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Encyclopedia > Cyclone
Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987
Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987

In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of low atmospheric pressure characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere of the Earth.[1][2] The generic term covers a wide variety of meteorological phenomena. These include tropical cyclones and extratropical cyclones, so meteorologists rarely use "cyclone" without additional qualification. Cyclogenesis describes the process of development for extratropical cyclones,[3] while tropical cyclogenesis describes the process of development of tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones, polar lows, and mesocyclones are smaller warm core systems which lie within the mesoscale, while extratropical cyclones and polar cyclones are larger cold core systems which are on the synoptic scale.[4][5] Cyclones have also been seen on other planets outside of the Earth, such as Mars and Neptune.[6][7] Cyclone may refer to several different things: cyclobenzaprine Cyclone frozen treat, made by Nestlé In technology: The CH-148 Cyclone is the Canadian Forces Air Command designation for the Sikorsky H-92 Superhawk Helicopter. ... Image File history File links Polar_low. ... Image File history File links Polar_low. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... The Clockwise direction A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... A meteorological phenomenon is a weather event which can be explained by the principles of meteorology. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ... The term mesoscale is a size scale referring to weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than storm-scale systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Synoptic scale meteorology. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Structure

There are a number of structural characteristics common to all cyclones. As they are low pressure areas, their center is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure in the region, often known in mature tropical cyclones as the eye.[8] Near the center, the pressure gradient force (from the pressure in the center of the cyclone compared to the pressure outside the cyclone) and the Coriolis force must be in an approximate balance, or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a result of the difference in pressure.[9] The wind flow around a large cyclone is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere as a result of the Coriolis effect. (An anticyclone, on the other hand, rotates clockwise in the northern hemisphere, and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.) A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... Eye of the storm redirects here. ... The pressure gradient force is the force that is usually responsible for accelerating a parcel of air from a high atmospheric pressure region to a low pressure region, resulting in wind. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ...


Formation

The initial low pressure area forms at the location of the red dot on the image. It is usually perpendicular (at a right angle to) the leaf-like cloud formation seen on satellite during the early stage of cyclogenesis. The location of the axis of the upper level jet stream is in light blue.
The initial low pressure area forms at the location of the red dot on the image. It is usually perpendicular (at a right angle to) the leaf-like cloud formation seen on satellite during the early stage of cyclogenesis. The location of the axis of the upper level jet stream is in light blue.
Main article: Cyclogenesis

Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere (a low pressure area).[3] Cyclogenesis is an umbrella term for several different processes, all of which result in the development of some sort of cyclone. It can occur at various scales, from the microscale to the synoptic scale. usually known for sexExtratropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts before occluding later in their life cycle as cold core cyclones. Tropical cyclones form due to latent heat driven by significant thunderstorm activity, and are warm core.[10] Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, and can lead to tornado formation.[11] Waterspouts can also form from mesocyclones, but more often develop from environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear.[12] Cyclogenesis is the opposite of cyclolysis, and has an anticyclonic (high pressure system) equivalent which deals with the formation of high pressure areasAnticyclogenesis.[13] For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the atmosphere. ... Image:NWS weather fronts. ... Waterspouts on the beach of Kijkduin near The Hague, the Netherlands on 2006 August 27. ... For the Marvel Comics character, see Windshear (comics). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Anticyclone. ... Anticyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of anticyclonic circulation in the atmosphere. ...


Categorization

There are six main types of cyclones: Polar cyclones, Polar lows, Extratropical cyclones, Subtropical cyclones, Tropical cyclones, and Mesocyclones. Polar cyclones (also known as Arctic Cyclones) are vast areas of low pressure. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Image:Http://upload. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ...


Polar cyclone

Main article: Polar cyclone

Polar, sub-polar, or Arctic cyclones (also known as the polar vortex)[14] are vast areas of low pressure which stengthen in the winter and weaken in the summer.[15] A polar cyclone is a low pressure weather system, usually spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), in which the air circulates in a counterclockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, and a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar cyclone has two centers on average. One center lies near Baffin Island and the other over northeast Siberia.[14] In the southern hemisphere, it tends to be located near the edge of the Ross ice shelf near 160 west longitude.[16] When the polar vortex is strong, westerly flow descends to the earth's surface. When the polar cyclone is weak, significant cold outbreaks occur.[17] Polar cyclones (also known as Arctic Cyclones) are vast areas of low pressure. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ...


