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Encyclopedia > Cyborg
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Bionics / Biomimicry
Biomedical engineering
Brain-computer interface
Distributed cognition
Genetic engineering
Human ecosystem
Human enhancement
Intelligence amplification
Cyborg may refer to: Cyborg, a novel by Martin Caidin which was adapted into The Six Million Dollar Man. ... Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ... Biomimicry (also biomimickry) is the conscious copying of examples and mechanisms from natural organisms and ecologies. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... History Distributed cognition is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Edwin Hutchins. ... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the human-ecological aspects of phenomena such as economics, socio-political organizations, ritual et cetera. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. ...

Cyborg theory
Cyborg theory was created by Donna Haraway in order to critique traditional notions of feminism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ...

Cognitive liberty
Cyborg feminism
Morphological freedom
Cognitive liberty is the freedom to be the absolute sovereign of one’s own consciousness. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Morphological freedom is, according to neuroscientist Anders Sandberg, an extension of one’s right to one’s body, not just self-ownership but also the right to modify oneself according to one’s desires. ... Singularitarianism is a moral philosophy based upon the belief that a technological singularity — the technological creation of smarter-than-human intelligence — is possible, and advocating deliberate action to bring it into effect and ensure its safety. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ...

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A cyborg is a cybernetic organism (i.e., an organism that has both artificial and natural systems). The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space.[1] D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction by Manfred Clynes, who wrote of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' -a bridge...between mind and matter."[2] The cyborg is often seen today merely as an organism that has enhanced abilities due to technology,[3] but this perhaps oversimplifies the category of feedback. Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Bio taken from web site: (please edit for NPOV) Dr. Clynes was born to a highly creative family in Vienna. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ...

Fictional cyborgs are portrayed as a synthesis of organic and synthetic parts, and frequently pose the question of difference between human and machine as one concerned with morality, free will, and empathy. Fictional cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g. the Borg in the Star Trek franchise or Amber from the game Project Eden); or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g. the "Human" Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica). These fictional portrayals often register our society's discomfort with its seemingly increasing reliance upon technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. They also often have abilities, physical or mental, far in advance of their human counterparts (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, amongst other things). Real cyborgs are more frequently people who use cybernetic technology to repair or overcome the physical and mental constraints of their bodies. While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, they can be any kind of organism. FicTioNaL is a Gaming Legend. ... Biological matter or biological material refers to the unique, highly organized substances of which cellular life is composed of, for instance membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... The Unicomplex, a huge Borg complex in the Delta Quadrant. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Not to be confused with Eden Project. ... Not to be confused with Eden Project. ... This article is about the re-imagined Cylons. ... This article is about the reimagined universe of Battlestar Galactica in 2003; for more about the 2003 miniseries, see Battlestar Galactica (TV miniseries); for more about the subsequent television series, see Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series); for other versions, see the main Battlestar Galactica page or Battlestar Galactica (disambiguation). ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ...



According to some definitions of the term, the metaphysical and physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human fitted with a heart pacemaker or an insulin pump (if the person has diabetes) might be considered a cyborg, since these mechanical parts enhance the body's "natural" mechanisms through synthetic feedback mechanisms. Some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities; however, these modifications are no more cybernetic than would be a pen, a wooden leg, or the spears used by chimps to hunt vertebrates.[5] Cochlear implants that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are more accurately cyborg enhancements. Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... Insulin pump attached to its user with an infusion set. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... Behind the ear aid For the song, see Flood (They Might Be Giants album). ... An intraocular lens (IOL) is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eyes optical power. ... Illustration of the internal parts of a cochlear implant. ...

The prefix "cyber" is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology. Pen and paper, for example, as well as speech, language. Augmented with these technologies, and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. This is like computers, which gain power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within. Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ...


The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In 1908, Jean de la Hire introduced Nyctalope (perhaps the first true superhero was also the first literary cyborg) in the novel L'Homme Qui Peut Vivre Dans L'eau (The Man Who Can Live in Water). Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Man That Was Used Up, sometimes subtitled A Tale of the Late Bugaboo and Kickapoo Campaign, is a short story and satire by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Jean de la Hire (pseudonym of Adolphe dEspié de la Hire) (1878-1956) was the prolific French author of numerous popular adventure series, which generally contained science fiction or fantasy elements. ... Le Nyctalope is the name of a lesser known fictional superhero who appears in a book series of novels written by French writer Jean de La Hire, a prolific author of popular adventure series, many of which include science fiction elements. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... Edmond Hamilton (November 21, 1904 - February 1, 1977) began writing science fiction with the story The Monster God of Mamurth in 1928. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Captain Future was both a science fiction magazine and a fictional character. ... Dust jacket illustration for Judgment Night by C. L. Moore, published in 1952 by Gnome Press. ...

