial system would be headed by a Supreme Constitutional Court, composed of one Greek Cypriot and one Turkish Cypriot and presided over by a contracted judge from a neutral country. The Constitution of Cyprus, whilst establishing an Independent and sovereign Republic, was, in the words of de Smith, an authority on Constitutional Law; "Unique in its tortuous complexity and in the multiplicity of the safeguards that it provides for the principal minority; the Constitution of Cyprus stands alone among the constitutions of the world"[1] Within a short period of time the first disputes started to arise between the two communities. Issues of contention included taxation and the creation of separate municipalities. Because of the legislative veto system, this resulted in a lockdown in communal and state politics in many cases. Combatants Greek Cypriots Aided by Hellenic Republic Turkish Cypriots Aided by Republic of Turkey Strength 30,000[1] 5,000[2] The Cypriot Civil War refers to a period of inter-ethnic conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus from 1963 to 1974. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... A Constitutional Court is a high court found in many countries which deals primary with constitutional law. ...


Repeated attempts to solve the disputes failed. Eventually, on November 30, 1963, Makarios put forward to the three guarantors a thirteen-point proposal designed, in his view, to eliminate impediments to the functioning of the government. The thirteen points involved constitutional revisions, including the abandonment of the veto power by both the president and the vice president. Turkey initially rejected it (although later in future discussed the proposal). A few days later, on December 21, 1963 fighting erupted between the communities in Nicosia. In the days that followed it spread across the rest of the island. At the same time, the power-sharing government collapsed. How this happened is one of the most contentious issues in modern Cypriot history. The Greek Cypriots argue that the Turkish Cypriots withdrew in order to form their own administration. The Turkish Cypriots maintain that they were forced out. In reality, as is often the case in these situations, there is truth to both arguments. Many Turkish Cypriots chose to withdraw from the government. However, in many cases those who wished to stay in their jobs were prevented from doing so by the Greek Cypriots. Also, many of the Turkish Cypriots refused to attend because they feared for their lives after the recent violence that had erupted. There was even some pressure from the TMT as well. In any event, in the days that followed the fighting a frantic effort was made to calm tensions. In the end, on December 27, 1963, an interim peacekeeping force, the Joint Truce Force, was put together by Britain, Greece and Turkey. This held the line until a United Nations peacekeeping force, UNFICYP, was formed following UN Security Council Resolution 186, passed on March 4, 1964. November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) was established in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Peacemaking efforts, 1964-1974

At the same time as it established a peacekeeping force, the Security Council also recommended that the Secretary-General, in consultation with the parties and the Guarantor Powers, designate a mediator to take charge of formal peacemaking efforts. U Thant, the then UN Secretary-General, appointed Sakari Tuomioja, a Finnish diplomat. While Tuomioja viewed the problem as essentially international in nature and saw enosis as the most logical course for a settlement, he rejected union on the grounds that it would be inappropriate for a UN official to propose a solution that would lead to the dissolution of a UN member state. The United States held a differing view. In early June, following another Turkish threat to intervene, Washington launched an independent initiative under Dean Acheson, a former Secretary of State. In July he presented a plan to unite Cyprus with Greece. In return for accepting this, Turkey would receive a sovereign military base on the island. The Turkish Cypriots would also be given minority rights, which would be overseen by a resident international commissioner. Makarios rejected the proposal, arguing that giving Turkey territory would be a limitation on enosis and would give Ankara too strong a say in the island’s affairs. A second version of the plan was presented that offered Turkey a 50-year lease on a base. This offer was rejected by the Greek Cypriots and by Turkey. After several further attempts to reach an agreement, the United States was eventually forced to give up its effort. U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... Sakari Tuomioja in 1956 Sakari Severi Tuomioja (August 29, 1911, Tampere — September 9, 1964, Helsinki) was a Finnish politician, diplomat, Prime Minister of Finland during the caretaker government which was formed in 1953. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ...


Following the sudden death of Ambassador Tuomioja in August, Galo Plaza was appointed Mediator. He viewed the problem in communal terms. In March 1965 he presented a report criticising both sides for their lack of commitment to reaching a settlement. While he understood the Greek Cypriot aspiration of enosis, he believed that any attempt at union should be held in voluntary abeyance. Similarly, he considered that the Turkish Cypriots should refrain from demanding a federal solution to the problem. Although the Greek Cypriots eventually accepted the report, despite of its opposition to immediate enosis, Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the plan, calling on Plaza to resign on the grounds that he had exceeded his mandate by advancing specific proposals. He was simply meant to broker an agreement. But the Greek Cypriots made it clear that if Galo Plaza resigned they would refuse to accept a replacement. U Thant was left with no choice but to abandon the mediation effort. Instead he decided to make his Good Offices available to the two sides. The end of the mediation effort was effectively confirmed when, at the end of the year, Plaza resigned and was not replaced. Galo Plaza Lasso (1906 – 1987) was an Ecuadorian political figure. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


In March 1966, a more modest attempt at peacemaking was initiated under the auspices of Carlos Bernades, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Cyprus. Instead of trying to develop formal proposals for the parties to bargain over, he aimed to encourage the two sides agree to settlement through direct dialogue. However, ongoing political chaos in Greece prevented any substantive discussions from developing. The situation changed the following year. On 21 April 1967, a coup d'état in Greece brought to power a military administration. Just months later, in November 1967, Cyprus witnessed its most severe bout of intercommunal fighting since 1964. Responding to a major attack on Turkish Cypriot villages in the south of the island, which left 27 dead, Turkey bombed Greek Cypriot forces and appeared to be readying itself for an intervention. Greece was forced to capitulate. Following international intervention, Greece agreed to recall General George Grivas, the Commander of the Greek Cypriot National Guard and former EOKA leader, and reduce its forces on the island. Capitalising on the weakness of the Greek Cypriots, the Turkish Cypriots proclaimed their own provisional administration. Makarios immediately declared the new administration illegal. Nevertheless, a major change had occurred. The Archbishop, along with most other Greek Cypriots, began to accept that the Turkish Cypriots would have to have some degree of political autonomy. It was also realised that unification of Greece and Cyprus was unachievable under the prevailing circumstances. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Cypriot National Guard (Greek Εθνική Φρουρά) is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ...