Polar low

Main article: Polar low

A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The systems usually have a horizontal length scale of less than 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) and exist for no more than a couple of days. They are part of the larger class of mesoscale weather systems. Polar lows can be difficult to detect using conventional weather reports and are a hazard to high-latitude operations, such as shipping and gas and oil platforms. Polar lows have been referred to by many other terms, such as polar mesoscale vortex, Arctic hurricane, Arctic low, and cold air depression. Today the term is usually reserved for the more vigorous systems that have near-surface winds of at least 17 m/s.[18] Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... In meteorology, a Polar Front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere. ... Mesoscale Meteorology refers to weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than storm-scale cumulus systems. ...


Extratropical

A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK and Ireland. The blue arrows between isobars indicate the direction of the wind, while the "L" symbol denotes the centre of the "low". Note the occluded, cold and warm frontal boundaries.
Main article: Extratropical cyclone

An extratropical cyclone is a synoptic scale low pressure weather system that has neither tropical nor polar characteristics, being connected with fronts and horizontal gradients in temperature and dew point otherwise known as "baroclinic zones".[19] Image File history File links UK-Cyclone. ... Image File history File links UK-Cyclone. ... Isobar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometres (about 620 miles) or more [1]. This corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitude depressions. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Polar cyclones (also known as Arctic Cyclones) are vast areas of low pressure. ... A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. ... In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalar field is a vector field which points in the direction of the greatest rate of change of the scalar field, and whose magnitude is the greatest rate of change. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The dew point (or dewpoint) is the temperature which a given parcel of air must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water. ...


The descriptor "extratropical" refers to the fact that this type of cyclone generally occurs outside of the tropics, in the middle latitudes of the planet. These systems may also be described as "mid-latitude cyclones" due to their area of formation, or "post-tropical cyclones" where extratropical transition has occurred,[19][20] and are often described as "depressions" or "lows" by weather forecasters and the general public. These are the everyday phenomena which along with anti-cyclones, drive the weather over much of the Earth. A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. ...


Although extratropical cyclones are almost always classified as baroclinic since they form along zones of temperature and dewpoint gradient, they can sometimes become barotropic late in their life cycle when the temperature distribution around the cyclone becomes fairly uniform with radius.[21] In fluid dynamics, the baroclinity (sometimes called baroclinicity) is a measure of the stratification in a fluid. ... A barotropic atmosphere is one in which the density depends only on the pressure, so that isobaric surfaces are also surfaces of constant density. ...


Subtropical

Main article: Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. They can form between the equator and the 50th parallel.[22] As early as the 1950s, meteorologists were unclear whether they should be characterized as tropical cyclones or extratropical cyclones, and used terms such as quasi-tropical and semi-tropical to describe the cyclone hybrids.[23] By 1972, the National Hurricane Center officially recognized this cyclone category.[24] Subtropical cyclones began to receive names off the official tropical cyclone list in the Atlantic Basin in 2002.[22] They have broad wind patterns with maximum sustained winds located farther from the center than typical tropical cyclones, and exist in areas of weak to moderate temperature gradient.[22] Since they form from initially extratropical cyclones which have colder temperatures aloft than normally found in the tropics, the sea surface temperatures required for their formation are lower than the tropical cyclone threshold by three degrees Celsius, or five degrees Fahrenheit, lying around 23 degrees Celsius.[25] This means that subtropical cyclones are more likely to form outside the traditional bounds of the hurricane season. Image:Http://upload. ... For other uses, see Weather (disambiguation). ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Tropical

Main article: Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and flooding rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapour contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... Cyclone Catarina was an extremely rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone. ... A South Atlantic tropical cyclone is an unusual weather event which occurs in the southern Atlantic Ocean, south of the equator. ... ISS redirects here. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A low, or a low pressure area, is a region of rising atmospheric air. ... A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Boundaries: Phase, Pressure, Temperature Evaporation/Sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. ... Satellite image of the intense noreaster responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. ... A case of extremely rapid cyclogenesis A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards northwestern Europe in the winter months. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ...