One of the earliest uses of the term was by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments: Bio taken from web site: (please edit for NPOV) Dr. Clynes was born to a highly creative family in Vienna. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond the Solar System. ...

For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously, we propose the term ‘Cyborg'. Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline[6]

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to take place. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York. Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the state. ...

However this may not have been the earliest use. Five months earlier the New York Times had printed: The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

A cyborg is essentially a man-machine system in which the control mechanisms of the human portion are modified externally by drugs or regulatory devices so that the being can live in an environment different from the normal one. [7]

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable computer was published by Doubleday in 2001. Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman. A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... 2001 documentary movie about Steve Mann, a man who wears video cameras and computers to process their images. ...

Individual cyborgs

Generally, the term "cyborg" is used to refer to a man or woman with bionic, or robotic, implants. Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ... A United States Army soldier plays table football with two prosthetic arms Jon Comer, professional skateboarder with a prosthetic leg. ...

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user's natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation. [8] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications. Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs. A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... C-Leg® Microprocessor Knee ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Cochlear implants are hearing devices that can help people with certain kinds of hearing impairment or who are entirely deaf. ...

In 2002,under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired in to his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet. With this in place he successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, a form of extended sensory input and the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans.[9] Kevin Warwick speaking at the Tomorrows People conference in 2006 hosted by Oxford University. ...

Social cyborgs

More broadly, the full term "cybernetic organism" is used to describe larger networks of communication and control. For example, cities, networks of roads, networks of software, corporations, markets, governments, and the collection of these things together. A corporation can be considered as an artificial intelligence that makes use of replaceable human components to function. People at all ranks can be considered replaceable agents of their functionally intelligent government institutions, whether such a view is desirable or not. For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...

Cyborg proliferation in society

Many people could be making the transition to cyborg sooner than they thought. Applied Digital Solutions leads in the development of the human implant RFID chip. This small, rice sized chip has been marketed to help track medical records and keep credit information safe and convenient [10]. Although there is a large community that is critical of this technology, RFID technology has done well in the past as a tracking chip in the industrial world (RFID's reduction for out-of-stock study at Wal-Mart, RFID radio), and for tracking pets and endangered wildlife (USDA Bets the Farm on Animal ID Program). This in effect turns all chipped people or organisms into cyborgs, which is also a source of discomfort to some. The critics of this movement claim that chipping people is an invasion of privacy [11] and some even go as far as seeing chipped people as a sign of the incoming Revelation, or “the mark of the beast” [12], as it is quoted in the Christian Bible that only those scarred with the mark of the beast on the hand or head will be able to buy and sell in the world.

Computer Sciences

In the Computer Information Systems Technology (CIST) course at BCIT (British Columbia Institute of Technology) Kelowna Campus, a young Travis Bradbury, who has had cybernetic implants added to his brain, has proven it possible to subnet to the 34th bit. He has also shown astonishing capabilities in C & Java Programming, LAN Wiring, Windows Server 2003 Administration, and CISCO certified courses.


In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: these are the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs” [13]. The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”. [14] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled "Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human." Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics. By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed. The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of "enhancement prosthetics" have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as ageing and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasises as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favour of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility. Michael Chorost (born 1964) is an American writer, teacher and cyborg. ... Jesse Sullivan is best-known for operating a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, which perhaps makes him the first non-fictional cyborg. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... Transhumanism is an emergent school of speculative philosophy analysing or favouring the use of science and technology, especially neurotechnology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, to overcome human limitations and improve the human condition. ...

One of the more common and accepted forms of temporary modification occurs as a result of prenatal diagnosis technologies. Modern parents willingly use testing methods such as ultrasounds and amniocentesis to determine the sex or health of the fetus. The discovery of birth defects or other congenital problems by these procedures may lead to neonatal treatment in the form of open fetal surgery or the less invasive fetal intervention. Prenatal diagnosis is the diagnosis of disease or condition in a fetus or embryo before it is born. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Open fetal surgery is an invasive form of fetal intervention in the treatment of birth defects where the uterus is opened up for direct surgery on the fetus. ... Fetal intervention involves in-utero medical treatment for a fetus—usually one suffering from some form of birth defect. ...

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eye sight in the blind and providing functionality to paralysed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Locked-In syndrome is a condition in which a patient is aware and awake, but cannot move or communicate due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body. ...

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low amount of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain).[15]

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject (possibly on the side of a their glasses frames) the camera converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the users eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this patten and the image appears to the user. Current prototypes have the camera being powered by a hand sized power supply that could be placed in a pocket or on the waist. [16]

Currently the technology has only been tested on human subject for brief amounts of time and the amount of light picked up by the subject has been minimal. However, if technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.