In May 1968, intercommunal talks began between the two sides under the auspices of the Good Offices of the UN Secretary-General. Unusually, the talks were not held between President Makarios and Vice-President Kucuk. Instead they were conducted by the presidents of the communal chambers, Glafcos Clerides and Rauf Denktash. Again, little progress was made. During the first round of talks, which lasted until August 1967, the Turkish Cypriots were prepared to make several concessions regarding constitutional matters, but Makarios refused to grant them greater autonomy in return. The second round of talks, which focused on local government, was equally unsuccessful. In December 1969 a third round of discussion started. This time they focused on constitutional issues. Yet again there was little progress and when they ended in September 1970 the Secretary-General blamed both sides for the lack of movement. A fourth and final round of intercommunal talks also focused on constitutional issues, but again failed to make much headway before they were forced to a halt in 1974. Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... Makarios III (Greek: Μακάριος Γ`; born Mihalis Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek: Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος), August 13, 1913 – August 3, 1977) was the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church (1950-1977) and first President of the Republic of Cyprus (1960-1977). ... Glafkos Ioannu Klerides (born 1919) is a Greek-Cypriot politician and former president of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Rauf R. Denktash Rauf Raif Denktash (Rauf Raif Denktaş in Turkish; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish-Cypriot political leader. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Turkish Invasion 1974

See also: Timeline of the 1974 Invasion of Cyprus Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus Greek military junta The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, referred as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey was a military action against the island nation of Cyprus by Turkey that resulted in the partition of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Combatants Turkey Cyprus Strength ~ 40,000 troops ~ 200 tanks ~ 12,000 troops ~ 35 tanks 15 July 1974 – The Cypriot National Guard and EOKA-B launch a coup to overthrow the democratically-elected President, Archbishop Makarios III. 19 July 1974 - Whilst addressing the UN Security Council, Archbishop Makarios III accused Greece...


After 1967 tensions between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots subsided. Instead, the main source of tension on the island came from factions within the Greek Cypriot community. Although Makarios had effectively abandoned enosis in favour of an ‘attainable solution’, many others continued to believe that the only legitimate political aspirations for Greek Cypriots was union with Greece. In September 1971 Grivas secretly returned to the island and formed EOKA-B, a vehemently pro-union organisation. Over the next few years it would repeatedly try to overthrow Makarios. In early 1974 Grivas died and EOKA-B fell under the direct control of Taxiarkhos Dimitrios Ioannides, the new head of the Junta in Athens. Ioannides was determined to bring about enosis as soon as possible. Fearing the consequences of such a step, in early July 1974 Makarios wrote an open letter to the military dictatorship requesting that all Greek officers be removed from the island. On July 15, Ioannides replied by ordering the overthrow of the Archbishop. Makarios fled, with the assistance of his old British adversaries, first to the UK and then on to New York where he addressed the UN on October 1 and October 7 1974. In this speeches he effectively accused Greece of masterminding a coup to take control of the island in direct contravention of the 1960 UN sanctioned Independence agreements and he also called for intervention by the Guarantor powers, which he full well knew included Turkey, to restore Cyprus Independence. Meanwhile on Cyprus itself a short lived government, sponsored by the Athens Junta, under the leadership of Nikos Samson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikos_Sampson) sought to suppress supporters of Makarios and prevent his return. Just who killed who during this period and the subsequent intervention by Turkey is a still highly emotional and divisive issue on all sides. Certainly large numbers of people disappeared and mass graves of both Greek and Turkish Cypriots are being found to this day. Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... EOKA (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of British troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... Taxiarhos is used in the Greek language to mean Brigadier. In Ancient Greece the title/rank was held by a number of officers in the armies of several but not all city-states. ... Dimitrios Ioannides (also Dimitris Ioannidis) (March 13, 1923) was a Greek military officer who was involved in the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... Athens (ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern αι Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and η Αθήνα nowadays (IPA : singular see below: Origin of the name ) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Turkey immediately started planning its response. After failing to secure British support for a joint intervention under the Treaty of Guarantee, Bülent Ecevit, the Turkish prime minister, decided to act unilaterally. On July 20 Turkey ordered a military invasion of the island (Turkish invasion of Cyprus). Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus Greek military junta The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, referred as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey was a military action against the island nation of Cyprus by Turkey that resulted in the partition of the Republic of Cyprus. ...


Within two days Turkish forces had established a narrow corridor linking the north coast with Nicosia. The intervention led to turmoil in Greece. On July 23 the military Junta collapsed. July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ...


Two days later formal peace talks were convened in Geneva between Greece, Turkey and Britain. Over the course of the following five days Turkey agreed to halt its advance on the condition that it would remain on the island until a political settlement was reached between the two sides. On August 8 another round of discussion was held in Geneva, Switzerland. Unlike before, this time the talks involved the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. During the discussions the Turkish Cypriots, supported by Turkey, insisted on some form of geographical separation between the two communities. Makarios refused to accept the demand, insisting that Cyprus must remain a unitary state. Despite efforts to break the deadlock, the two sides refused to budge. On August 14, Turkey demanded from Clerides acceptance of a proposal for a federal state, in which the Turkish Cypriot community (who, at that time, comprised about 18% of the population and owned about 10% of the land) would have got 34% of the island. Clerides asked for 36 to 48 hours to consult with the Cypriot and Greek governments, but Turkey refused to grant any consultation time, effectively ending the talks. Within hours, Turkey had resumed its offensive. By the time a new, and permanent, ceasefire was called 36 per cent of the island was under the control of the Turkish military. The partition was marked by the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus or "green line" running east to west across the island. Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a 300 km (187 mile) separation barrier along the 1974 Green Line (or ceasefire line) de facto dividing the Republic of Cyprus into north and south regions. ...


