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Encyclopedia > Cyclone Tracy
Severe Tropical Cyclone Tracy
Category 4 cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 cyclone (SSHS)

Tracy near Darwin landfall
Formed December 21, 1974
Dissipated December 26, 1974
Highest
winds
≥217 km/h[1]
(135 mph) (disputed) (gusts)
Lowest pressure 950 hPa (mbar)[1]
Damage $4 billion (1998 AUD)[2]
$2.4 billion (1998 USD)
$4.73 billion (2005 USD)
Fatalities 71 direct
Areas
affected
Darwin, Northern Territory
Part of the
1970-75 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons

Cyclone Tracy was a tropical cyclone that devastated the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, from Christmas Eve to Christmas Day, 1974. It was the most compact tropical cyclone on record, with gale-force winds extending only 48 km (30 mi) from the centre.[3] After forming over the Arafura Sea, the storm moved upward and affected the city with Category 4 winds on the Australian cyclone intensity scale and the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, although there is evidence to suggest that it had reached Category 5 when it made landfall. NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... Image File history File links Cyclone_Tracy. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 1. ... USD redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... Port Darwin redirects here. ... The 1970-1975 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons ran year-round from July 1 to June 30 during each year between 1970 and 1975. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Central Darwin, circa 1986 Darwin is the capital of the Northern Territory, and is a city of 109,419 people (2001 census) on Australias far north-western coastline. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... The Arafura Sea is the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004 at its peak intensity. ...


Tracy killed 71 people, caused $837 million in damage (1974 AUD) and destroyed more than 70 percent of Darwin's buildings. Tracy left homeless more than 20,000 out of the 49,000 inhabitants of the city prior to landfall and required the evacuation of over 30,000 people.[4] Most of Darwin's population was evacuated to Adelaide, Whyalla, Alice Springs and Sydney, and many never returned to the city. After the storm passed, the city was rebuilt using more modern materials and updated building techniques. Bruce Stannard of The Age stated that Cyclone Tracy was a "disaster of the first magnitude ... without parallel in Australia's history." ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 1. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... City Plaza, Hummock Hill in the background Location of Whyalla in South Australia (red) Whyalla (33°02′S 137°34′E) is a city and port located on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula opposite Port Pirie in South Australia. ... Aerial, Alice Springs Alice Springs Landsat image Alice Springs is a town and the second largest centre in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century. ...

Contents

Storm history

Storm path
Storm path

On 20 December 1974, the United States' ESSA-8 environmental satellite recorded a large cloud mass centered over the Arafura Sea about 370 km (230 mi) northeast of Darwin. This disturbance was tracked by the Darwin Weather Bureau's regional director Ray Wilkie, and by senior meteorologist Geoff Crane. On December 21, 1974, ESSA-8 showed evidence of a newly formed circular centre near latitude 8° south and longitude 135° east.[5] The meteorological duty officer at the time, Geoff Crane, issued the initial tropical cyclone alert describing the storm as a tropical low that could develop into a tropical cyclone. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 584 KB) Summary Cyclone Tracy (1974) track. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 584 KB) Summary Cyclone Tracy (1974) track. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... ESSA-8 was a weather satellite launched by NASA on December 15, 1968. ... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... The Arafura Sea is the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ...


Later in the evening, the Darwin meteorological office received an infrared satellite image from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's satellite, NOAA-4, showing that the low pressure had developed further and that spiraling clouds could be observed. The storm was officially pronounced a tropical cyclone at around 10 p.m. on December 21, when it was around 200 km (125 mi) to the north-northeast of Cape Don (700 km or 435 mi northeast of Darwin).[6] Over the next few days, the cyclone moved in a southwesterly direction, passing north of Darwin on December 22. A broadcast on ABC Radio that day stated that Cyclone Tracy posed no immediate threat to Darwin. However, early in the morning of December 24, Tracy rounded Cape Fourcroy on the western tip of Bathurst Island, and moved in a southeasterly direction, straight towards Darwin.[7] The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... NOAA-4 was a weather satellite launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on November 15, 1974 and that remained operational for 1463 days until deactivated by NOAA on November 18, 1978. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western tip of Bathurst Island. ... Melville Island lies off the coast of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. ...