The "cyborg soldier" often refers to a soldier whose weapon and survival systems are integrated into the self, creating a human-machine interface. A notable example is the Pilot's Associate, first developed in 1985, which would use Artificial Intelligence to assist a combat pilot. The push for further integration between pilot and aircraft would include the Pilot Associate's ability to "initiate actions of its own when it deems it necessary, including firing weapons and even taking over the aircraft from the pilot. (Gray, Cyborg Handbook).

Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for inter-species relationships for the purposes of a supposed a tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect's motion would be controlled from a MEMS, or Micro-Electro-Mechanical System, and would conceivably surveil an environment and detect explosives or gas.[17] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark's unique senses would be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement and underwater explosives[18]. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...

Other proposals have integrated the mechanical into the intuitive abilities of the individual soldier. Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley have set out to "create an exoskeleton that combines a human control system with robotic muscle."[19] The device is distinctly Cyborgian in that it is self-powered, and requires no conscious manipulation by the pilot soldier. The exoskeleton responds to the pilot, through constant computer calculations, to distribute and lessen weight exerted on the pilot, allowing hypothetically for soldiers to haul large amounts of medical supplies and carry injured soldiers to safety. Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...

Marine Cyborgs

The term “cyborg” not only applies to humans, but to animals as well. Some of the best examples of such animal cyborgs come from the ocean, but such research is relatively new. Technologies used range from simple radio transmitters attached for tracking purposes, to extremely complex surgically implanted electrodes used to record and manipulate behavior. One of the more fictionalized representations of a marine cyborg includes Jones, a cyborg dolphin from William Gibson’s Johnny Mnemonic. Jones is one of the more extreme examples, sporting a purely mechanical head piece, while most real world examples go unnoticed. Most “enhancements” added to marine organisms by humans are small or implanted directly into the skin, and are created as to not disrupt their natural behavior patterns. DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, is experimenting with surgically implanted electrodes in shark brains to learn more about their behavior in hopes of being able to control some aspects of it. Shark behavior is still a largely unstudied subject in the biological sciences and the use of such electrodes might provide biologists a vast amount of information in short periods of time. With data collected from the experimentation DARPA engineers hope to decode the signals that the sharks are receiving in order to remotely manipulate such behaviors in the future. The shark’s natural ability to sense weak magnetic and electrical fields is of particular interest to the military, as they hope to use this to their advantage in future campaigns, to see and feel everything that a shark does as it glides through the ocean. For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Johnny Mnemonic is a short story by William Gibson, and a movie loosely based on the short story. ...

In Sports

Main article: Cyborgs in sports

The cyborgization of sports has come to the forefront of the national consciousness in recent years. Through the media, America has been exposed to the subject both with the BALCO scandal and the accusations of blood doping at the Tour de France levied against Lance Armstrong and Floyd Landis. But, there is more to the subject; steroids, blood doping, prosthesis, body modification, and maybe in the future, genetic modification are all topics that should be included within cyborgs in sports. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative (BALCO) is a controversial sports nutrition center in Burlingame, California, USA. The company achieved fame due to a long investigation in accusations that the lab provided anabolic steroids and other banned performance enhancing drugs to athletes, many famous. ... There have been allegations of doping in the Tour de France since 1903 . ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... Floyd Landis (born October 14, 1975) is an American cyclist whose previous achievements have been overshadowed for his involvement in a 2006 doping scandal. ... In chemistry and biology, Steroids are a type of lipid, characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... Blood doping is the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance. ...

The most commonly used steroid in sports is anabolic steroids. These are synthetically created to function like male hormones. Athletes use it to enhance their strength and performance beyond their natural means. They increase the amount of testosterone in the body, which promotes muscle and bone growth in the body. They also make it possible for an athlete can workout for longer periods of time than they naturally can. Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ...

Blood doping usually refers to three forms of adding red blood cells to the blood stream. The first form of blood doping is called homologous transfusions, in which the red blood cells from another person of the same blood type as the athlete are concentrated and frozen for a later transfusion when the athlete is going to start an event. The other form of blood doping is autologous. Autologous transfusions are when an athlete takes red blood cells out of their body before a competition and transfuse them back in their body right before the competition. The other form of blood doping is done through the injection of a hormone called erythropoietin. Erythropoietin increases the production of red blood cells in the blood stream. All of these forms of blood doping are used to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Blood doping is mainly used in endurance sports such as cycling and cross-country skiing because the extra oxygen carrying capacity through blood doping gives the athlete more endurance. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... Tartu Marathon 2006 cross-country ski race in Estonia. ...