The effect of the division was catastrophic for all concerned. Thousands of Greek and Turkish Cypriots had been killed, wounded or missing. A further two hundred thousand Greek and Turkish Cypriots had been displaced. In addition to the entire north coast (Kerynia, Morfou) and the Karpas peninsula, the Greek Cypriots were also forced to flee the eastern port city of Famagusta. The vast majority of the Turkish occupied area was predominantly owned by Greek Cypriots prior to 1974. In the process about 160,000[2] - 200,000[3] Greek Cypriots who made up 82% of the population in the north became refugees; many of them forced out of their homes (violations of Human Rights by the Turkish army have been acknowledged by the European Court of Human Rights), the rest fleeing at the word of the approaching Turkish army. Since 1974, the ceasefire line separates the two communities on the island, and is commonly referred to as the Green Line. The United Nations consented to the transfer of the remainder of the 51,000 Turkish Cypriots that had not left their homes in the south to settle in the north, if they wished to do so. Meanwhile, over the months that followed the Turkish Cypriots made their way to refugee camps, mostly in areas under UK sovereign control, and then to the area under Turkish control. It is clear that many of them never made it alive and those that did were often assisted to move under protection of the British military. Famagusta (Greek: Αμμόχωστος, Ammochostos; Turkish: Gazimağusa; Italian: Famagosta) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and capital of the Famagusta District. ...


Peace negotiations, 1974-1994

On April 28, 1975, Kurt Waldheim, the UN Secretary-General, launched a new mission of Good Offices. Starting in Vienna, over the course of the following ten months Clerides and Denktash held discussed a range of humanitarian issues relating to the events of the previous year. However, attempts to make progress on the substantive issues – such as territory and the nature of the central government – failed to produce any results. After five rounds the talks fell apart in February 1976. In January 1977, the UN managed to organise a meeting in Nicosia between Makarios and Denktash. This led to a major breakthrough. On February 12, the two leaders signed a four point agreement confirming that a future Cyprus settlement would be based on a federation. The size of the states would be determined by economic viability and land ownership. The central government would be given powers to ensure the unity of the state. Various other issues, such as freedom of movement and freedom of settlement, would be settled through discussion. Just months later, in August 1977, Makarios died. He was replaced by Spyros Kyprianou, the foreign minister. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and conservative politician. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... Rauf R. DenktaÅŸ Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ (Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ in Turkish; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish-Cypriot political leader. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... Spyros Achilleos Kyprianou (or Cyprianou) (October 28, 1932 – March 12, 2002) was a Cypriot politician. ...


In May 1979, Waldheim visited Cyprus and secured a further ten-point set of proposals 1979 from the two sides. In addition to re-affirming the 1977 High Level Agreement, these also included provisions for the demilitarisation of the island and a commitment to refrain from destabilising activities and actions. Shortly afterwards a new round of discussions began in Nicosia. Again, they were short lived. For a start, the Turkish Cypriots did not want to discuss Varosha, which was a key issue for the Greek Cypriots. Secondly, the two sides failed to agree on the concept of ‘bicommunality’. The Turkish Cypriots believed that the Turkish Cypriot federal state would be exclusively Turkish Cypriot and the Greek Cypriot state would be exclusively Greek Cypriots. The Greek Cypriots believed that the two states should be predominantly, but not exclusively, made up of a particular community. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Turkish Cypriot unilateral declaration of independence

In May 1983, an effort by Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, the then UN Secretary-General, foundered after the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution calling for the withdrawal of all occupation forces from Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriots were furious at the resolution. They threatened to declare independence in retaliation. Despite this, in August, Pérez de Cuéllar gave the two sides a set of proposals for consideration that called for a rotating presidency, the establishment of a bicameral assembly along the same lines as previously suggested and 60:40 representation in the central executive. In return for increased representation in the central government, the Turkish Cypriots would surrender 8-13 per cent of the land in their possession. Both Kyprianou and Denktash accepted the proposals. However, on 15 November 1983, the Turkish Cypriots took advantage of the post-election political instability in Turkey and unilaterally declared independence. Although the ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’ (TRNC) was soon recognised by Turkey, the rest of the international community condemned the move. Within days the Security Council passed a resolution (14-1 vote: only Pakistan opposed) making it clear that it would not accept the new state and that the decision disrupted efforts to reach a settlement. Denktash denied this. In a letter addressed to the Secretary-General informing him of the decision, he insisted that the move guaranteed that any future settlement would be truly federal in nature. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Eight years after the Turkish Federative State of North Cyprus was proclaimed (in 1975), The UDI of North Cyprus was presented to the Northern Cypriot Parliament in North Nicosia by Turkish Cypriot... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


In September 1984 talks resumed. After three rounds of discussions it was again agreed that Cyprus would become a bizonal, bicommunal, non-aligned federation. The Turkish Cypriots would retain 29 per cent for their federal state and all foreign troops would leave the island. In January 1985, the two leaders met for their first face-to-face talks since the 1979 agreement. However, while the general belief was that the meeting was being held to agree to a final settlement, Kyprianou insisted that it was a chance for further negotiations. The talks collapsed. In the aftermath, the Greek Cypriot leaders came in for heavy criticism, both at home and abroad. After that Denktash announced that he would not make so many concessions again. Undeterred, in March 1986, de Cuéllar presented the two sides with a Draft Framework Agreement. Again, the plan envisaged the creation of an independent, non-aligned, bi-communal, bi-zonal state in Cyprus. However, the Greek Cypriots were unhappy with the proposals. They argued that the questions of removing Turkish forces from Cyprus was not addressed, nor was the repatriation of the increasing number of Turkish settlers on the island. Moreover, there were no guarantees that the full three freedoms would be respected. Finally, they saw the proposed state structure as being confederal in nature. Further efforts to produce an agreement failed as the two sides remained steadfastly attached to their positions. Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Set of Ideas

