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Encyclopedia > Cyfarthfa Ironworks
The abandoned Cyfarthfa Ironworks.

The Cyfarthfa Ironworks was a major 19-century ironworks located in Cyfarthfa, near Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1757 KB) Summary Merthyr Tydfils abandoned Cyfarthfa Ironworks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1757 KB) Summary Merthyr Tydfils abandoned Cyfarthfa Ironworks. ... Ironworks at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and/or steel products are made. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: Merthyr Tudful) is a town and county borough in the traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd in...

Contents

The beginning

The Cyfarthfa works were begun in 1765 by Anthony Bacon, who in that year built the first blast furnace there. The smelting of iron ore was originally accomplished with charcoal, but diminishing supplies soon forced Bacon to use coal instead. Bacon directed activities at the works until his death in 1786, when the small but prosperous works were taken over by the owners of a small operation in Carmarthenshire. These owners maintained the modest capabilities of the Cyfarthfa works until Richard Crawshay gained sole ownership in 1794. 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Old Furnace, Ironbridge be merged into this article or section. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a county in Wales. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Crawshay heyday

Richard Crawshay 1794-1810

Under Richard Crawshay, the Cyfarthfa works rapidly became an important producer of iron products. England was involved in various naval conflicts during this time, and the demand for cannon and other weapons was great. The Cyfarthfa works became critical to the success of the war effort, so much so that Admiral Nelson paid a personal visit to the works in 1802. The Crawshay family crest included a pile of cannon balls in token of the crucial role of their ironworks. Richard passed on the responsibility for the works to his son, William, but the latter was less committed to the business than his father. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... War is an excellent way of political leaders to let off some steam. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... --69. ... William Crawshay (1764-1834) was a South Wales industrialist. ...


William Crawshay II 1810-1847

William Crawshay II was appointed by his father William Crawshay to manage the works after Richard's death in 1810. By 1819, the ironworks had grown to six blast furnaces, producing 23,000 tons of iron. The works continued to play an enormous role in providing high-quality iron to fuel the voracious appetite of the Industrial Revolution, with the tsar of Russia sending a representative to view the production of iron rails. During this time, the Cyfarthfa works lost its position as the leading ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil to its longtime rival, the Dowlais Ironworks. William Crawshay II (1788-1867) was the son of William Crawshay I, the owner of Cyfarthfa Ironworks in Merthyr Tydfil, south Wales. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... The Dowlais Ironworks was a major 19-century ironworks located near Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales. ...


It was also during this period (the female kind) that Crawshay had built a home, which became known as Cyfarthfa Castle. The buildings were erected in 1824, at a cost of £30,000. They were solidly and massively built of local stone, and designed by Robert Lugar, the same engineer who had built many bridges and viaducts for the local railways. It was designed in the form of a "sham" castle, complete with towers and turrets, in Norman and Gothic architectural styles, and occupied by William Crawshay II and his family. It stood, and still does, amid 158 acres of landscaped parkland, and overlooked the family-owned iron works just across the river. Cyfarthfa Castle is the former home of the iron-masters of Merthyr Tydfil. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Lugar (1773 - June 23, 1855), was an English architect and engineer during the Industrial Revolution. ...


Robert Thompson Crawshay 1847-1879

Robert Crawshay was the last of the great Crawshay ironmasters, as foreign competition and the rising cost of iron ore (much of which had to be imported as local supplies were exhausted) exacted a heavy toll on the Cyfarthfa works. Robert was reluctant to switch to the production of steel, but by 1874 the works was forced to close for a long and costly changeover that was not complete until 1884, five years after his death. The old Steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is sometimes described as a sea of electrons. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Decline and final closure

The Cyfarthfa works did not convert to steel production nearly as early as many other Merthyr Tydfil works, and the Crawshay heirs were unable to guide it back to its earlier commanding position in the market. By 1910, the steelworks had been forced to close again, and while it was briefly reopened in 1915 to aid in the production of materials for World War I, the works closed for the last time in 1919. It fell into disrepair until it was dismantled in 1928. The failure of the works was a devastating blow to the local community, as it had depended heavily on the works for its economic livelihood. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The works today

Portions of the enormous complex that formed the Cyfarthfa works remain intact today, including six of the original blast furnaces.


References

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Cyfarthfa Ironworks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (648 words)
The Cyfarthfa Ironworks was a major 19-century ironworks located in Cyfarthfa, near Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales.
The Cyfarthfa works were begun in 1765 by Anthony Bacon, who in that year built the first blast furnace there.
By 1819, the ironworks had grown to six blast furnaces, producing 23,000 tons of iron.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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