The most common forms of prosthetics and enhancement we see in sports today are prosthetic legs and Tommy John surgery. This has resurrected many careers in Major League Baseball, actually allowing pitchers to throw harder than ever before. Some prime examples are Eric Gagné, Kerry Wood, and John Smoltz. "I hit my top speed (in pitch velocity) after the surgery," says Wood, the Chicago Cubs' 26-year-old All-Star. "I'm throwing harder, consistently." Gagne went from an average pitcher to being hall of fame eligible, winning the National League Cy Young Award in 2002, by tying the National League record for most saves in a season, and the National League Rolaids Relief Man of the Year in 2002 and 2003. Tommy John surgery, known by doctors as ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (or UCL), is a surgical procedure in which a ligament in the medial elbow is replaced with a tendon from elsewhere in the body (often from the forearm, hamstring, knee, or foot of the patient). ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Eric Serge Gagné (born January 7, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pronounced ), is a right-handed relief pitcher for the Boston Red Sox. ... Kerry Lee Wood (born June 16, 1977 in Irving, Texas) is an American baseball player. ... John Andrew Smoltz (born May 15, 1967 in Warren, Michigan) is a Major League Baseball player. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 10, 14, 23, 26, 42 Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1871, 1874-1889) (a. ... National league can refer to: National Basketball League, in the United States and Canada, which merged with the rival Basketball Association of America to form the National Basketball Association National Football League, the major American football league in the United States National Hockey League, the major ice hockey league in... The Cy Young Award of the American League, 1983. ... In Major League Baseball, the Rolaids Relief Man of the Year Award, first awarded in 1976, is a distinction given to the top relief pitcher in each league at the end of each season. ...

As of now, prosthetic legs and feet are not advanced enough to give the athlete the edge, and people with these prosthetics are allowed to compete, possibly only because they are not actually competitive in the Ironman event among other such -athlons. Prosthesis in track and field, however, is a budding issue. Prosthetic legs and feet may soon be better than their human counterparts. Some prosthetic legs and feet allow for runners to adjust the length of their stride which could potentially improve run times and in time actually allow a runner with prosthetic legs to be the fastest in the world. One model used for replacing a leg lost at the knee has actually improved runners' marathon times by as much as 30 minutes. The leg is shaped out of a long, flat piece of metal that extends backwards then curves under itself forming a U shape. This functions as a spring, allowing for runners to be propelled forward with by just placing their weight on the limb. This is the only form that allows the wearer to sprint.

In Fiction

Main article: Cyborgs in fiction

In 1966, Kit Pedler, a medical scientist, created the Cybermen for the TV program Doctor Who, based on his concerns about science changing and threatening humanity. The Cybermen had replaced much of their bodies with mechanical prostheses and were now supposedly emotionless creatures driven only by logic. Cyborgs are a prominent staple in the science fiction genre. ... Dr. Kit Pedler was the Head of the Electron Microscopy Department at the University of London. ... The Cybermen are a fictional race of cyborgs who are amongst the most persistent enemies of the Doctor in the British science fiction television series, Doctor Who. ... This article is about the television series. ...

The Metal Gear Solid series of games has a recurring character known as the "Cyborg Ninja" who is a person wearing a biomechanical exo-suit and wielding a high-frequency blade. The cyborg ninja suit has been donned by multiple characters, most recently by the character Raiden in Metal Gear Solid 4. He became the cyborg ninja due to an incident which has not yet been specified, but left Raiden with only his head and spine in working order and the lower part of his face severely damaged. His cyborg ninja suit contains artificial organs, blood (which is white), and muscle tissue similar to that used in Metal Gear RAY and Gekkos. This article is about the original PlayStation game. ... A promotional image for Metal Gear Solid 4 featuring characters from the past games. ...

Isaac Asimov's short story "The Bicentennial Man" explored cybernetic concepts. The central character is NDR, a robot who begins to modify himself with organic components. His explorations lead to breakthroughs in human medicine via artificial organs and prosthetics. By the end of the story, there is little physical difference between the body of the hero, now called Andrew, and humans equipped with advanced prosthetics, save for the presence of Andrew's artificial positronic brain. Asimov also explored the idea of the cyborg in relation to robots in his short story "Segregationist", collected in The Complete Robot. Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... The Bicentennial Man is a novella in the Robot Series by Isaac Asimov. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Segregationist is a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov, included in the collection Nightfall and Other Stories. ... The Complete Robot is a collection of science fiction short stories by Isaac Asimov written between 1940 and 1976, which were previously collected in books I, Robot, The Rest of the Robots, and other anthologies. ...