By late afternoon, the sky over the city was heavily overcast, with low clouds, and was experiencing strong rain. Wind gusts increased in strength; between 10 p.m. local time and midnight, the damage became serious, and residents began to realize that the cyclone would not just pass by the city, but rather over it. Despite Tracy's small size, the cyclone passed directly over Darwin after midnight, with its eye centered on the airport and northern suburbs. The wind gauge at Darwin Airport officially recorded winds of 217 km/h (135 mph) before being blown away itself. Unofficial estimates suggested that the wind speed had reached 300 km/h (185 mph). The winds and torrential rain continued until early dawn.[7] Eye of the storm redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The relative sizes of the United States, Cyclone Tracy, and Typhoon Tip, the smallest and largest tropical storms recorded, respectively.
The relative sizes of the United States, Cyclone Tracy, and Typhoon Tip, the smallest and largest tropical storms recorded, respectively.

Illustrating the extremes in tropical cyclone sizes. ... Illustrating the extremes in tropical cyclone sizes. ... Lowest pressure 870 hPa (mbar) (Worldwide record low) Fatalities 86 direct, 13 indirect Damage Unknown Areas affected Guam, Japan Part of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season For other storms of the same name, see Typhoon Tip (disambiguation). ...

Preparations

Darwin had been severely battered by cyclones before; in January 1897 and again in March 1937.[8] However, in the 20 years leading up to Cyclone Tracy, the city had undergone a period of rapid expansion. E.P. Milliken estimated that on the eve of the cyclone there were 43,500 people living in 12,000 dwellings in the Darwin area. Though building standards required that some attention be given to the possibility of cyclones, most buildings were not capable of withstanding the force of a cyclone's direct hit.


On the day of the cyclone, most residents of Darwin believed that the cyclone would not cause any damage to the city. Cyclone Selma had been predicted to hit Darwin earlier in the month, but it instead went north and dissipated without affecting Darwin in any way. As a result, Cyclone Tracy took most Darwin residents by surprise. Despite several warnings the people of Darwin did not evacuate or prepare for the cyclone. Journalist Bill Bunbury interviewed the residents of Darwin some time later and recorded the experiences of the survivors of the cyclone in his book Cyclone Tracy, picking up the pieces.[9] Resident Dawn Lawrie, a 1971 independent candidate for the electorate of Nightcliff, told him: Northern suburb of the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia ...

We'd had a cyclone warning only 10 days before Tracy [that another cyclone] was coming, it was coming, and it never came. So when we started hearing about Tracy we were all a little blasé. (Bunbury, p. 20)[9]

Another resident, Barbara Langkrens, said:

And you started to almost think that it would never happen to Darwin even though we had cyclone warnings on the radio all the time ... most of the people who had lived here for quite some time didn't really believe the warnings. (Bunbury, p. 21)[9]

Impact

Devastation brought by Cyclone Tracy upon the Northern Territory city of Darwin. Courtesy - National Archives of Australia A6135, K29/1/75/16
Devastation brought by Cyclone Tracy upon the Northern Territory city of Darwin.
Courtesy - National Archives of Australia A6135, K29/1/75/16
Houses after Tracy
House in Nakara, Northern suburbs, after Tracy
House in Nakara, Northern suburbs, after Tracy
HMAS Arrow beached in Francis Bay March 1975
The base of a steel electricity pole bent by Tracy

Cyclone Tracy killed 71 people[10], 49 of whom were on land and 22 were out at sea. Two RAN sailors died when HMAS Arrow, an Attack class patrol boat, sank at Stokes Hill Wharf. The storm also caused the substantial destruction of the city of Darwin. The initial estimate put the reported death toll at 65, but it was revised upwards in March 2005, when the Northern Territory Coroner proclaimed that those who still remained listed as missing had "perished at sea".[10][4] Image File history File links Cyclone_tracy_aerial_view_darwin. ... Image File history File links Cyclone_tracy_aerial_view_darwin. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Port Darwin redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixel Image in higher resolution (1064 × 700 pixel, file size: 407 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixel Image in higher resolution (1064 × 700 pixel, file size: 407 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 744 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (988 × 796 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 744 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (988 × 796 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixel Image in higher resolution (1112 × 664 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixel Image in higher resolution (1112 × 664 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Feel free to use it, just credit me as the photographer. ... HMAS Arrow (P 88) was an Attack-class patrol boat built by Walkers Limited at Maryborough in Queensland, launched on 17 February 1968 and commissioned on 3 July 1968. ... The Attack class patrol boats were small coastal defence vessels built for the Royal Australian Navy and operated between 1967 and 1985. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004...


