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Encyclopedia > Cycling

Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. It is done on roads and paths, across open country, through tunnels, over bridges, on snow, or even over ice (icebiking). For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... A Torker unicycle A unicycle is a one-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... Fun redirects here. ... This article is about water ice. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Police officer on a bicycle
Police officer on a bicycle

Contents

From USAID page File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From USAID page File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Introduction

As a sport, cycling is governed internationally by the Union Cycliste Internationale in Switzerland (for upright bicycles) and by the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (for other HPVs, or human-powered vehicles). Cycling for transport and touring is promoted on a European level by the European Cyclists' Federation, with associated members from Great Britain, Japan and elsewhere. Regular conferences on cycling for transport are held under the auspices of Velo City; global conferences are coordinated by Velo Mondial [2]. Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ... An upright bicycle is a bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals; this is the type most commonly seen. ... The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is an association dedicated to promoting the design and development of human powered vehicles. ... European Cyclists Federation is an umbrella organisation for national cycling organisations throughout Europe. ... Velo-City is a series of cycle planning conferences occurring every two years. ...


Equipment

Main article: bicycle
Dutch utility bicycle featuring rear internal hub brake, chaincase and mudguards, kickstand for parking, permanently attached dynamo-powered lamps and upswept handlebars for a more natural grip position.

In many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. These have frames with so-called relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks from the road, and easing low speeds steering. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, which reduces air resistance at high speed. For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Dutch utility bicycle - from Polish wikipedia Description: A Dutch utility bicycle (Pointer Corzano) Taken: 25/09/2004 Photographer: --Brosen Copyright status: Tagged PD on Polish page This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Dutch utility bicycle - from Polish wikipedia Description: A Dutch utility bicycle (Pointer Corzano) Taken: 25/09/2004 Photographer: --Brosen Copyright status: Tagged PD on Polish page This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ...


The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000[3], depending on quality, type and weight (the most exotic road bicycles can weigh as little as 3.2kg (7 lb)) [4]). Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying.


The drivetrain components of the bike should also be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes come equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-crank (three chainrings) front gear system may be preferred. Otherwise, the relatively lighter and less expensive two chainrings may be better. For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Shimano XT rear derailleur on a mountain bike Derailleur gears are a variable ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ... Hub gears or internal-gear hubs are a type of gear system used on bicycles. ... Hill climbing is one of the key skills required to make cycling more enjoyable. ... A Shimano Deore right crankset, showing crank arm, spider, three chainrings and chainring guard The crankset, or chainset, is the component of a bicycle drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the riders legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain, which in turn drives the rear wheel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many road bikes include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach via a cleat, permitting the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include locks, mudguards (UK)/fenders (US), luggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. A bicycle pedal provides the connection between the cyclists foot or shoe and the crankarm allowing the leg to be used to turn the crank. ... A cleat is a type of shoe designed especially for sports played on grass or dirt, such as soccer. ...

Cycling with just a backpack
Cycling with just a backpack

For basic maintenance and repairs, cyclists can choose to carry a pump, a spare inner tube, a CO2 cartridge, a puncture repair kit and tyre levers. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes, gloves, and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket, trousers and overshoes. A backpack A backpack is, in its simplest form, a cloth sack carried on ones back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders (called shoulder straps) and below the armpits. ... Bicycle Floor Pump Foot operated bike pump Frame mounted bike pump A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement pump specifically designed for inflating balls (basket,soccer). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... ... Sidi womens road cycling shoe using three-bolt cleat. ... Cycling gloves are gloves designed for cycling. ... Daniel Czajkowski wearing cycling shorts Cycling shorts (also known as bike shorts or bicycling shorts) are short, skin-tight legwear designed to improve comfort and efficiency while cycling. ...


Items legally required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lighting, and audible signaling devices such as a bell or horn. Extras include studded tires and a bicycle computer. Bicycle helmet A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. ... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... Firestone tire A tire (U.S. spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a device covering the circumference of a wheel. ... An electronical speedometer mounted atop bicycle handle bars. ...


