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Encyclopedia > Cyclic ADP ribose
Cyclic ADP Ribose
Identifiers
CAS number [119340-53-3]
PubChem 123847
MeSH Cyclic+ADP-Ribose
Properties
Molecular formula C15H21N5O13P2
Molar mass 541.301
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Cyclic ADP Ribose popularly known as cADPR is a cyclic adenine nucleotide (like cAMP) with two phosphate groups present on 5' OH of the adenosine (like ADP), further connected to another ribose at the 5' position which in turn closes the cycle by glycosidic bonding to the Nitrogen1 of the same Adenine base (whose position 9 has the glycosidic bond to the other ribose). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... ADP may refer to: Among organizations and companies: Aéroports de Paris, airport authority for the Parisian region in France. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... In chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to an alcohol, which may be another carbohydrate. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...

Contents

Function

cADPR is a cellular messanger for calcium signaling. It is the physiological allosteric modulator of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) which stimulates calcium induced calcium release (CICR) at lower cytosolic concentrations. RyR activation with high concentration of caffeine is partly due to caffeins mimicking cADPRs binding to RyRs. Whether the action is by direct binding to RyR or indirect (through binding with FKBP12.6) is debated. Some reports suggest that cADPR binding makes FKBP12.6 which normally binds RyR2, to fall off the RYR2. [1] Calcium ions act as second messengers in signal transduction. ... Ryanodine receptors form a class of calcium channels in various forms of muscle. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...


Metabolism

cADPR is synthesized by the bifunctional ectoenzymes of the CD38 family (also includes ADP ribosyl cyclase of Aplysia and GPI anchored CD157), from NAD+. The same enzymes are also capable of hydrolyzing it to ADPR. Catalysis proceeds via a covalently bound intermediate [2]. The hydrolysis reaction is inhibited by ATP, and the cyclic form of APDR may accumulate (ref?). CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many immune cells (white blood cells), including CD4+, CD8+, B and natural killer cells. ... Species See text. ... NAD can refer to: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme used in glycolysis National Appeals Division, an agency within the United States Department of Agriculture National Association of the Deaf, a non-profit advocacy organization New Acoustic Dimension, a Canadian audio equipment manufacturer Namibian dollar, the currency of the African nation...


Also see

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate popularly known as NAADP+ is a nucleotide very similar to NADP differeing only in that instead of the nicotinamide there is a niacin moiety. ... Inositol triphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or IP3), together with diacylglycerol, is a second messenger molecule used in signal transduction in biological cells. ...

References

  1. ^ Yong-Xiao Wang, Yun-Min Zheng, Qi-Bing Mei, Qinq-Song Wang, Mei Lin Collier, Sidney Fleischer, Hong-Bo Xin, and Michael I. Kotlikoff FKBP12.6 and cADPR regulation of Ca2+ release in smooth muscle cells Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286: C538-C546, 2004. First published doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00106.2003
  2. ^ Love ML, Szebenyi DM, Kriksunov IA, Thiel DJ, Munshi C, Graeff R, Lee HC, Hao Q. ADP-ribosyl cyclase; crystal structures reveal a covalent intermediate. Structure. 2004 Mar;12:477-86.

External links

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~leehc/


Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... Calcium ions act as second messengers in signal transduction. ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... Inositol triphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or IP3), together with diacylglycerol, is a second messenger molecule used in signal transduction in biological cells. ... Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate popularly known as NAADP+ is a nucleotide very similar to NADP differeing only in that instead of the nicotinamide there is a niacin moiety. ... Inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as Ca2+ channel activated by inositol triphosphate (IP3). ... Ryanodine receptors form a class of calcium channels in various forms of muscle. ... SERCA stands for Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase SERCA resides in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) within muscle cells. ... The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter ion pump membrane protein which removes calcium from cells. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... --RAG 01:54, 16 March 2007 (UTC) The concept of the domain was first proposed in 1973 by Wetlaufer after X-ray crystallographic studies of hen lysozyme (Phillips, 1966), papain (Drenth et al. ... The EF hand is a helix-turn-helix structural motif in proteins. ... The C2-domain of α-toxin (PDB 1OLP). ... A molecular switch is a molecule that can be reversibly shifted between two bistable states. ... In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation. ... Troponin Troponin C is a part of the troponin complex. ... oommen sir is a fool. ... Calmodulin dependent kinase (Camk) is a kinase enzyme. ... A protein kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from a donor molecule (usually ATP) to an amino acid residue of a protein. ... Neuronal Calcium Sensor is a large family of proteins which work as calcium dependent molecular switches and includes members like Frequenin (NCS1), recoverin, GCAP, neurocalcin, visinin etc. ... Chelation (from Greek, claw like) describes the reversible binding of an organic ligand, the chelator or chelating agent, to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ... Distinguish from censure and censer and censor. ... Calbindin describes calcium binding proteins first described as the vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins in intestine and kidney. ... S-100 protein is a type of low molecular weight protein found in vertebrates characterized by two calcium binding sites of the helix-loop-helix (EF-hand type) conformation. ... Parvalbumin is a calcium binding albumin protein. ... Calretinin is a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein involved in calcium signaling. ... Calsequestrin is a calcium-binding protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. ... Sarcalumenin is a gene which encodes a 160-kD glycoprotein protein involved in calcium signaling. ... Phospholamban is a 52 amino acid integral membrane protein that regulates the Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle cells. ... Molecular machinery driving exocytosis in neuromediator release. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... Calpain is calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal proteolytic enzyme found in the brain (Castillo and Babson, 1998). ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that is a key regulator of actin filament assembly and disassembly. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Ion channels are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. ... There is a real need to make clear to what transient refers in a transient receptor potential, and the advice of the wider community is solicited to fill this need. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... AMPA Glutamic acid The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- propionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... P2X receptors are a family of cation-permeable ligand gated ion channels that open in response to extracellular adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP). ... In biology, chaperones are proteins whose function is to assist other proteins in achieving proper folding. ... Calreticulin is a protein that binds Ca2+ ions (a second messenger molecule in signal transduction), rendering it inactive. ... a type of protein found in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ... Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved with the binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion. ... Cadherins are a class of proteins which are expressed on the surface of cells. ... Calcium metabolism or calcium homeostasis is the mechanism by which the body maintains adequate calcium levels. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...

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Analogues of nucleic acids: Types of Nucleic Acids Analogues of nucleic acids:
Nucleobases: Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine)
Nucleosides: Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: monophosphates (AMP, UMP, GMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, UDP, GDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR)
Deoxynucleotides: monophosphates (dAMP, TMP, dGMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, TDP, dGDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, TTP, dGTP, dCTP)
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | piRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | sgRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA | LNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA | morpholino

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Regulation of KCa-channel activity by cyclic ADP-ribose and ADP-ribose in coronary arterial smooth muscle -- Li et al. ... (4643 words)
Synthesis and degradation of cyclic ADP- ribose by NAD glycohydrolases.
Cyclic ADP-ribose activation of the ryanodine receptor is mediated by calmodulin.
Mechanistic implications of cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolysis and methanolysis catalyzed by calf spleen NAD
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