In August 1988, Pérez de Cuéllar called upon the two sides to meet with him in Geneva in August. There the two leaders - George Vasiliou and Rauf Denktash - agreed to abandon the Draft Framework Agreement and return to the 1977 and 1979 High Level Agreements. But the talks faltered when the Greek Cypriots announced their intention to apply for membership within the European Community (EC), a move strongly opposed by the Turkish Cypriots and Turkey. Nevertheless, in June 1989, de Cuellar presented the two communities with the 'Set of Ideas'. Denktash quickly rejected them as he not only opposed the provisions, he also argued that the UN Secretary-General had no right to present formal proposals to the two sides. The two sides met again, in New York, in February 1990. However, the talks were again short lived. This time Denktash demanded that the Greek Cypriots recognise the existence of two people in Cyprus and the basic right of the Turkish Cypriots to self-determination. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... George Vasos Vasiliou (Greek: Γιώργος Βασιλείου) (born 1931) was President of the Republic of Cyprus 1988-93. ... Rauf R. Denktash Rauf Raif Denktash (Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ in Turkish; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish-Cypriot political leader. ...


On 4 July 1990, Cyprus formally applied to join the EC. The Turkish Cypriots and Turkey, which had applied for membership in 1987, were outraged. Denktash claimed that Cyprus could only join the Community at the same time as Turkey and called off all talks with UN officials. Nevertheless, in September 1990, the EC member states unanimously agreed to refer the Cypriot application to the Commission for formal consideration. In retaliation, Turkey and the TRNC signed a joint declaration abolishing passport controls and introducing a customs union just weeks later. Undeterred,Javier Pérez de Cuéllar continued his search for a solution throughout 1991. He made no progress. In his last report to the Security Council, presented in October 1991, he blamed the failure of the talks on Denktash, noting the Turkish Cypriot leader's demand that the two communities should have equal sovereignty and a right to secession. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


On 3 April 1992, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, the new UN Secretary-General, presented the Security Council with the outline plan for the creation of a bi-zonal, bi-communal federation that would prohibit any form of partition, secession or union with another state. While the Greek Cypriots accepted the Set of Ideas as a basis for negotiation, Denktash again criticised the UN Secretary-General for exceeding his authority. When he did eventually return to the table, the Turkish Cypriot leader complained that the proposals failed to recognise his community. In November, Ghali brought the talks to a halt. He now decided to take a different approach and tried to encourage the two sides to show goodwill by accepting eight Confidence Building Measures (CBMs). These included reducing military forces on the island, transferring Varosha to direct UN control, reducing restrictions on contacts between the two sides, undertaking an island-wide census and conducting feasibility studies regarding a solution. The Security Council endorsed the approach. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: BOYTPOC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ...


On 24 May 1993, the Secretary-General formally presented the two sides with his CBMs. Denktash, while accepting some of the proposals, was not prepared to agree to the package as a whole. Meanwhile, on June 30, the European Commission returned its opinion on the Cypriot application for membership. While the decision provided a ringing endorsement of the case for Cypriot membership, it refrained from opening the way for immediate negotiations. The Commission stated that it felt that the issue should be reconsidered in January 1995, taking into account the ‘the positions adopted by each party in the talks.’ A few months later, in December 1993, Glafcos Clerides proposed the demilitarisation of Cyprus. Denktash dismissed the idea, but the next month he announced that he would be willing to accept the CBMs in principle. Proximity talks started soon afterwards. In March 1994, the UN presented the two sides with a draft document outlining the proposed measures in greater detail. Clerides said that he would be willing to accept the document if Denktash did, but the Turkish Cypriot leader refused on the grounds that it would upset the balance of forces on the island. Once again, Ghali had little choice but to pin the blame for another breakdown of talks on the Turkish Cypriot side. Soon afterwards Denktash relented. He would be willing to accept mutually agreed changes. But Clerides refused to negotiate any further changes to the March proposals. Further proposals put forward by the Secretary-General in an attempt to break the deadlock were rejected by both sides. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Glafkos Ioannu Klerides (born 1919) is a Greek-Cypriot politician and former president of the Republic of Cyprus. ...


Deadlock and legal battles, 1994-97

At the Corfu European Council, held on 24-25 June 1994, the EU officially confirmed that Cyprus would be included in the Union's next phase of enlargement. Two weeks later, on July 5, the European Court of Justice imposed restrictions on the export of goods from Northern Cyprus into the European Union. Soon afterwards, in December, relations between the EU and Turkey were further damaged when Greece blocked the final implementation of a customs union. As a result, talks remained completely blocked throughout 1995 and 1996. The situation took another turn for the worse at the start of 1997 when the Greek Cypriots announced that they intended to purchase the Russian-made S-300 anti-aircraft missile system. Soon afterwards, Turkey announced that it would match any military build-up. However, Turkey was now starting to come under increasing pressure from several sides. In December 1996, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) delivered a landmark ruling that declared that Turkey was an occupying power in Cyprus. The case - Loizidou vs Turkey - centred on Titina Loizidou, a refugee from Kyrenia, who was judged to have been unlawfully denied the control of her property by Turkey. In addition to being a major political embarrassment for Ankara, the case also had severe financial implications as the Court later ruled that Turkey should pay Mrs Loizidou US$825,000 in compensation for the loss of use of her property. Ankara rejected the ruling as politically motivated. Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European Court of Justice building, Luxembourg The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... A single S-300-PM missile TEL ready to fire. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Loizidou vs. ... District Kerynia Population  - City 52,000 (aprox) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Kyrenia Harbour on a summer night Kyrenia Castle Bellapais Abbey inner court Kyrenia (Greek: Κερύνεια Keryneia; Ancient Greek: Kyreneia; Turkish: Girne) is one of the very famous leisure towns for toursits from the UK and rest of Europe in... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


After twenty years of talks, a settlement seemed as far off as ever. However, the basic parameters of a settlement were by now internationally agreed. Cyprus would be a bi-zonal, bi-communal federation. A solution would also be expected to address the following issues: A map displaying todays federations. ...