Skills

Main article: vehicular cycling

Learning to ride efficiently and safely in traffic is important. In the United Kingdom, many primary school children take the Cycling Proficiency Test, to help them travel more safely. However, the Cycling Proficiency Test has now been superseded, for children, by 'Bikeability' and the National Standards for Cycle Training. In countries such as the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists sometimes ride in bike lanes at the side of or separate from, the main highway. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in which children individually complete a circuit on roads near the school while being observed by testers. Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of driving bicycles on roads in a manner which is visible, predictable, and in accordance with the principles for driving a vehicle in traffic. ... The Cycling Proficiency Test is a test offered by RoSPA which serves as a minimum recommended standard for cycling on British roads. ...


Types of cycling

City

Main article: Bicycle friendly
Swiss Cyclist. Bicycles are considered a sustainable mode of transport, especially suited for urban use and relatively shorter distances when used for transport (compared to recreation).
Swiss Cyclist. Bicycles are considered a sustainable mode of transport, especially suited for urban use and relatively shorter distances when used for transport (compared to recreation).
A parking lot for bicycles in Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

Cyclists, pedestrians and motorists make different demands on road design which may lead to conflicts. Some jurisdictions give priority to motorised traffic, for example setting up one-way street systems, free-right turns, high capacity roundabouts, and slip roads. Others may apply traffic restraint measures to limit the impact of motorised transport. In the former cases, cycling has tended to decline while in the latter it has tended to be maintained. Occasionally, extreme measures against cycling may occur. In Shanghai, where bicycles were once the dominant mode of transport, bicycle travel on a few city roads was banned temporarily in December 2003. Bicycle-friendly is a descriptive term that describes policies, places and practices which make it easier for people to ride bicycles. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1792x1200, 528 KB) Summary A parking lot for bicycles in Niigata,_Niigata, Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1792x1200, 528 KB) Summary A parking lot for bicycles in Niigata,_Niigata, Japan. ... Niigata ) is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ...


In areas in which cycling is popular and encouraged, cycle-parking facilities using bicycle stands, lockable mini-garages, and patrolled cycle parks are used to reduce theft. Local governments promote cycling by permitting the carriage of bicycles on public transport or by providing external attachment devices on public transport vehicles. Conversely, an absence of secure cycle-parking is a recurring complaint by cyclists from cities with low modal share of cycling.


Extensive bicycle path systems may be found in some cities. Such dedicated paths often have to be shared with in-line skaters, scooters, skateboarders, and pedestrians. Segregating bicycle and automobile traffic in cities has met with mixed success, both in terms of safety and bicycle promotion. At some point the two streams of traffic inevitably intersect, often in a haphazard and congested fashion. Studies have demonstrated that, due to the high incidence of accidents at these sites, some such segregated schemes can actually increase the number of car-bike collisions.[1] This article or section should include material from Cycle path debate Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ...


Bicycles are considered a sustainable mode of transport, especially suited for urban use and relatively shorter distances when used for transport (compared to recreation). Case studies and good practices (from European cities and some world-wide examples) that promote and stimulate this kind of functional cycling in cities can be found at Eltis, Europe's portal for local transport. ELTIS (www. ...


In the Netherlands bicycle paths are widespread and are (in the cities) not allowed for scooters. Cyclists in the Netherlands are well protected as the law assumes the stronger participant (i.e. the car) guilty party in all accidents involving weaker traffic unless evidence of the opposite is provided. Furthermore, drivers know to expect bikes, which are plentiful and treat traffic rules more as guidelines. Due to these issues the number of car-bike collisions with serious consequences is not alarmingly high in the Netherlands


Commercial

Main article: utility cycling

The postal services of many countries have long relied on bicycles. The British Royal Mail first started using bicycles in 1880; now bicycle delivery fleets include 37,000 in the UK, 25,700 in Germany, 10,500 in Hungary and 7000 in Sweden. The London Ambulance Service has recently introduced bicycling paramedics, who can often get to the scene of an incident in Central London more quickly than a motorised ambulance. Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... The London Ambulance Service (LAS) is the largest ambulance service in the world that does not directly charge its patients for its services. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ...