The 1972 science fiction novel Cyborg, by Martin Caidin, told the story of a man whose damaged body parts are replaced by mechanical devices. This novel was later adapted into a TV series, The Six Million Dollar Man, in 1973, and its spin-off, The Bionic Woman in 1976. Caidin also addressed bionics in his 1968 novel, The God Machine. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Cyborg is the title of a science fiction/secret agent novel by Martin Caidin which was first published in 1972. ... Martin Caidin (1927-1997) was an American author and an authority on aeronautics and aviation. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... The Six Million Dollar Man is an American television series about a fictional cyborg working for the OSI (which was usually said to refer to the Office of Scientific Intelligence, but sometimes was called the Office of Scientific Investigation as well as the Office of Strategic Intelligence[1]). The show... The Bionic Woman was a television series which spun off from The Six Million Dollar Man. ...

In 1974, Marvel Comics writer Rich Buckler introduced the cyborg Deathlok the Demolisher, and a dystopian post-apocalyptic future, in Astonishing Tales #25. Buckler's character dealt with rebellion and loyalty, with allusion to Frankenstein's monster, in a twelve-issue run. Deathlok was later resurrected in Captain America. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Cover to Daredevil #131. ... For the protagonists of the Adult Swim animated series Metalocalypse see Dethklok Deathlok (sometimes also referred to as Deathlok the Demolisher) is a Marvel Comics anti-hero, a cyborg, created by Rich Buckler and Doug Moench. ... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... Apocalyptic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of the world or civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ... Astonishing Tales was the name of an anthology comic book series published by Marvel Comics from 1970-1976. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... This article is about the original comic book character named Captain America. ...

The 1982 film Blade Runner featured creatures called replicants, bio-engineered or bio-robotic beings. The Nexus series — genetically designed by the Tyrell Corporation — are virtually identical to an adult human, but have superior strength, agility, and variable intelligence depending on the model. Because of their physical similarity to humans a replicant must be detected by its lack of emotional responses and empathy to questions posed in a Voight-Kampff test. A derogatory term for a replicant is "skin-job," a term heard again extensively in Battlestar Galactica. In the opening crawl of the film, they are first said to be the next generation in robotics. The crawl also states genetics play some role in the creation of replicants. The original novel makes mention of the biological components of the androids, but also alludes to the mechanical aspects commonly found in other material relating to robots. This article is about the 1982 film. ... A replicant is a bioengineered or biorobotic being created in the film Blade Runner. ... The Tyrell Corporation is a fictional corporation from the 1982 Ridley Scott film Blade Runner. ... Voight-Kampff Originating as a fictional tool in Philip K Dicks novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the Voight-Kampff machine or device (spelled Voigt-Kampff in the book) also appeared in the books screen adaptation, the 1982 science fiction film Blade Runner. ... This article is about the reimagined universe of Battlestar Galactica in 2003; for more about the 2003 miniseries, see Battlestar Galactica (TV miniseries); for more about the subsequent television series, see Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series); for other versions, see the main Battlestar Galactica page or Battlestar Galactica (disambiguation). ...

The 1987 science fiction action film RoboCop features a cyborg protagonist. After being killed by a criminal gang, police officer Alex Murphy is transformed by a private company into a cyborg cop. The transformation is used to explore the theme of reification and identity. There are cyborg kaiju in the Godzilla films such as Gigan and Mechagodzilla. Look up Action film in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ... Identity in psychological terms relates to self-image, self-esteem and individuation. ... Kaijū (怪獣) is a Japanese term that generically translates to monster. ... This article is about the character itself. ... Gigan ) is a daikaiju from the Godzilla series, introduced in the 1972 film Godzilla vs. ... Mechagodzilla ) is a fictional character from various films in the Godzilla series, introduced in Godzilla vs. ...

Although frequently referred to onscreen as a cyborg, The Terminator might be more properly an android. While it has skin and blood (cellular organic systems), these serve mainly as a disguise and are not symbiotic with the machine components, a trait of true cyborgs. The endoskeletons beneath are fully functional robots and have been seen operating independently, especially during the future segments of the Terminator movies. The T-1000 (which is said to be made completely of a liquid metal) of Terminator 2 is definitely an android. The Terminator Cameron Phillips seen in the 2008 TV series Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles is of a previously unseen model, and is once again referred to on screen (including once by another Terminator) as a cyborg. This article is about the first film in the series. ... For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... T-1000 in police disguise The T-1000 (Advanced Prototype Terminator Infiltrator Series 1 Model 1A Type 1000) is a fictional android assassin, featured as the main antagonist in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day (commonly abbreviated T2) is a 1991 movie directed by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Robert Patrick. ...