  • Constitutional framework
  • Territorial adjustments
  • Return of property to pre-1974 owners and/or compensation payments
  • Return of displaced persons
  • Demilitarisation of Cyprus
  • Residency rights/repatriation of Turkish settlers
  • Future peacekeeping arrangements

EU accession and the settlement process, 1997-present

In 1997 the basic parameters of the Cyprus Dispute changed. A decision by the European Union to open up accession negotiations with the Republic of Cyprus created a new catalyst for a settlement. Among those who supported the move, the argument was made that Turkey could not have a veto on Cypriot accession and that the negotiations would encourage all sides to be more moderate. However, opponents of the move argued that the decision would remove the incentive of the Greek Cypriots to reach a settlement. They would instead wait until they became a member and then use this strength to push for a settlement on their terms. In response to the decision, Rauf Denktash announced that he would no longer accept federation as a basis for a settlement. In future he would only be prepared to negotiate on the basis of a confederal solution. In December 1999 tensions between Turkey and the European Union eased somewhat after the EU decided to declare Turkey a candidate for EU membership, a decision taken at the Helsinki European Council. At the same time a new round of talks started in New York. These were short lived. By the following summer they had broken down. Tensions started to rise again as a showdown between Turkey and the European Union loomed over the island's accession.


Perhaps realising the gravity of the situation, and in a move that took observers by surprise, Rauf Denktash wrote to Glafcos Clerides on 8 November 2001 to propose a face-to-face meeting. The offer was accepted. Following several informal meetings between the two men in November and December 2001 a new peace process started under UN auspices on 14 January 2002. At the outset the stated aim of the two leaders was to try to reach an agreement by the start of June that year. However, the talks soon became deadlocked. In an attempt to break the impasse, Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary-General visited the island in May that year. Despite this no deal was reached. After a summer break Annan met with the two leaders again that autumn, first in Paris and then in New York. As a result of the continued failure to reach an agreement, the Security Council agreed that the Secretary-General should present the two sides with a blueprint settlement. This would form the basis of further negotiations. The original version of the UN peace plan was presented to the two sides by Annan on 11 November 2002. A little under a month later, and following modifications submitted by the two sides, it was revised (Annan II). It was hoped that this plan would be agreed by the two sides on the margins of the European Council, which was held in Copenhagen on December 13. However, Rauf Denktash, who was recuperating from major heart surgery, declined to attend. The EU therefore decided to confirm that Cyprus would join the EU on 1 May 2004, along with Malta and eight other states from Central and Eastern Europe. Rauf R. Denktash Rauf Raif Denktash (Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ in Turkish; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish-Cypriot political leader. ... Glafkos Ioannu Klerides (born 1919) is a Greek-Cypriot politician and former president of the Republic of Cyprus. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... November 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December November - The Doha Declaration slightly relaxes the grip of international intellectual property. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: December 2 - Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection five days after Dynegy canceled a US$8. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for May, 2002. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Although it had been expected that talks would be unable to continue, discussions resumed in early January 2003. Thereafter, a further revision (Annan III) took place in February 2003, when Annan made a second visit to the island. During his stay he also called on the two sides to meet with him again the following month in The Hague, where he would expect their answer on whether they were prepared to put the plan to a referendum. While the Greek Cypriot side, which was now led by Tassos Papadopoulos, agreed to do so, albeit reluctantly, Rauf Denktash refused to allow a popular vote. The peace talks collapsed. A month later, on 16 April 2003, Cyprus formally signed the EU Treaty of Accession at a ceremony in Athens. 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for January, 2003. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for February, 2003. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Greek: Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος) born January 7, 1934) has been the president of the Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ... Rauf R. Denktash Rauf Raif Denktash (Rauf Raif DenktaÅŸ in Turkish; born January 27, 1924) is a Turkish-Cypriot political leader. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Accession 2003 was the agreement between the European Union and ten countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia), concerning these countries accession into the EU. At the same time it changed a number of points which were originally laid down in the... Athens (ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern αι Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and η Αθήνα nowadays (IPA : singular see below: Origin of the name ) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ...


Throughout the rest of the year there was no effort to restart talks. Instead, attention turned to the Turkish Cypriot elections, which were widely expected to see a victory by moderate pro-solution parties. In the end, the assembly was evenly split. A coalition administration was formed that brought together the pro-solution CTP and the Democrat Party, which had traditionally taken the line adopted by Rauf Denktash. This opened the way for Turkey to press for new discussions. After a meeting between Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Kofi Annan in Switzerland, the leaders of the two sides were called to New York. There they agreed to start a new negotiation process based on two phases: phase one, which would just involve the Greek and Turkish Cypriots, being held on the island and phase two, which would also include Greece and Turkey, being held elsewhere. After a month of negotiations in Cyprus, the discussions duly moved to Burgenstock, Switzerland. The Turkish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash rejected the plan outright and refused to attend these talks. Instead, his son Serdar Denktash and Mehmet Ali Talat attended in his place. There a fourth version of the plan was presented. This was short-lived. After final adjustments, a fifth and final version of the Plan was presented to the two sides on 31 March 2004. Northern Cyprus elects a president and a legislature. ... The Republican Turkish Party (Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi) is a political party in Northern Cyprus. ... The Democratic Party (Demokrat Partisi) is a political party in Northern Cyprus. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... NY redirects here. ... Serdar Denktaş, Deputy PM and Foreign Minister of the TRNC Serdar Denktash (Serdar Denktaş) is the one surviving son of the NOV 1983 - APR 2005 President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (Rauf Denktaş). He currently serves as the TRNC Deputy Prime Minister and TRNC Minister... Mehmet Ali Talat Mehmet Ali Talat (born July 6, 1952) is the current President of the de factoTurkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which controls the northern third of the island of Cyprus and is unrecognized by any nation except Turkey. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The UN plan for the settlement of Cyprus Dispute (Annan Plan)