A bicycle loaded with tender coconut for sale. Karnataka, India
A bicycle loaded with tender coconut for sale. Karnataka, India

Late in the 20th century, urban police bicycles became more common, as the mobility of car-borne officers was increasingly limited by traffic congestion and pedestrianisation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1045x784, 180 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1045x784, 180 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... A bicycle loaded with tender coconut for sale. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Pedestrian street be merged into this article or section. ...


Bicycles enjoy substantial use as general delivery vehicles in many countries. In the UK and North America, generations of teenagers have got their first jobs delivering newspapers by bicycle. London has many delivery companies that use bicycles with trailers. Most cities in the West, and many outside it, support a sizeable and visible industry of cycle couriers who deliver documents and small packages. In India, many of Mumbai's Dabbawalas use bicycles to deliver home cooked lunches to the city’s workers. In Bogotá, Colombia the city’s largest bakery recently replaced most of its delivery trucks with bicycles. Even the car industry uses bicycles. At the huge Mercedes-Benz factory in Sindelfingen, Germany workers use bicycles, colour-coded by department, to move around the factory.
Bicycle messenger in Atlanta doing a track stand. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Dabbawala in action A dabbawala (literally, one who carries a box, see Etymology), also spelled as dabbawalla or dabbawallah is a person in the Indian city of Mumbai who is employed in a unique service industry whose primary business is collecting the freshly cooked food in lunch boxes from the... Bogota redirects here. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Sindelfingen is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg with about 60,000 residents and is about 15 km south west of Stuttgart, Germany. ...


Recreational

Main article: bicycle touring
In the Netherlands, bicycles are freely available for use in the Hoge Veluwe National Park
In the Netherlands, bicycles are freely available for use in the Hoge Veluwe National Park

Bicycles are used for recreation at all ages. Bicycle touring, also known as cyclotourism, involves touring and exploration or sightseeing by bicycle for leisure. A brevet or randonnée is an organized long-distance ride. A type of touring bicycle Bicycle touring is a leisure travel activity which involves touring, exploring or sightseeing by bicycle. ... Download high resolution version (868x614, 150 KB)Loan bicycles as can be found on the Dutch Veluwe Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2001-04-01 Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (868x614, 150 KB)Loan bicycles as can be found on the Dutch Veluwe Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2001-04-01 Source: http://www. ... A type of touring bicycle Bicycle touring is a leisure travel activity which involves touring, exploring or sightseeing by bicycle. ... In the sport of randonneuring, a brevet or randonnée is an organised long-distance bicycle ride. ...


One popular Dutch pleasure is the enjoyment of relaxed cycling in the countryside of the Netherlands. The land is very flat and full of public bicycle trails where cyclists aren't bothered by cars and other traffic, which makes it ideal for cycling recreation. Many Dutch people subscribe every year to an event called fietsvierdaagse — four days of organised cycling through the local environment. Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP), which began in 1891, is the oldest bicycling event still run on a regular basis on the open road, covers over 1200 km and imposes a 90-hour time limit. Similar if smaller institutions exist in many countries. Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... Car redirects here. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Fietsvierdaagse (bicycle four-days) is a Dutch bicycle event. ... Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP) was originally a 1200km long bicycle race from Paris to Brest and back to Paris. ...

Organized rides
Tour de Fat group ride in Portland, Oregon
Tour de Fat group ride in Portland, Oregon

Many cycling clubs hold organized rides in which bicyclists of all levels participate. The typical organized ride starts with a large group of riders, called the mass, bunch or even peloton. This will thin out over the course of the ride. Many riders choose to ride together in groups of the same skill level to take advantage of drafting. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... A cycling club is a club or society formed by and for cyclists, and is usually focused in a particular geographic location, perhaps a region, town or city suburb, as well as national cycling clubs, such as the United Kingdoms Cyclists Touring Club, CTC) and also internet based clubs... The peloton (from French, literally meaning ball and related to the English word platoon), bunch or pack is the large main group in a road bicycle race. ... This article is about the racing technique. ...