One of the most famous cyborgs is Darth Vader from the Star Wars films. Vader was once Anakin Skywalker, a famous Jedi turned to the Dark Side. After a furious battle with his former master, Obi-Wan Kenobi, Anakin is left for dead beside a lava flow on Mustafar, and is outfitted with an artificial life support system as well as robotic arms and legs. General Grievous, Lobot, and Luke Skywalker are the three other most prominent cyborgs in the Star Wars universe. For information on this characters appearance in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, see Anakin Skywalker. ... This article is about the series. ... Anakin Skywalker is the central character in the Star Wars franchise. ... Jedi Knights and Jedi Knight redirect here. ... Obi-Wan Kenobi is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... General Grievous is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. ... This article is about minor characters in the fictional Star Wars universe who are part of the Rebel Alliance. ... Luke Skywalker is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe portrayed by Mark Hamill in the films Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. ...

In Akira Toriyama's manga and anime series Dragon Ball', a scientist named Dr. Gero created several cyborgs, including villain Cell, sibling cyborgs Android 17 and Android 18, as well as Android 20, who was built from Gero himself. In this Japanese name, the family name is Toriyama Akira Toriyama ) born on April 5, 1955, in Kiyosu, Aichi, Japan,[2] is a widely known and acclaimed Japanese manga artist known mostly for his creation of the Dragon Ball manga, as well as the media franchise of the same name... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... Animé redirects here. ... Demographic Shōnen Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Original run 1984 – 1995[1] Volumes 42 (16 DB + 26 DBZ) Dragon Ball ) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama with an anime adaptation, followed by Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT. The work is influenced by... Doctor Gero is a fictional character from the manga Dragon Ball/Dragon Ball Z and the anime Dragonball Z. He is the head scientist of the Red Ribbon Army. ... The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate a creature which is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts. ... Cell ) is a fictional graphic novel supervillain who first appears in the Dragon Ball manga created by Akira Toriyama, followed by Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT. He is the ultimate creation of the scientist Dr. Gero, cloned from the cells of several characters from the series. ... Artificial Human #17, also known as 人造人間17号 ) in Japanese is a fictional character who first appears in the Dragon Ball manga created by Akira Toriyama, as well as Dragon Ball Z and in Dragon Ball GT. 17 is referred to in the original Japanese as a Jinzōningen, which is... Artificial Human 18 , known also as #18, Jinzoningen [#]18, Jinzō-ningen JÅ«hachi-gō, JÅ«hachi-gō, name given as Android 18, Cyborg-18 or C-18 in most other Latin-related translations) is a fictional character who first appears in the Dragon Ball manga created by Akira Toriyama, as... Doctor Gero is a fictional character from the manga Dragon Ball/Dragon Ball Z and the anime Dragonball Z. He is the head scientist of the Red Ribbon Army. ...

A direct brain-to-computer interface is a valuable, but expensive, luxury in Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle's novel Oath of Fealty. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...

In the manga and anime series Ghost in the Shell, Motoko Kusanagi lived in a world where the majority of adults are cyborgs and can connect wirelessly to the Internet for real-time communication and data research. The most common augmentation in the series were artificial brains called cyberbrains. Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ...

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[20] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally, a Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally. The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured three clans of Omar, where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster" (since the clans are of Russian origin in the game). For other persons named Bruce Sterling, see Bruce Sterling (disambiguation). ... The Shaper/Mechanist universe is the setting for a series of science fiction short stories (and the novel Schismatrix) written by the author Bruce Sterling. ... U.S. Army conceptual mockup of an exoskeleton-equipped soldier. ... Deux Ex: Invisible War is a computer game. ... An Omar The Omar are a fictional faction in the computer and video game Deus Ex: Invisible War. ...

In the Brain and Brawn series of novels series by Anne McCaffery and others, beginning with The Ship Who Sang, a "brainship" is a human body, usually one that could not develop normally, encased in the strongest materials available in that universe, and mentally connected to the controls of a spacecraft. Later novels link the brainship to fully funcional humanoid androids, which are even capable of creating offspring. Anne Inez McCaffrey (born April 1, 1926) is an American science fiction author best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series. ... The Ship Who Sang (1969) is a short story cycle by science fiction author Anne McCaffrey. ...

Cyborgs in Art

Art has become a successful way to make people aware of the concept of Cyborgology. Because the word itself has a connotation of science fiction, people tend to believe that cyborgs exist only in the imagination of writers and artists. Some artists, like Isa Gordon, focus their work on cyborg awareness and the concept of merging humans and machines.

There are many types of art that work towards creating awareness about cybernetic organisms (or cyborgs). These can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Motohiko Odani, Nick Lampert, Patricia Peccinin, Jenifer Gonzalez (who has an article on the book The Cyborg Handbook by Chris Hables Gray), and Orlan and Stelarc (who appear on the book The Cyborg Experiments by Zylinska).