Several factors delayed the dissemination of the news of the cyclone's impact. The destruction of transportation infrastructure and the distance between Darwin and the rest of the Australian population played a role, as did the fact the storm made landfall on Christmas Day and most media outlets had only a skeleton crew rostered on at best. Most Australians were not aware of the cyclone until late in the afternoon. Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


In order to provide the initial emergency response, a leadership committee was created. The committee, composed of several high-level public servants and police, stated that, "Darwin had, for the time being, ceased to exist as a city". Gough Whitlam, The Australian Prime Minister, was touring Syracuse at the time but flew to Darwin upon hearing of the disaster. Additionally, the Australian government began a mass evacuation by road and air; all of the Defence Force personnel throughout Australia, along with the entire Royal Australian Air Force's fleet of transport planes, were recalled from holiday leaves and deployed to evacuate civilians from Darwin, as well as to bring essential relief supplies to the area. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ...


Health and essential services crisis

As soon as the worst of the storm had passed, Darwin faced several immediate health crises. On Christmas Day, the Darwin Hospital treated well over five hundred patients, with 112 of these being admitted into the hospital, and both of the facility's operating theatres being utilized. The first casualties did not arrive till 7 a.m. because of high winds and severe road conditions in and around the Darwin area. Operating continued throughout the night and into the early morning. Local teams worked without relief until the arrival of a surgical team from Canberra late that day. Those who were considered unable to return to work within two weeks were evacuated by air to safer locations.


All official communications out of Darwin were no longer operational. The antennas at the Australian Coastal Radio Service station were destroyed during the storm. Station manager Bob Hooper, who was an amateur radio operator, helped to establish communications using his own amateur radio equipment, while several other operators provided message services to the cities of Perth, Melbourne, and Townsville. Soon afterward, VID operators went onboard the MV NYANDA in Darwin harbor and then for five days official communications traffic in and out of Darwin was handled via continuous wave radio. In biology, antenna (plural: antennae) refers to the sensing organs of several arthropods. ... An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Townsville in 2004. ... A continuous wave (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency. ...


Those who remained in Darwin faced the threat of several diseases due to much of the city being without water, electricity or basic sanitation. An inital response was to vaccinate residents for typhoid and cholera. Approximately 30,000 people were homeless, and were forced to seek shelter in several makeshift housing and emergency centers that lacked proper hygienic conditions. Volunteers came in from across the country to assist with the emergency relief efforts. Trench latrines were dug; water supplies delivered by tankers, and mass immunization programs begun. The army was given the task of searching houses for the dead bodies of people and animals plus locating other health risks; for example cleaning out rotting contents from fridges and freezers across the city. This was completed within a week. Houses which had been 'searched and cleared' had S&C painted on an external wall. The city itself was sprayed with malathion, in order to control mosquitoes and other similar pests. Male Latrine. ... Malathion is a organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. ...


Attempts to reconnect the essential services to the city began on Christmas Day. Local officers from the Commonwealth Department of Housing and Construction began clearing debris and working to restore power. They sealed off damaged water hydrants and activated pumps to reactivate the city's water and sewerage systems.


Evacuation and the public response

Major-General Alan Stretton, Director-General of the Natural Disasters Organisation,[11] and the Minister for the Northern Territory, Rex Patterson, arrived at Darwin Airport late on Christmas Day and took charge of the relief efforts. After an assessment of the situation and meetings with the Department of the Northern Territory and the relevant minister, it was concluded that Darwin's population needed to be reduced to a "safe level" of 10,500 people. This decision was made on the advice of Dr Charles Gurd, the Director of Health in the Northern Territory. Around 10,000 people left Darwin and the surrounding area within the first two days, but the rate of departures then began to slow down. The government then gave support to his position, offering full reimbursement of personal costs, as long as the evacuation took place. Major General Alan Stretton (retired) AO CBE (born 1922) is a former senior Australian Army officer. ...