Most organized rides, for example Cyclosportives, Challenge Rides or reliability trials, and hill climbs (Hillclimbing (cycling)) include registration requirements and will provide information either through the mail or online concerning start times and other requirements. Rides usually consist of 25, 50 and 100 mile routes, each with a certain number of rest stops that usually include refreshments, first aid and maintenance tools. A cyclosportive is a mass-participation bicycle event that combines elements of road bicycle racing and long distance bicycle touring. ... Challenge riding is a form of cycling where the riders challenge themselves rather than each other. ... A reliability trial is an organised bicycle ride which challenges a cyclist to complete a course, passing through designated control points, within a preset time limit. ... Hill climbing is one of the key skills required to make cycling more enjoyable. ...

Mountain

Mountain biking grew in the late 20th century, including recreation and racing. Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ...


Racing

Bicycle racing around 1909
Bicycle racing around 1909
Main article: bicycle racing

Shortly after the introduction of bicycles, competitions developed independently in many parts of the world. Early races involving boneshaker style bicycles were predictably fraught with injuries. Large races became popular during the 1890s "Golden Age of Cycling", with events across Europe, and in the U.S. and Japan as well. At one point, almost every major city in the US had a velodrome or two for track racing events. However since the middle of the 20th Century cycling has become a minority sport in the US whilst in Continental Europe it continues to be a major sport, particularly in France, Belgium and Italy. The most famous of all bicycle races is the Tour de France. This began in 1903, and continues to capture the attention of the sporting world. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3482x3465, 1498 KB) Cyclist L. Georget, photo created/published 1909. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3482x3465, 1498 KB) Cyclist L. Georget, photo created/published 1909. ... For the Queen song, see Bicycle Race. ... Boneshaker is a name used from about 1869 up to the present time, to refer to the first type of true bicycle with pedals, which was called velocipede (from the Latin for fast foot) by its manufacturers. ... Look up velodrome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Track racing is a motorcycle sport where teams or individuals race opponents around an oval track. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ...


In 1899, Mile-a-Minute Murphy became the first man to ride a bicycle a mile in under a minute. Charles Minthorn Murphy (Oct, 1870 – Feb 16, 1950), but more popularly known as Mile-a-Minute Murphy, was an American cycling star from the late 19th century and early 20th century. ...


As the bicycle evolved its various forms, different racing formats developed. Road races may involve both team and individual competition, and are contested in various ways. They range from the one-day road race, criterium, and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. Recumbent bicycles were banned from bike races in 1934 after Marcel Berthet set a new hour record in his Velodyne streamliner (49.992 km on 18 November 1933). Track bicycles are used for track cycling in Velodromes , while cyclo-cross races are held on rugged outdoor terrain. In the past decade, mountain bike racing has also reached international popularity and is even an Olympic sport. A criterium, or crit, is a type of bike race held on a short course (usually less than 5 km), often run on closed-off city centre streets. ... In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France - Tour of France Giro dItalia - Tour of Italy Vuelta a España - Tour of Spain Collectively they are termed the Grand Tours, and all three are similar... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... The hour record for bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A track bicycle A track bicycle is a type of fixed-gear bicycle specially designed for track cycling in a velodrome. ... Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially-built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles. ... Look up velodrome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cyclo-cross racer carrying his bicycle up a steep slope after overcoming a barrier at the bottom (not shown). ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ...


Professional racing organizations place limitations on the bicycles that can be used in the races that they sanction. For example, the Union Cycliste Internationale, the governing body of international cycle sport (which sanctions races such as the Tour de France), decided in the late 1990s to create additional rules which prohibit racing bicycles weighing less than 6.8 kilograms (14.96 pounds). The UCI rules also effectively ban some bicycle frame innovations (such as the recumbent bicycle) by requiring a double triangle structure.[2] Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ...