Main article: Annan Plan for Cyprus

Under the final proposals, The Republic of Cyprus would become the United Cyprus Republic. It would be a loose federation composed of two component states. The northern Turkish Cypriot constituent state would encompass about 28.5% of the island, the southern Greek Cypriot constituent state would be made up of the remaining 71.5%. Each part would have had its own parliament. There would also be a bicameral parliament on the federal level. In the Chamber of Deputies, the Turkish Cypriots would have 25% of the seats. (While no accurate figures are currently available, the split between the two communities at independence in 1960 was approximately 80:20 in favour of the Greek Cypriots.) The Senate would have consisted of equal parts of members of each ethnic group. Executive power would be vested in a presidential council. The chairmanship of this council would rotate between the communities. Each community would also have the right to veto all legislation. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... The Turkish Cypriot State was to have been one of the constituent states of the United Cyprus Republic proposed by the failed 2004 Annan Plan for the reunification of Cyprus. ... The Greek Cypriot State was to have been one of the constituent states of the United Cyprus Republic proposed by the failed 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus aimed at reunification of Cyprus. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


One of the most controversial elements of the plan concerned property. During Turkey's military intervention/invasion in 1974, many Greek Cypriots (who owned 90% of the land and property in the north) were forced to abandon their homes. (A large number of Turkish Cypriots also left their homes.) Since then, the question of restitution of their property has been a central demand of the Greek Cypriot side. However, the Turkish Cypriots argue that the complete return of all Greek Cypriot properties to their original owners would be incompatible with the functioning of a bi-zonal, bi-communal federal settlement. To this extent, they have argued compensation should be offered. The Annan Plan attempted to bridge this divide. In certain areas, such as Morphou (Güzelyurt) and Famagusta (Gazimağusa), which would be returned to Greek Cypriot control, Greek Cypriot refugees would have received back all of their property according to a phased timetable. In other areas, such as Kyrenia (Girne) and the Karpass Peninsula, which would remain under Turkish Cypriot control, they would be given back a proportion of their land (usually one third assuming that it had not been extensively developed) and would receive compensation for the rest. All land and property (that was not used for worship) belonging to businesses and institutions, including the Church the largest property owner on the island, would have been expropriated. While many Greek Cypriots found these provisions unacceptable in themselves, many others resented the fact that the Plan envisaged all compensation claims by a particular community to be met by their own side. This was seen as unfair as Turkey would not be required to contribute any funds towards the compensation. Morphou (in Greek Μόρφου, in Turkish Omorfo (pre 1974) or Güzelyurt post 1974) is a market town in the north-west of Cyprus. ... Famagusta (Greek: Αμμόχωστος, Ammochostos; Turkish: GazimaÄŸusa; Italian: Famagosta) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus and capital of the Famagusta District. ... District Kerynia Population  - City 52,000 (aprox) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Kyrenia Harbour on a summer night Kyrenia Castle Bellapais Abbey inner court Kyrenia (Greek: Κερύνεια Keryneia; Ancient Greek: Kyreneia; Turkish: Girne) is one of the very famous leisure towns for toursits from the UK and rest of Europe in... The Karpass Peninsula (Karpasia) is a long, finger-like peninsula that is one of the most prominent geographical features of the island of Cyprus. ...


Apart from the property issue, there were many other parts of the plan that sparked controversy. For example, the agreement envisaged the gradual reduction in the number of Greek and Turkish troops on the island. After six years, the number of soldiers from each country would be limited to 6,000. This would fall to 600 after 19 years. Thereafter, the aim would be to try to achieve full demilitarization, a process that many hoped would be made possible by Turkish accession to the European Union. The agreement also kept in place the Treaty of Guarantee - an integral part of the 1960 constitution that gave Britain, Greece and Turkey a right to intervene militarily in the island's affairs. Many Greek Cypriots were concerned that the continuation of the right of intervention would give Turkey too large a say in the future of the island. However, most Turkish Cypriots felt that a continued Turkish military presence was necessary to ensure their security. Another element of the plan the Greek Cypriots objected to was that it allowed many Turkish citizens who had been brought to the island to remain. (The exact number of these Turkish 'settlers' is highly disputed. Some argue that the figure is as high as 150,000 or as low as 40,000. In reality, the low end figure is 60,000 and the high end figure is 120,000[citation needed].) They are seen as settlers illegally brought to the island in contravention of international law. However, while many accepted Greek Cypriot concerns on this matter, there was a widespread feeling that it would be unrealistic to forcibly remove every one of the these settlers, especially as many of them had been born and raised on the island. Equally there have been substantial migrations of people from former Soviet Eastern Europe with historical "Greek" connections, to the Republic of Cyprus although precise numbers are difficult to obtain. The Turkish military retains a large armed force in the north of the island of Cyprus, located in the Eastern Mediterranean. ...