The population was evacuated by air and ground transportation; due to communications difficulties with Darwin airport landing was limited to one plane every ninety minutes. At major airports teams of Salvation Army and Red Cross workers met refugees, with the Red Cross taking responsibility for keeping track of the names and temporary addresses of the refugees. Evacuations were prioritised according to need; women, children, the elderly and sick were evacuated first. There were reports of men dressing up as women to escape with the early evacuations. By 31 December only 10,638 people (mostly men who were required to help clean up the city) remained in Darwin. Stretton also regulated access to the city by means of a permit system. Permits were only issued to those who were involved in either the relief or reconstruction efforts, and were used to prevent the early return of those who were evacuated. Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Upon receiving news of the damage, several community groups across Australia began fundraising and relief efforts to assist the survivors. Major reception centers were set up in several cites such as Katherine, Tennant Creek and Alice Springs. Several of the small towns along the Stuart Highway made efforts to assist people who were fleeing by road, supplying them with food, fuel, rest, and mechanical aid. At Adelaide River, the small local population provided hot meals to the refugees who stopped there. Approximately twenty-four hours after the storm hit Darwin, the population of Alice Springs had raised well over $105,000 to assist the victims of Tracy. In Melbourne at the Boxing Day Test cricket match, members of both teams moved around the boundaries carrying buckets into which the crowd threw cash into for the relief funds. Darwin families were also given priority on public housing waiting lists. On December 31, 1974, Stretton recommended that full civilian control should resume in Darwin, and handed over control of the city to its elected officials. Look up Katherine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tennant Creek is a town located in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... Alice Springs on a large scale map Alice Springs is a large town in the Northern Territory of Australia located at 23°42′ S 133°52′ E. Its population of 28,178 (2001 Census) makes it the second-largest settlement in the Territory (the only other towns of significant size... Adelaide River is the name of more than one place in Australia: Adelaide River, the river Adelaide River, the township This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alice Springs on a large scale map Alice Springs is a large town in the Northern Territory of Australia located at 23°42′ S 133°52′ E. Its population of 28,178 (2001 Census) makes it the second-largest settlement in the Territory (the only other towns of significant size... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... For the womens version of the game, see Womens Test cricket. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Aftermath

Reconstruction and effects on Darwin

In February 1975, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam announced the creation of the Darwin Reconstruction Commission, which was given the task of rebuilding the city "within five years". The Commission was headed by the Lord Mayor of Brisbane, Clem Jones. The damage to the city was so severe that some advocated moving the entire city. However, the government insisted that it be rebuilt in the same location. By May 1975, Darwin's population had recovered somewhat, with 30,000 residing in the city. Temporary housing, caravans, hotels and an ocean liner MV Patris, were used to house people, as reconstruction of permanent housing had not yet begun by September that year. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city. ... Clem Jones AO was the ALP Lord Mayor of the city of Brisbane from 1961 to 1975. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, by the following April, and after receiving criticism for the slow speed of reconstruction, the Commission had built 3,000 new homes in the nearly destroyed northern suburbs, and completed repairs to those that had survived the storm. Several new building codes were drawn up, trying to achieve the competing goals of the speedy recovery of the area and ensuring that there would be no repeat of the damage that Darwin took in 1974. By 1978, much of the city had recovered and was able to house as almost the same number of people as it had before the cyclone hit. However, as many as sixty percent of Darwin's 1974 population were no longer living in the city in the 1980s. In the years that followed, Darwin was almost entirely rebuilt and now shows almost no resemblance to the Darwin of December 1974. A building code is a set of laws that specify how buildings should be constructed. ...


Until 1974, the Northern Territory had minimal self-government, with a federal minister being responsible for the Territory from Canberra. However, the cyclone and subsequent responses highlighted several problems with the way the regional government was set up which led to the decision of Malcolm Fraser, Whitlam's successor as Prime Minister, to give self-government to the Territory in 1978. For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ...


Many of the government documents associated with Cyclone Tracy became publicly available early in 2005, due to Australian Freedom of Information legislation allowing the declassification of confidential government documents and information after the passage of thirty years.


Cyclone Tracy in popular culture

Cyclone Tracy, due to its severity, has entered into the popular culture of Australia in a way that no other meteorological event has ever before, or has since. Probably the most famous work that it has inspired is the song "Santa Never made it into Darwin" composed by Bill Cate[12] and performed by Bill (Cate) and Boyd (Robinson) in 1975 to raise money for the relief and reconstruction efforts. Subsequently the song became so well-known that in 1983 Hoodoo Gurus released "Tojo Never Made it to Darwin", a song comparing the Japanese bombing of Darwin under the command of Hideki Tojo during World War II to the damage done by Cyclone Tracy. The much feared Japanese invasion never happened, but the cyclone that was virtually ignored ended up destroying the city.[13] Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... Hoodoo Gurus (referred to as the Gurus by fans) are an Australian rock band, formed in Sydney in 1981,[1] by the mainstay Dave Faulkner (songwriter, lead singer and guitarist) and later joined by Richard Grossman (bass), Mark Kingsmill (drums), and Brad Shepherd (guitar, vocals, harmonica). ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1986 the Nine Network and PBL created Cyclone Tracy, a period drama mini-series based on the events during the cyclone. Michael Fisher, Ted Roberts, and Leon Saunders wrote the series, and it starred Chris Haywood and Tracy Mann, who played the lead characters of Steve and Connie. The Nine Network, or Channel Nine, is an Australian television network based in Willoughby, a suburb on the North Shore of Sydney. ... PBL may stand for: Pablo Baños López Philippine Basketball League Problem-based learning Publishing and Broadcasting Limited Polski Blok Ludowy (Polish Peasants Bloc) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A miniseries, in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Chris Haywood (born 24 July 1948 in Billericay, Essex, England) is an actor/producer who found success with over 400 individual performances in Australian film and television. ... Tracy Mann is an Australian actress. ...