War

Main article: bicycle infantry

The bicycle is not suited for combat, but it has been used as a method of reconnaissance as well as transporting soldiers and supplies to combat zones. In this it has taken over many of the function of horses in warfare. Bicycles were used in the Second Boer War, where both sides used them for scouting. In World War I, France and Germany used bicycles to move troops. In its 1937 invasion of China, Japan employed some 50,000 bicycle troops, and similar forces were instrumental in Japan's march or "roll" through Malaysia in World War II. Germany used bicycles again in World War II, while the British employed airborne "Cycle-commandos" with folding bikes. Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In the Vietnam War, communist forces used bicycles extensively as cargo carriers along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. There are reports of mountain bicycles being used in scouting by U.S. Special Forces in the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and in subsequent battles against the Taliban. British troops, designated Light Bicycle Infantry LBI, used bicycles to patrol in Basra, Iraq in January 2005. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... oooo lalala The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ...


The last country known to maintain a regiment of bicycle troops was Switzerland, who disbanded their final unit in 2003.


Activism

Cyclists move by bike in Portland, Oregon
Cyclists move by bike in Portland, Oregon

Two broad and correlated themes run in bicycle activism: one is about advocating the bicycle as an alternative mode of transport, and the other is about the creation of conditions to permit and/or encourage bicycle use, both for utility and recreative cycling. Although the first, which emphasizes the potential for energy and resource conservation and health benefits gained from cycling versus automobile use, is relatively undisputed, the second is target of much debate. Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ...


It is generally agreed that improved local and inter-city rail services and other methods of mass transportation (including greater provision for cycle carriage on such services) create conditions to encourage bicycle use. However, there are different opinions on the role of the use of segregated cycle facilities and other items of the cycling infrastructure in building bicycle-friendly cities and roads. Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... Bicycle-friendly is a descriptive term that describes policies, places and practices which make it easier for people to ride bicycles. ...


Some bicycle activists (including some traffic management advisers) seek the construction of segregated cycle facilities for journeys of all lengths. Other activists, especially those from the more established tradition, view the safety, practicality, and intent of many segregated cycle facilities with suspicion. They favour a more holistic approach based on the 4 'E's; education (of everyone involved), encouragement (to apply the education), enforcement (to protect the rights of others), and engineering (to facilitate travel while respecting every person's equal right to do so). In some cases this opposition has a more ideological basis: some members of the Vehicular Cycling movement oppose segregated public facilities, such as on-street bike lanes, on principle. Some groups offer training courses to help cyclists integrate themselves with other traffic. This is part of the ongoing cycle path debate. Traffic psychology is a young expanding field in psychology. ... Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of driving bicycles on roads in a manner which is visible, predictable, and in accordance with the principles for driving a vehicle in traffic. ... Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of driving bicycles on roads in a manner which is visible, predictable, and in accordance with the principles for driving a vehicle in traffic. ... The cycle path debate concerns the issues surrounding the provision and use of cycle paths. ...

Critical Mass is an event typically held on the last Friday of every month in cities around the world where bicyclists take to the streets en masse. While the ride was originally founded with the idea of drawing attention to how unfriendly the city was to bicyclists, the leaderless structure of Critical Mass makes it impossible to assign it any one specific goal. In fact, the purpose of Critical Mass is not formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city streets. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses of critical mass, see critical mass (disambiguation). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of critical mass, see critical mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ...


Midnight Ridazz is a massive established bicycle ride in Los Angeles based on recreational activism. The ride incorporates themes and ride routes designed to maximize fun and comraderie without any overt political agenda that might fracture the group of diverse riders. The one goal of Midnight Ridazz is to have fun riding a bike and thus inspire others to ride and have fun as well. Midnight Ridazz is a group ride that celebrates bicycle culture in Los Angeles. ...


There is a long-running cycle helmet debate among activists. The most heated controversy surrounds the topic of compulsory helmet use. Bicycle helmet A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. ... Bicycle helmet A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. ...


Associations

Cyclists form associations, both for specific interests (trails development, road maintenance, urban design, racing clubs, touring clubs, etc.) and for more global goals (energy conservation, pollution reduction, promotion of fitness). Some bicycle clubs and national associations became prominent advocates for improvements to roads and highways. In the United States, the League of American Wheelmen lobbied for the improvement of roads in the last part of the 19th century, founding and leading the national Good Roads Movement. Their model for political organization, as well as the paved roads for which they argued, facilitated the growth of the automobile. For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... The League of American Wheelmen (LAW) is the historic name of the organization now known as the League of American Bicyclists (LAB). ... Between 1880 and 1916, advocates for improved roads led by bicyclists turned local agitation into a national political movement. ...