Referenda, 24 April 2004

Under the terms of the plan, the Annan plan would only come into force if accepted by the two communities in simultaneous referenda. These were set for 24 April 2004. In the weeks that followed there was intense campaigning in both communities. However, and in spite of opposition from Rauf Denktash, who had boycotted the talks in Switzerland, it soon became clear that the Turkish Cypriots would vote in favour of the agreement. Among Greek Cypriots opinion was heavily weighted against the plan and was strong opposed by the Greek Orthodox Church. Tassos Papadopoulos, the president of Cyprus, in a speech delivered on 7 April called on Greek Cypriots to reject the plan in spite of the fact that UN mediators understood he had accepted it at the talks in Switzerland. His position was supported by most of the small parties. His coalition partner AKEL, one of the largest parties on the island, chose to reject the plan because it did not provide sufficient security guarantees. Support for the plan was voiced by Democratic Rally (DISY) leadership, the main right-wing party, and the United Democrats, a small center-left party led by George Vasiliou, a former president. Glafcos Clerides, now retired from politics, also supported the plan. Prominent members of DISY who did not support the plan split from the party and formed a new party "For Europe" which opposed the plan. The two sectors of the divided island of Cyprus held a referendum on reunification on 24 April 2004. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Greek: Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος) born January 7, 1934) has been the president of the Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) (Greek: Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού) is a socialist party in Cyprus. ... The Democratic Rally (Greek: Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός), or DISY, is a conservative political party in Cyprus, led by Nikos Anastasiadhis. ... The United Democrats (Enomeni Dimokrates) is a liberal party in Cyprus. ... George Vasos Vasiliou (Greek: Γιώργος Βασιλείου) (born 1931) was President of the Republic of Cyprus 1988-93. ... Glafkos Ioannu Klerides (born 1919) is a Greek-Cypriot politician and former president of the Republic of Cyprus. ... The coalition For Europe (Greek: Για την Ευροπη) of Cyprus was founded by Yiannakis Matsis specifically to contest the 2004 European Parliamentary Elections. ...


The United Kingdom (a Guarantor Power) and the United States came out in favour of the plan. Turkey signaled its support for the plan. The Greek Government decided to remain neutral. However, Russia was troubled by an attempt by Britain and the US to introduce a resolution in the UN Security Council supporting the plan and used its veto to block the move. This was done as they felt that Britain and the US were trying to put unfair pressure on the Greek Cypriots. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


In the 24 April referendum the Turkish Cypriots endorsed the plan by a margin of almost two to one. However, the Greek Cypriots resoundingly voted against the plan, by a margin of about three to one. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Referendum results:

Referendum Result Yes No  Turnout 
 Turkish Cypriot Community   64.90% 35.09% 87%
 Greek Cypriot Community    24.17%   75.83%  88%
Ballot Total Yes No
  Turkish Cypriot Community   50,500 14,700
  Greek Cypriot Community    99,976   313,704 
Total legitimate ballots in all areas    150,500   328,500 
Total legitimate ballots in all areas    30%   70% 

The Cyprus Dispute after the referendum

On 1 May 2004, a week after the referendum, Cyprus joined the European Union. Under the terms of accession the whole island is considered to be a member of the European Union. However, the terms of the acquis communautaire, the EU's body of laws, have been suspended in the north. May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ...


Despite initial hopes that a new process to modify the rejected plan would start by autumn, most of the rest of 2004 was taken up with discussions over a proposal by the European Union to open up direct trade with the Turkish Cypriots and provide 259,000,000 in funds to help them upgrade their infrastructure. This has provoked considerable debate. The Republic of Cyprus has argued that there can be no direct trade via ports and airports in Northern Cyprus as these are unrecognised. Instead, it has offered to allow Turkish Cypriots to use Greek Cypriot facilities, which are internationally recognized. This has been rejected by the Turkish Cypriots. At the same time, attention turned to the question of the start of Turkey's future membership of the European Union. At a European Council held on 17 December 2004, and despite earlier Greek Cypriot threats to impose a veto, Turkey was granted a start date for formal membership talks on condition that it signed a protocol extending the customs union to the new entrants to the EU, including Cyprus. Assuming this is done, formal membership talks would begin on 3 October 2005. “EUR” redirects here. ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the defeat of the UN plan in the referendum there has been no attempt to restart negotiations between the two sides. While both sides have reaffirmed their commitment to continuing efforts to reach an agreement, the UN Secretary-General has not been willing to restart the process until he can be sure that any new negotiations will lead to a comprehensive settlement based on the plan he put forward in 2004. To this end, he has asked the Greek Cypriots to present a written list of the changes they would like to see made to the agreement. This has been rejected by President Tassos Papadopoulos on the grounds that no side should be expected to present their demands in advance of negotiations. However, it appears as though the Greek Cypriots would be prepared to present their concerns orally. Another Greek Cypriot concern centres on the procedural process for new talks. Mr. Papadopoulos has said that he will not accept arbitration or timetables for discussions. The UN fears that this would lead to another open-ended process that could drag on indefinitely. Although there have been indications that the UN is reviewing the situation, there appears to be little likelihood that new talks will begin any time soon. Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (Greek: Τάσσος Παπαδόπουλος) born January 7, 1934) has been the president of the Republic of Cyprus since 2003. ...


Formula One and the Cyprus Dispute

The podium display after the 2006 Turkish Grand Prix caused a controversy, when winner Felipe Massa received the trophy from Mehmet Ali Talat, who was referred to as the "President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus." The government of the Republic of Cyprus filed an official complaint with the FIA. After investigating the incident, the FIA fined the organizers of the Grand Prix $5 million on 19 September 2006. [4] The 2006 Turkish Grand Prix is the fourteenth race of the 2006 Formula One season. ... Felipe Massa (born April 25, 1981) is a Brazilian Formula One racing driver, currently employed by the Ferrari team. ... Mehmet Ali Talat Mehmet Ali Talat (born July 6, 1952) is the current President of the de factoTurkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which controls the northern third of the island of Cyprus and is unrecognized by any nation except Turkey. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ...