Australian heavy metal band, Cyclone Tracy, took their name from the tropical disaster. Heavy metal redirects here. ...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal 
  • List of tropical cyclones

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ...

References

Publications
  • Mckay, Gary (2004). Tracy: The storm that wiped out Darwin on Christmas Day 1974. Crows Nest, Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-558-8. 
  • Milliken, E. P. (April 1984). People Who Experienced Darwin Cyclone Tracy: Human Responses in Report on Proceedings of a Research Workshop on Human Behaviour in Australia. National Disasters Organisation, Australian Defence Department. 
  • "Mr. Whitlam on the spot.", The Age, 1974-12-28, pp. 9, 3 – 5. 
  • (1999) in Olds, Margaret (Managing editor); Chan, Gabrielle (Associate editor); et al.: Australia Through Time (7th ed.). Sydney: Random House Publications, 441. ISBN 0-09-183815-0. 
  • Sea Power Centre - Australia, Royal Australian Navy. "SEMAPHORE Issue 14 (occasional series)", Newsletter of the Sea Power Centre - Australia that deals with the Navy's response to Cyclone Tracy, December 2004. 
Websites
  • Fact Sheet number 176. National Archives of Australia (September 2000). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
Notes
  1. ^ a b Cyclone Tracey, Christmas 1974. Bureau of Meteorology (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  2. ^ Bureau of Meteorology - Frequently Asked Questions. Bureau of Meteorology (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-24.
  3. ^ Tropical Cyclone Structure. JetStream. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2005-10-19). Retrieved on 2006-03-24.
  4. ^ a b "EMA Disasters Database - Tropical Cyclone Tracey", Emergency Management Australia, 2005-05-29. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 
  5. ^ Meteorological Cyclones Information - Countdown to the impact of Cyclone Tracey. Northern Territory Library. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  6. ^ Meteorological Cyclones Information - Warnings issued for Cyclone Tracey. Northern Territory Library. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  7. ^ a b Fact Sheet number 176. National Archives of Australia (September 2000). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  8. ^ Previous cyclones in Darwin - Cyclone Tracey. Northern Territory Library. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  9. ^ a b c Bunbury, Bill (1994). Cyclone Tracy, picking up the pieces. Fremantle, Western Australia:: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 1-86368-112-4. 
  10. ^ a b "NT coroner hands down finding on Cyclone Tracy deaths", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2005-03-18. Retrieved on 2006-03-24. 
  11. ^ "National Archives of Australia Fact Sheet 176", National Archives of Australia, 2000-09-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 
  12. ^ Australasian Performing Right Association. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
  13. ^ Bill Cate. Santa Never Made it into Darwin. Retrieved on 2006-03-24.

External links

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More spoken articles
  • Cyclone Tracy newsreel
  • Northern Territory Library on Cyclone Tracy
  • Collected oral histories of Cyclone Tracy
  • Houses destroyed by Cyclone Tracy, Darwin, December, 1974 (picture) / Alan Dwyer.
  • Meteorological Information
  • Weather satellite image of Tropical Cyclone Tracy 25 December 1974 (9.55am Darwin time, 0025 Greenwich Mean Time), over Darwin, Northern Territory, from NOAA 4.
  • Records about Cyclone Tracy from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology
  • Addional Information on Cyclone Tracy
  • Australia Broadcasting Corp. Rewind on Cyclone Tracy
Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emergency Management Australia (EMA) is an Australian Federal Government Agency tasked with coordinating governmental responses to emergency incidents. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Archives of Australia building on Queen Victoria Terrace in Canberra, May 2007. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Cyclone_Tracy. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

 
 

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