Health

Cyclists crossing Kansas
Cyclists crossing Kansas

Bicycles are commonly used by people seeking to improve their fitness and cardiovascular health. In this regard, bicycling is especially helpful for those with arthritis of the lower limbs and who are unable to pursue sports such as running that involve more impact to joints such as the knees. Furthermore, since cycling can be used as a form of transportation, there can be less demand for self-discipline to maintain the exercise because of the practical purpose of the activity. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Cycling while seated is a relatively non-weight bearing exercise that, like swimming, does little to promote bone density.[3] Cycling up and out of the saddle, on the other hand, does a better job by transferring more of the rider's body weight to the legs. However, excessive cycling while standing can cause knee damage. It used to be thought that cycling while standing was less energy efficient, but recent research has proven this not to be true. There is no wasted energy from cycling while standing.[4] In orthopedics Weight bearing the weight a patient puts on the leg on which surgery has been performed, and is referred to as part of the body weight, since each leg of a healthy person carries alternately the full body weight when walking. ... Swimmer redirects here. ...


Cycling on a stationary cycle is frequently advocated as a suitable exercise for rehabilitation particularly for lower limb injury due to the low impact that it has on the joints. In particular cycling is commonly used within knee rehabilitation programs. [5]


Benefits

The physical exercise gained from cycling is generally linked with increased health and well-being. According to the World Health Organisation, physical inactivity is second only to tobacco smoking as a health risk in developed countries, and this is associated with many tens of billions of dollars of healthcare costs.[6] The WHO's report[7] suggests that increasing physical activity is a public health 'best buy', and that cycling is a 'highly suitable activity' for this purpose. The charity Sustrans reports that investment in cycling provision can give a 20:1 return from health and other benefits.[8] It has been estimated that, on average, approximately 20 life-years are gained from the health benefits of road bicycling for every life-year lost through injury.[9] U.S. Marine emerging from the swim portion of a triathlon. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Canal boat decked in Sustrans logo Sustrans is a British charity which promotes sustainable transport. ...


Injuries

Cycling is not generally considered as a high-risk activity.[10] In the UK, casualty rates per kilometre are comparable with walking, but are higher than for car occupants. Most cycle deaths result from a collision with a car or heavy goods vehicle.[11] A Danish study in 2000 concluded that cycling to work was linked to a 40% reduction in mortality rate; this included all causes of death, including road deaths.[12]


Injuries can be divided into two types:

Acute physical trauma includes injuries to the head and extremities resulting from falls and collisions. Since a large percentage of the collisions between motor and pedal vehicles occur at night, bicycle lighting is required for safety when bicycling at night. In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... Bicycle safety is the use of practices designed to reduce risk associated with cycling. ...


The most common cycling overuse injury occurs in the knees, affecting cyclists at all levels. These are caused by many factors:[13]

  • Incorrect bicycle fit or adjustment, particularly the saddle.
  • Incorrect adjustment of clipless pedals.
  • Too many hills, or too many miles, too early in the training season.
  • Poor training preparation for long touring rides.
  • Selecting too high a gear. A lower gear for uphill climb protects the knees, even though your muscles are well able to handle a higher gear.

Overuse injuries, including chronic nerve damage at weight bearing locations, can occur as a result of repeatedly riding a bicycle for extended periods of time. Damage to the ulnar nerve in the palm, carpal tunnel in the wrist, the genitourinary tract[14] or bicycle seat neuropathy[15] may result from overuse. In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs from the shoulder to the hand, at one part running near the ulna bone. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Note that overuse is a relative term, and capacity varies greatly between individuals. Someone starting out in cycling must be careful to increase length and frequency of cycling sessions slowly, starting for example at an hour or two per day, or a hundred miles or kilometers per week. Muscular pain is a normal by-product of the training process, but joint pain and numbness are early signs of overuse injury.