See also

The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Cypriot Refugees Page It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Civilian casualties and displacements during the Cyprus conflict. ... Atilla was the code name given to the Turkish military invasion of the island of Cyprus in July 1974, in response to a Greek-inspired coup détat which sought to unite the island with Greece. ...

Recent Developments

  • Greek Cypriots begin removing Nicosia barrier
  • Greek Cypriots tear down Nicosia's dividing wall
  • Greek Cypriots do not want north isolated

External links

  • UN resolutions list on the Cyprus issue
  • Recent U.N. document: The question of human rights in Cyprus
  • cyprus-conflict.net
  • Aspects of the Cyprus Problem from The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office
  • A detailed Cyprus Problem site from The TFSC and Turkey
  • Kissinger’s Secret Phone Calls Concerning Cyprus English translation of Eleftherotypia article
  • Embargoed.org
  • The Cypriot School
  • Tony Angastiniotis Cyprus peace activism in Cyprus
  • EU task-force on the Turkish Cypriot community
  • "Cyprus and Turkey’s EU Process" A Summary of the Problem from Turkish Perspective
  • The Displaced Greek Communities of Cyprus

Sources

Official publications and sources

  • The House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee report on Cyprus.
  • Letter by the President of the Republic, Mr Tassos Papadopoulos, to the U.N. Secretary-General, Mr Kofi Annan, dated June 7, which circulated as an official document of the U.N. Security Council
  • Legal Issues arising from certain population transfers and displacements on the territory of the Republic of Cyprus in the period since 20 July 1974
  • Address to Cypriots by President Papadopoulos (FULL TEXT)
  • The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office, Aspects of the Cyprus Problem
  • 1st Report of the European Commission of Human Rights; Turkey's intervention in Cyprus and aftermath (20 July 1974 - 18 May 1976)
  • 2nd Report of the European Commission of Human Rights; Turkey's intervention in Cyprus and aftermath (19 May 1976 to 10 February 1983)
  • European Court of Human Rights Case of Cyprus v. Turkey (Application no. 25781/94)

June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...

Other sources

  • "Getting to Yes: Suggestions for the Embellishment of the Annan Plan for Cyprus (PDF)" Policy Paper, Southeast European Studies at Oxford, St Antony's College, Oxford University, February 2004
  • "Economic Aspects of the Annan Plan for the Solution of the Cyprus Problem (PDF)" Wolfson College, Oxford University, February 2004
  • "Options for Peace: Mapping the Possibilities for a Comprehensive Settlement in Cyprus (PDF)" Alexandros Lordos, May 2005
  • "From U Thant to Kofi Annan: UN Peacemaking in Cyprus, 1964-2004 (PDF)" James Ker-Lindsay, Occasional Paper 5/05, Southeast European Studies at Oxford, St Antony's College, Oxford University, October 2005
  • "EU and the Cyprus Conflict: Review of the Literature (PDF)" Olga Demetriou, Working Paper Series in EU Border Conflicts, Number 5, January 2004
  • "The Property Regime in a Cyprus Settlement: A Reassessment of the Solution Proposed under the Annan Plan, Given the Performance of the Property Markets in Cyprus, 2003-2006 (PDF)" Stelios Platis, Stelios Orphanides and Fiona Mullen, PRIO Report 2/2006, PRIO Cyprus Centre, November 2006

Further reading

  • Brewin, Christopher (2000). European Union and Cyprus. Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-24-0. 
  • Dods, Clement (ed.) (1999). Cyprus: The Need for New Perspectives. The Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-23-2. 
  • Gibbons, Harry Scott (1997). The Genocide Files. Charles Bravos Publishers. ISBN 0-9514464-2-8. 
  • Hannay, David (2005). Cyprus: The Search for a Solution. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-665-7. 
  • Hitchens, Christopher (1997). Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-189-9. 
  • Ker-Lindsay, James (2005). EU Accession and UN Peacemaking in Cyprus. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-9690-3. 
  • Mirbagheri, Farid (1989). Cyprus and International Peacemaking. Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-354-2. 
  • Nicolet, Claude (2001). United States Policy Towards Cyprus, 1954-1974. Bibliopolis. ISBN 3-933925-20-7. 
  • Oberling, Pierre (1982). The Road to Bellapais. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-000-7. 
  • O'Malley, Brendan and Ian Craig (1999). The Cyprus Conspiracy. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-737-5. 
  • Palley, Claire (2005). An International Relations Debacle: The UN Secretary-General's Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus, 1999-2004. Hart Publishing. ISBN 1-84113-578-X. 
  • Papadakis, Yiannis (2005). Echoes from the Dead Zone: Across the Cyprus Divide. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-428-X. 
  • Plumer, Aytug (2003 ID=ISBN 975-6912-18-9). Cyprus, 1963-64: The Fateful Years. Cyrep (Lefkosa). 
  • Richmond, Oliver (1998). Mediating in Cyprus. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4431-5. 
  • Richmond, Oliver and James Ker-Lindsay (eds.) (2001). The Work of the UN in Cyprus: Promoting Peace and Development. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-91271-3. 
  • Tocci, Nathalie (2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?. Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4310-7. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Cyprus dispute (10143 words)
The House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosópon/Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of Cyprus.
The districts (επαρχίες;) are the subnational subdivisions of Cyprus.
In 1950, Michael Mouskos, Bishop Makarios of Kition (Larnaca), was elevated to Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus.
Cyprus, Larnaka, Nicosia, Famagusta, Limassol, Kyrenia, Paphos (4363 words)
Cyprus is geographically in Western Asia (or the Near East), though politically and culturally it is considered as being in Europe.
Famagusta was occupied by the Turkish military during the invasion of the island by Turkey in 1974, in response to the Greek-backed coup.
Limassol is the second-largest city of Cyprus with a population of 161,000 (2001 census).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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