FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Structure of cAMP
Structure of cAMP
cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. Red = Oxygen, Lightblue=Carbon, White=Hydrogen, Darkblue=Nitrogen and Purple= Phosphorus
cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. Red = Oxygen, Lightblue=Carbon, White=Hydrogen, Darkblue=Nitrogen and Purple= Phosphorus
Epinephrine (adrenaline) binds its receptor, that associates with an heterotrimeric G protein. The G protein associates with adenilate cyclase that converts ATP to cAMP, spreading the signal (more details...)

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot get through the cell membrane. Its main purpose is the activation of protein kinases; it is also used to regulate the passage of Ca2+ through ion channels. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x558, 47 KB) w:Cyclic adenosine triphosphate, drawn in freeware program ACD LABS by me. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x558, 47 KB) w:Cyclic adenosine triphosphate, drawn in freeware program ACD LABS by me. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (837x481, 71 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Adenylate cyclase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Epinephrine Adrenergic receptor ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (837x481, 71 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Adenylate cyclase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Epinephrine Adrenergic receptor ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann,[1] is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... In biology, signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Ion channels are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. ...

Contents

cAMP synthesis and decomposition

cAMP is synthesised from ATP by adenylate cyclase which is located at the cell membranes. Adenylate cyclase is activated by the hormones glucagon and adrenaline and inhibited by adenosine (via G protein coupled receptors). Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ...


cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ...


Molecular Formula: C10H12N5O6P


Molecular Weight: 329.21 marco


Protein kinase activation

Cyclic AMP is involved in some protein kinases. For example, PKA (protein kinase A, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is normally inactive as a tetrameric holoenzyme, consisting of 2 catalytic and 2 regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the catalytic units. In cell biology, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK), also known as protein kinase A (PKA, EC 2. ... In biochemistry, holoenzyme may refer either to the complete and operative form of an enzyme with multiple protein subunits or to the combination of an apoenzyme with its cofactor. ... For other meanings, see Catalyst (disambiguation). ...


Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus activating the catalytic units and enabling them to phosphorylate substrate proteins.


Glycogen decomposition regulation

cAMP controls many biological processes, including glycogen decomposition into glucose (glycogenolysis), and lipolysis. Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ...


Role of cAMP in bacteria

In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. In particular, cAMP is low when glucose is the carbon source. This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side effect of glucose transport into the cell. The transcription factor CRP, cAMP receptor protein (or CAP) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


An example of cAMP's function is the positive regulation of the lac operon. In low glucose concentration, cAMP accumluates, it binds to the allosteric site on CRP, a transcription activator protein. The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site beside the lac promoter, this make it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription of the lac operon, therefore increasing the rate of lac operon transcription. In high glucose concentration, cAMP concentration decrease, and the CRP disengage from the lac operon. The lac operon is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and some other enteric bacteria. ...


Role of cAMP in Dictyostelium discoideum

The chemotactic movements of the cells are organized by periodic waves of cAMP that propagate through the cell. The waves are the result of a regulated production and secretion of extracellular cAMP and a spontaneous biological oscillator that initiates the waves at centers of territories. Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ...


Role of cAMP in human carcinoma

Some research has suggested that a deregulation of cAMP pathways and an aberrant activation of cAMP-controlled genes is linked to the growth of some cancers.


American Association for Cancer Research (cAMP-responsive Genes and Tumor Progression)


American Association for Cancer Research (cAMP Dysregulation and Melonoma)


American Association for Cancer Research (cAMP-binding Proteins' Presence in Tumors)


External links

  • Seconder Messenger the cAMP (animation)

See also


Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ...

Major Families of Biochemicals
Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Lipids | Terpenoids | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides
Analogues of nucleic acids:   Analogues of nucleic acids:
Nucleobases: Adenine | Thymine | Uracil | Guanine | Cytosine | Purine | Pyrimidine
Nucleosides: Adenosine | Uridine | Guanosine | Cytidine | Deoxyadenosine | Thymidine | Deoxyguanosine | Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: AMP | UMP | GMP | CMP | ADP | UDP | GDP | CDP | ATP | UTP | GTP | CTP | cAMP | cADPR | cGMP
Deoxynucleotides: dAMP | TMP | dGMP | dCMP | dADP | TDP | dGDP | dCDP | dATP | TTP | dGTP | dCTP
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | sgRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA | LNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA| LNA | morpholino

  Results from FactBites:
 
adenosine monophosphate - HighBeam Encyclopedia (448 words)
adenosine monophosphate (AMP), organic compound composed of an adenine base, the sugar ribose, and one phosphate unit.
Cyclic AMP, a very close structural relative of AMP containing an additional ester linkage between the phosphate and ribose units, can act as a secondary messenger for several hormones.
Protein kinase C inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced calcium-activated and voltage-activated potassium channel activity in fawn-hooded rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle via phosphodiesterases *.
Adenosine at AllExperts (648 words)
Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP.
Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent.
When adenosine enters the circulation, it is broken down by adenosine deaminase, which is present in red cells and the vessel wall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m