Cycling has been linked to sexual impotence due to pressure on the perineum from the seat, but fitting a proper sized seat prevents this effect.[16][17] In extreme cases, Pudendal Nerve Entrapment can be a source of intractable perineal pain.[18] Some cyclists with induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy gained relief from improvements in saddle position and riding techniques.[19] Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) is a source of chronic pain, in which the pudendal nerve (located in the pelvis) is entrapped or compressed. ...


The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has investigated the potential health effects of prolonged bicycling in police bicycle patrol units, including the possibility that some bicycle saddles exert excessive pressure on the urogenital area of cyclists, restricting blood flow to the genitals. NIOSH is currently investigating whether saddles developed without protruding noses (which remove the pressure from the urogenital area) will alleviate any potential health problems.[20] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ...


Riding a Recumbent bicycle or quadricycle where ergonomic principles are more closely respected will largely address these health issues, particularly those related to chronic nerve damage at weight bearing locations, simply because the body is supported in the normal sitting position. A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to the human needs, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. ...


Also your back can suffer from strain; this can be induced by pushing big gears, incorrect positioning on the bike, poor core strength and a poor riding style.


Notes

  1. ^ "Bicycling Life"
  2. ^ Union Cycliste International (2003). UCI Cycling Regulations. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  3. ^ Osteoporos Int., Low bone mineral density in highly trained male master cyclists. 2003 Aug;14(8):644-9 (PMID 12856112)
  4. ^ "Sit or Stand: Tradeoffs in Efficiency?", [1], November 21, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. 
  5. ^ "Cycling for Knee Rehabilitation". 
  6. ^ Overweight and Obesity: Economic Consequences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (cdc.gov).
  7. ^ A PHYSICALLY ACTIVE LIFE THROUGH EVERYDAY TRANSPORT. World health Organisation.
  8. ^ How transport can save the NHS. sustrans.org.uk.
  9. ^ British Medical Association; Mayhew Hillman, David Morgan [1992]. Cycling: Towards Health and Safety. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286151-4. 
  10. ^ COMPARATIVE RISK OF DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES. magma.ca.
  11. ^ Cycling in Great Britain. Department of Transport.
  12. ^ All-Cause Mortality Associated With Physical Activity During Leisure Time, Work, Sports, and Cycling to Work. Archives of Internal Medicine.
  13. ^ "Knee Pain in Cycling: New Twist on an old Injury", BioMechanics, July/August, 1996. Retrieved on 2006-11-24. 
  14. ^ Eur Urol., Bicycling related urogenital disorders. 2005 Mar;47(3):277-86 (PMID 15716187)
  15. ^ "Bicycle Seat Neuropathy, follow up", eMedicine, February 8, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-03-20. 
  16. ^ Cycle of despair. BBC News.
  17. ^ Cycling linked to impotence. BBC News.
  18. ^ Am J Phys Med Rehabil., Pudendal nerve entrapment as source of intractable perineal pain. 2003 Jun;82(6):479-84. (PMID 12820792)
  19. ^ Clin Exp Neurol., Bicycling induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy. 1991;28:191-6. (PMID 1821826)
  20. ^ NIOSH -Bicycle Saddles and Reproductive Health. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Cycling Portal

General Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...

Cycling Culture The following terminology is used in the general sport of cycling, as well as the more specific road bicycle racing and mountain bicycle racing. ... This is a list of cyclists by decade. ... A computer-generated, simplified model of bike and rider demonstrating an uncontrolled right turn Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics is the science of the motion of bicycles and motorcycles, in entirety or in parts, due to the forces acting on them during balancing, steering, braking, and suspension. ... Indoor cycling trainer (Marietta Zigalova) Indoor cycling is a form of high-intensity exercise that involves using a stationary exercise bicycle in a classroom setting. ... Offroad cycling is a sport where bicycles (and unicycles!) are ridden outside of standard grounds, for example on narrow mountain trails. ... Road cycling is the most widespread and popular form of bicycle riding. ...

Cycling Advocacy & Safety Many cities contain subcultures of bicycle enthusiasts, including racers, bicycle messengers, bicycle transportation activists, mutant bicycle fabricators, bicycle mechanics, and cyclists who share an interest in peace and justice activism or various counter-culture groups. ... The 2005 Solstice Cyclists in Seattle June 18, 2005. ...