The term "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in Maritime Tropical air masses. The term "cyclone" refers to such storms' cyclonic nature, with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply as a cyclone.[26] A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... In meteorology, an air mass is a large volume of air having fairly uniform characteristics of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor content. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, they are also able to produce high waves and damaging storm surge.[27] They develop over large bodies of warm water,[28] and lose their strength if they move over land.[29] This is the reason coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from receiving strong winds. Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the coastline. Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can also relieve drought conditions.[30] They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere, and to maintain a relatively stable and warm temperature worldwide. This article is about precipitation. ... Impact of a storm surge A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically a tropical cyclone. ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ...


Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics. Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye. On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates. Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Eye of the storm redirects here. ...


Mesoscale

A mesocyclone from the Greensburg, Kansas tornado indicated on Doppler weather radar.
Main article: Mesocyclone

A mesocyclone is a vortex of air, approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter (the mesoscale of meteorology), within a convective storm.[31] Air rises and rotates around a vertical axis, usually in the same direction as low pressure systems in a given hemisphere. They are most often cyclonic, that is, associated with a localized low-pressure region within a severe thunderstorm.[32] Such storms can feature strong surface winds and severe hail. Mesocyclones often occur together with updrafts in supercells, where tornadoes may form. About 1700 mesocyclones form annually across the United States, but only half produce tornadoes.[11] Mesocyclones are believed to form when strong changes of wind speed and/or direction with height ("wind shear") sets parts of the lower part of the atmosphere spinning in invisible tube-like rolls. The convective updraft of a thunderstorm is then thought to draw up this spinning air, tilting the rolls' orientation upward (from parallel to the ground to perpendicular) and causing the entire updraft to rotate as a vertical column. Mesocyclones are normally relatively localized: they lie between the synoptic scale (hundreds of kilometers) and microscale (hundreds of meters). Radar imagery is used to identify these features.[33] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 735 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 653 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is an image of the Doppler radar wind velocities in the Greensburg, Kansas tornado on May 4, 2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 735 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 653 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This is an image of the Doppler radar wind velocities in the Greensburg, Kansas tornado on May 4, 2007. ... 1Time from first tornado to last tornado 2Most severe tornado damage; see Enhanced Fujita Scale The May 2007 Tornado Outbreak was an extended tornado outbreak that started on May 4, 2007, affecting portions of the Central United States. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA) Environment Canada King City (CWKR) weather radar station. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ... The term mesoscale is a size scale referring to weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than storm-scale systems. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A severe thunderstorm is a thunderstorm with winds 58 mph or greater, 3/4 inch or larger hail, or tornadoes. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... Satellite view of a supercell A supercell is a severe thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft (a mesocyclone) [1]. Supercell thunderstorms are the largest, most severe class of single-cell thunderstorms. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... For the Marvel Comics character, see Windshear (comics). ... The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometres (about 620 miles) or more [1]. This corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitude depressions. ...


Extraterrestrial cyclones

Main article: Extraterrestrial cyclone
Cyclone on Mars, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope
Cyclone on Mars, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope

Cyclones are not unique to Earth. Cyclonic storms are common on Jovian planets, like the Small Dark Spot on Neptune. Also known as the Wizard's Eye, it is about one third the diameter of the Great Dark Spot. It received the name "Wizard's Eye" because it looks like an eye. This appearance is caused by a white cloud in the middle of the Wizard's Eye.[34] Mars has also exhibited cyclonic storms.[6] Jovian storms like the Great Red Spot are usually mistakenly named as giant hurricanes or cyclonic storms. However, this is inaccurate, as the Great Red Spot is, in fact, the inverse phenomenon, an anticyclone.[35] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Great Dark Spot (top), Scooter (middle white cloud), and Dark Spot 2 (bottom). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... Great Dark Spot (top), Scooter (middle white cloud), and the Wizards eye (bottom). ... This article is about the planet. ... A false-color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter from Voyager 1. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ... Polar cyclones (also known as Arctic Cyclones) are vast areas of low pressure. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... Image:Http://upload. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ...