Artists using cyborgs as subjects: Nick Lampert: http://www.machineanimalcollages.com/ Patricia Peccinini: http://patriciapiccinini.net/ Simbiotica and Oron Catts: http://www.symbiotica.uwa.edu.au/ Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle: http://www.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/past_exhibitions/moving_pictures/highlights_15a.html

Man-machine hybridization is even beginning to manifest in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art/music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters. [21]

List of Known Cyborgs

  • Randall Schmidt - Left ear hearing surgically enhanced with titanium parts.
  • Kevin Warwick - Had a chip implanted to his arm for a while.

Kevin Warwick speaking at the Tomorrows People conference in 2006 hosted by Oxford University. ...

See also

For other uses, see Android (disambiguation). ... A BioMechanoid is a fictional entity that features in many science-fiction films, books and television programs. ... Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Borg are a fictional pseudo-race of cyborgs depicted in Star Trek. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... The Cybermen - 1966 vintage (from The Moonbase). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Cyberware is a relatively new and unknown field. ... Cyborgs are a prominent staple in the science fiction genre. ... Cyborg theory was created by Donna Haraway in order to critique traditional notions of feminism. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hybrot A hybrot (short for hybrid robot) is a cybernetic organism in the form of a robot controlled by a computer consisting of both electronic and biological elements. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Information Portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger Created by James Cameron & Gale Anne Hurd The Terminator is a fictional character portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger -- a cyborg[1], initially portrayed as a programmable assassin and military infiltration unit. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ... Waldo (1942) is a novella by Robert A. Heinlein originally published in Astounding Magazine in August 1942, using the pseudonym Anson Macdonald. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Neurohacking. ...


  1. ^ "Cyborgs and Space," in Astronautics (September 1960), by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.
  2. ^ D. S. Halacy, Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1965), 7.
  3. ^ Technology as extension of human functional architecture by Alexander Chislenko
  4. ^ A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century by Donna Haraway
  5. ^ Rowan Hooper, "Spear-wielding chimps snack on skewered bushbabies," New Scientist 22 February 2007
  6. ^ Manfred E. Clynes, and Nathan S. Kline, (1960) "Cyborgs and space," Astronautics, September, pp. 26-27 and 74-75; reprinted in Gray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera, eds., The Cyborg Handbook, New York: Routledge, 1995, pp. 29-34. (hardback: ISBN 0-415-90848-5; paperback: ISBN 0-415-90849-3)
  7. ^ OED On-line[1]
  8. ^ Otto Bock HealthCare : a global leader in healthcare products | Otto Bock
  9. ^ Warwick,K, Gasson,M, Hutt,B, Goodhew,I, Kyberd,P, Schulzrinne,H and Wu,X: “Thought Communication and Control: A First Step using Radiotelegraphy”, IEE Proceedings on Communications, 151(3), pp.185-189, 2004
  10. ^ Fisher, Jill A. 2006. Indoor Positioning and Digital Management: Emerging Surveillance Regimes in Hospitals. In T. Monahan (ed), Surveillance and Security: Technological Politics and Power in Everyday Life (pp. 77-88). New York: Routledge.
  11. ^ Markus Hansen, Sebastian Meissner: Identification and Tracking of Individuals and Social Networks using the Electronic Product Code on RFID Tags, IFIP Summer School, Karlstad, 2007,Slides
  12. ^ Albrecht & McIntyre 2006. The Spychips threat: Why Christians Should Resist RFID and Electronic Surveillance, Tennessee: Nelson Current ISBN
  13. ^ Gray, Chris Hables, ed. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1995
  14. ^ Lyotard, Jean François: The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984
  15. ^ The Boston Retinal Implant Project - Publications
  16. ^ The Boston Retinal Implant Project - Mission Statement
  17. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20060313-120147-9229r.htm
  18. ^ Military Plans Cyborg Sharks | LiveScience
  19. ^ 03.03.2004 - UC Berkeley Researchers Developing Robotic Exoskeleton that can Enhance Human Strength and Endurance
  20. ^ Sterling, Bruce. Schismatrix. Arbor House. 1985.
  21. ^ Generative Music - Brian Eno - In Motion Magazine

Alexander Sasha Chislenko, left Leningrad, Russia for Boston, Massachusetts in 1998 (according to his home page [1].) Chislenko was very active with the transhumanist and extropian communities contributing many speculative essays on singularity inspired topics in the years 1997 to 1999. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ...