Sports-related cycling and fast-paced recreation Bicycle law is a specialized field of law relating to the use of bicycles. ... Cycling advocacy is comprised of activities that defend the rights of cyclists to use the public right-of-way roads for travel, to improve the conditions for cycling, and to make cycling more popular. ... Bicycle safety is the use of practices designed to reduce risk associated with cycling. ... Under the terms of the Vienna Convention on Traffic, bicycles are considered to be vehicles and cyclists are considered to be drivers. ... Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... Vehicular cycling, or VC, is the practice of driving bicycles on roads in a manner which is visible, predictable, and in accordance with the principles for driving a vehicle in traffic. ... Filtering forward is a technique used by bicyclists to pass a stopped or slow-moving lane of traffic by traveling in the unused lane space. ...

Utility cycling and slow recreation Bicycle trial rider Bike trials is a form of mountain biking derived from motorcycle trials. ... For the Queen song, see Bicycle Race. ... A BMX race at Sainte Maxime, France on the 23rd April 2005. ... A bike derby is a contest, the goal of which is to be the last person still riding their bike. ... A Cross-Country Rider on Singletrack During a Race Cross-country (XC) cycling is the most common discipline of mountain biking. ... Cycle speedway is a form of bicycle racing which takes place on short oval outdoor dirt tracks, typically around 70-90 metres in length. ... A cyclo-cross racer carrying his bicycle up a steep slope after overcoming a barrier at the bottom (not shown). ... A cyclosportive is a mass-participation bicycle event that combines elements of road bicycle racing and long distance bicycle touring. ... Duguid Jumping at a professional Freeride contest in Seattle, Washington. ... This cycling-related article is a stub. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... Bicycle racers at the 2005 Rund um den Henninger-Turm in Germany Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially-built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles. ... This article is about a type of athletic competition. ...

Other A type of touring bicycle Bicycle touring is a leisure travel activity which involves touring, exploring or sightseeing by bicycle. ... Bicycle messenger in Atlanta doing a track stand. ... Bicycle Transportation Engineering See Also John Forester, Bicycle Transportation Engineer Effective Cycling bike lane debate vehicular cycling wide outside lane Categories: Cycling stubs | Cycling ... In the sport of randonneuring, a brevet or randonnée is an organised long-distance bicycle ride. ... Challenge riding is a form of cycling where the riders challenge themselves rather than each other. ... List of cycleways is a link page for any cycleway anywhere in the world. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Rail trails are former railway lines that have been converted to paths designed for pedestrian, bicycle, skating, equestrian, and/or light motorized traffic. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ...

Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Cover of the book Divorce your Car! Ending the Love Affair with the Automobile (New Society Publishers, ISBN 0-86571-408-8), written by Katie Alvord and with a forward by Stephanie Mills, proposes that automobiles have lost their value as a convenience and have become a hindrance, even an... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. ... Green transport is a category of sustainable transport which uses human power, animal power and renewable energy. ... Photo of a heart rate monitor (made by Polar) showing chest strap and watch Photo of a Prevention MF-180 strapless heart rate monitor Photo of a NuMetrex sports bra with fabric heart sensors This article refers to a device used by laypersons. ...

External links

Look up cycling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cycling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1253 words)
Cycling is a recreation, a sport and a means of transport across land.
Cycling for transport and touring is promoted on a European level by the European Cyclists' Federation, and regular conferences are held under the auspices of Velo City, whereas global conferences are coordinated by Velo Mondial [1].
Cycling makes use of the largest muscles in the body (the Gluteus Maximus and Quadriceps) so it is good for people who are trying to lose body fat.
:: Cycling Queensland :: Welcome :: (312 words)
Cycling Queensland, in operation since 1893 is the governing body for competetive cycling in Queensland and is affiliated to the national body - Cycling Australia and the International body - UCI.
Cycling Queensland caters for members from the Junior Under 11 division through to Masters Men and Women well into their 70's.
Cycling Qld is seeking expressions of interest for business advertising on our site.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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