References

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  2. ^ UCAR Glossary - Cyclone. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  3. ^ a b Arctic Climatology and Meteorology. Cyclogenesis. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  4. ^ Robert Hart (2003-02-18). Cyclone Phase Analysis and Forecast: Help Page. Florida State University Department of Meteorology. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  5. ^ Orlanski, I., 1975. A rational subdivision of scales for atmospheric processes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 56(5), 527-530.
  6. ^ a b David Brand. Colossal cyclone swirling near Martian north pole is observed by Cornell-led team on Hubble telescope. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  7. ^ NASA. Historic Hurricanes. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  8. ^ Landsea, Chris and Sim Aberson. (August 13, 2004). What is the "eye"?. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  9. ^ University of Aberdeen. The Atmosphere in Motion. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  10. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What is an extra-tropical cyclone?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  11. ^ a b Forces of Nature. Tornadoes : the mesocyclone. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  12. ^ National Weather Service Key West summary of waterspout types: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/eyw/HTML/spoutweb.htm
  13. ^ American Meteorological Society Glossary - Cyclogenesis. Allen Press Inc. (2000-06). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  14. ^ a b Glossary of Meteorology. Polar vortex. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  15. ^ Halldór Björnsson. Global circulation. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  16. ^ Rui-Rong Chen, Don L. Boyer, and Lijun Tao. Laboratory Simulation of Atmospheric Motions in the Vicinity of Antarctica. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  17. ^ James E. Kloeppel. Stratosheric polar vortex influences winter cold, researchers say. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  18. ^ Rasmussen,E.A. and Turner, J.(2003). Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 612.
  19. ^ a b Dr. DeCaria (2005-12-07). ESCI 241 – Meteorology; Lesson 16 – Extratropical Cyclones. Department of Earth Sciences, Millersville University, Millersville, Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  20. ^ Robert Hart and Jenni Evans (2003). Synoptic Composites of the Extratropical Transition Lifecycle of North Atlantic TCs as Defined Within Cyclone Phase Space. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
  21. ^ Ryan N. Maue. CHAPTER 3: CYCLONE PARADIGMS AND EXTRATROPICAL TRANSITION CONCEPTUALIZATIONS. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  22. ^ a b c Chris Landsea. Subject: A6) What is a sub-tropical cyclone? Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  23. ^ David B. Spiegler. Reply. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  24. ^ R. H. Simpson and Paul J. Hebert. Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1972. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  25. ^ David Mark Roth (2002-02-15). A Fifty year History of Subtropical Cyclones. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  26. ^ National Hurricane Center (2005). Glossary of NHC/TPC Terms. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  27. ^ James M. Shultz, Jill Russell and Zelde Espinel (2005). Epidemiology of Tropical Cyclones: The Dynamics of Disaster, Disease, and Development. Oxford Journal. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  28. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: How do tropical cyclones form?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  29. ^ National Hurricane Center. Subject : C2) Doesn't the friction over land kill tropical cyclones? Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  30. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2005 Tropical Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Outlook. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  31. ^ American Meteorological Society Glossary - Mesocyclone. Allen Press Inc. (2000-06). Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  32. ^ National Weather Service Forecast Office State College, Pennsylvania. Splitting Storm and Anti-cyclonic Rotating Mesocyclone in a Thunderstorm over Elk County July 10th, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.
  33. ^ Roger Edwards. The Online Tornado FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions About Tornadoes. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  34. ^ NASA. Historic Hurricanes. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
  35. ^ Ellen Cohen. Jupiter's Great Red Spot. Hayden Planetarium. Retrieved on 2007-11-16.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Fundamental of Physical Geography: The Mid-Latitude Cyclone - Dr. Michael Pidwirny, University of British Columbia, Okanagan
  • Glossary Definition: Cyclogenesis - The National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • Glossary Definition: Cyclolysis - The National Snow and Ice Data Center
  • Weather Facts: The Polar Low - Weather Online UK
  • NOAA FAQ
  • Cyclones 'ClearlyExplained'
  • The EM-DAT International Disaster Database by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
Category: ...

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Bureau-Bureau of Meteorology - Surviving Cyclones (2365 words)
cyclone watch messages and warnings from around the country.
Tropical Cyclones are low pressure systems in the tropics that, in the Southern Hemisphere, have well defined clockwise wind circulations with a region surrounding the centre with gale force winds (sustained winds of 63 km/h or greater with gusts in excess of 90 km/h).
Cyclones have wind gusts in excess of 90 km/h around their centres and, in the most severe cyclones, gusts can exceed 280 km/h.
AT&T Labs Research (101 words)
Cyclone is a programming language based on C that is safe, meaning that it rules out programs that have buffer overflows, dangling pointers, format string attacks, and so on.
The goal of Cyclone is to give programmers the same low-level control and performance of C without sacrificing safety, and to make it easy to port or interface with legacy C code.
Cyclone is a joint project of ATandT Labs Research, Harvard, the University of Maryland, and the University of Washington.
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