For further reading:

  • Balsamo, Anne. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.
  • Caidin, Martin. Cyborg; A Novel. New York: Arbor House, 1972.
  • Clark, Andy. Natural-Born Cyborgs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Crittenden, Chris. "Self-Deselection: Technopsychotic Annihilation via Cyborg." Ethics & the Environment 7.2 (Autumn 2002): 127-152.
  • Franchi , Stefano, and Güven Güzeldere, eds. Mechanical Bodies, Computational Minds: Artificial Intelligence from Automata to Cyborgs. MIT Press, 2005.
  • Flanagan, Mary, and Austin Booth, eds. Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002.
  • Gray, Chris Hables. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2001.
  • Gray, Chris Hables, ed. The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • Grenville, Bruce, ed. The Uncanny: Experiments in Cyborg Culture. Arsenal Pulp Press, 2002.
  • Halacy, D. S. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Halberstam, Judith, and Ira Livingston. Posthuman Bodies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
  • Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women; The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1990.
  • Klugman, Craig. "From Cyborg Fiction to Medical Reality." Literature and Medicine 20.1 (Spring 2001): 39-54.
  • Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Viking, 2005.
  • Mann, Steve. "Telematic Tubs against Terror: Bathing in the Immersive Interactive Media of the Post-Cyborg Age." Leonardo 37.5 (October 2004): 372-373.
  • Mann, Steve, and Hal Niedzviecki. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer Doubleday, 2001. ISBN 0-385-65825-7 (A paperback version also exists, ISBN 0-385-65826-5).
  • Masamune Shirow, Ghost in the Shell. Endnotes, 1991. Kodansha ISBN 4-7700-2919-5.
  • Mitchell, William. Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.
  • Muri, Allison. The Enlightenment Cyborg: A History of Communications and Control in the Human Machine, 1660–1830. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.
  • Muri, Allison. Of Shit and the Soul: Tropes of Cybernetic Disembodiment. Body & Society 9.3 (2003): 73–92.
  • Nishime, LeiLani. "The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future." Cinema Journal 44.2 (Winter 2005), 34-49.
  • The Oxford English dictionary. 2nd ed. edited by J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol 4 p. 188.
  • Rorvik, David M. As Man Becomes Machine: the Evolution of the Cyborg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
  • Rushing, Janice Hocker, and Thomas S. Frentz. Projecting the Shadow: The Cyborg Hero in American Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
  • Smith, Marquard, and Joanne Morra, eds. The Prosthetic Impulse: From a Posthuman Present to a Biocultural Future. MIT Press, 2005.
  • The science fiction handbook for readers and writers. By George S. Elrick. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1978, p. 77.
  • The science fiction encyclopaedia. General editor, Peter Nicholls, associate editor, John Clute, technical editor, Carolyn Eardley, contributing editors, Malcolm Edwards, Brian Stableford. 1st ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979, p. 151.
  • Warwick, Kevin. I,Cyborg, University of Illinois Press, 2004.
  • Yoshito Ikada, Bio Materials: an approach to Artificial Organs. (バイオマテリアル: 人工臓器へのアプローチ)

It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... Masamune Shirow ) is a manga artist of international renown, born Masanori Ota (太田 まさのりOta Masanori) on November 23, 1961. ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ... The head office of Kodansha Kodansha Limited ) is the largest Japanese publisher of literature and manga, headquartered in (Bunkyo), Tokyo. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... Malcolm John Edwards (born 1949) is a British editor and critic in the science fiction field. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

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Thought-controlled cybernetic arms demonstrated
  • The Cyborg Database
  • Top Ten Cybernetic Upgrades Everyone Will Want by Michael Anissimov
  • Rangeresqe Military Cyborgs
  • Are you a cyborg? by Alexander Chislenko
  • Border Crossings: Cyborgs
  • Cyberman reviews
  • Cyborgblog
  • Cyborg Fantasies
  • Futures wiki, Cyborg
  • The open-source Electroencephalography project; The open-source programmable chip Electroencephalography project; wiki; WikiCities wiki
  • Stelarc FROM ZOMBIE TO CYBORG BODIES - Extra Ear, Exoskeleton and Avatars
  • TransVision: Transhumanism Conference, 2004
  • Wetware Technology
  • World Transhumanist Association
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  Results from FactBites:
Cyborg - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki (343 words)
A cyborg was a cybernetic organism, that is, a living organic sentient organism with mechanical prosthetics.
Cyborg also referred to creatures that were half-organic and half-droid.
Cyborgs with brain implants such as the BioTech Borg Construct Aj^6 have been known to suffer from psychosis as a result of their enhancement, and consequently face fear and prejudice from many beings.
Encyclopedia4U - Cyborg - Encyclopedia Article (260 words)
The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate a creature which is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts.
Generally, the aim is to add to or enhance the abilities of the organism using artificial technology.
For example, a human fitted with a heart pacemaker might be considered a cyborg, since s/he is incapable of surviving without the mechanical part.
  More results at FactBites »



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