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Encyclopedia > Cyberspace
Part of the series on
Cyborgs

Academic
Cybernetics
Cyborg theory
Cyberspace
Biomechanics
Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... A virtual world is a computer-simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars. ... Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Seven of Nine, a Borg in Star Trek: Voyager The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate an organism which is a mixture of organic and mechanical (synthetic) parts. ... Cybernetics is the study of communication and control, typically involving regulatory feedback in living organisms, machines and organisations, as well as their combinations. ... Cyborg theory was created by Donna Haraway in order to critique traditional notions of feminism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Culture
Cyberculture
Cyberpunk
Postcyberpunk
Cyborg feminism
Crypto-anarchism
Singularitarianism
Transhumanism
Extropianism
Cyberculture is a frequently and flexibly used term lacking an explicit meaning. ... Berlins Sony Center in Potsdamer Platz reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Cyborg feminism is a sub-movement of feminism that uses the notion of a cyborg, machine-organism hybrid, to explore feminism. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... Singularitarianism is a moral philosophy based upon the belief that a technological singularity — the technological creation of smarter-than-human intelligence — is possible, and advocating deliberate action to bring it into effect and ensure its safety. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Topics
Augmented reality
Brain-computer interface
Cognitive liberty
Distributed cognition
Functionalism
Human enhancement
Human ecosystem
Intelligence amplification
Mixed reality
Morphological freedom
Postgenderism
Sociocultural evolution
Technological singularity
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Cognitive liberty is the freedom to be the absolute sovereign of one’s own consciousness. ... History Distributed cognition is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Edwin Hutchins. ... Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the human-ecological aspects of phenomena such as economics, socio-political organizations, ritual et cetera. ... Intelligence amplification (IA) refers to the process of enhancing human intelligence through the use of technology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Augmented reality. ... Morphological freedom is, according to neuroscientist Anders Sandberg, an extension of one’s right to one’s body, not just self-ownership but also the right to modify oneself according to one’s desires. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... [[Image:Cultural evolution. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ...


Lists
Cyberpunk Art
Cyborgs in Fiction
Transhumanists
William Gibsons Sprawl Trilogy of novels The following is a list of works commonly ascribed to the cyberpunk genre of science fiction. ... Cyborgs are a prominent staple in the science fiction genre. ... This page contains a list of notable individuals who have identified themselves or been identified by others as advocates of transhumanism (in alphabetical order). ...

 v  d  e 

Cyberspace, a metaphoric abstraction used in philosophy and computing, is a (virtual) reality which represents the Noosphere/Popperian Cosmology (3 worlds) both "inside" computers and "on" computer networks. Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ... Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a science and technology that deals with the original sense of computing mathematical calculations. ... Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one. ... The noosphere can be seen as the sphere of human thought being derived from the Greek νους (nous) meaning mind in the style of atmosphere and biosphere. In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere... Popperian cosmology is Karl Poppers philosophical theory of reality that includes three interacting worlds, called World 1, World 2 and World 3. ...

Contents

Origins of the term

Fictional

The word "cyberspace" (a portmanteau of cybernetics and space) was coined by William Gibson, the Canadian/American science fiction writer who helped define its cyberpunk sub-genre, in 1982 in his novelette "Burning Chrome" in Omni magazine, and in his 1984 novel Neuromancer.[1] The portion of Neuromancer cited in this respect is usually the following: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cybernetics is the study of communication and control, typically involving regulatory feedback in living organisms, machines and organisations, as well as their combinations. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948, Conway, South Carolina) is an American-born science fiction author resident in Canada since 1968. ... Berlins Sony Center in Potsdamer Platz reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hackers (ISBN 0441003753) is a collection of short stories edited by Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois. ... Omni was a magazine that contained articles on science fact and short works of science fiction. ... Neuromancer by William Gibson is the most famous early cyberpunk novel and won the so-called science-fiction triple crown (the Nebula Award, the Philip K. Dick Memorial Award, and the Hugo Award) after being published in 1984. ...

Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding, (69).

Gibson also coined the phrase Meatspace to define the state which is the opposite of Cyberspace. Meatspace is synonymous with the physical world and conceived as the opposite of cyberspace or virtual reality. ...


Metaphorical

The term Cyberspace started to become a de facto synonym for the Internet, and later the World Wide Web, during the 1990s, especially in academic circles[2] and activist communities. Sci-fi and nonfiction author Bruce Sterling, who popularized this meaning[3], credits John Perry Barlow as the first to use it to refer to "the present-day nexus of computer and telecommunications networks." Barlow describes it thus in his essay to announce the formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (note the spatial metaphor) in June, 1990[4]: WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ... Bruce Sterling at the Ars Electronica Festival Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American science fiction author, best known for his novels and his seminal work on the Mirrorshades anthology, which defined the cyberpunk genre. ... John Perry Barlow (born Jackson Hole, Wyoming, October 3, 1947) is an American poet, essayist, retired Wyoming cattle rancher, and former lyricist for the Grateful Dead. ... EFF Logo The EFF uses the blue ribbon as symbolism for their Free Speech defense. ...

In this silent world, all conversation is typed. To enter it, one forsakes both body and place and becomes a thing of words alone. You can see what your neighbors are saying (or recently said), but not what either they or their physical surroundings look like. Town meetings are continuous and discussions rage on everything from sexual kinks to depreciation schedules.

There are thousands of these nodes in the United States, ranging from PC clone hamlets of a few users to mainframe metros like CompuServe, with its 550,000 subscribers. They are used by corporations to transmit memoranda and spreadsheets, universities to disseminate research, and a multitude of factions, from apiarists to Zoroastrians, for purposes unique to each.

Whether by one telephonic tendril or millions, they are all connected to one another. Collectively, they form what their inhabitants call the Net. It extends across that immense region of electron states, microwaves, magnetic fields, light pulses and thought which sci-fi writer William Gibson named Cyberspace.

—John Perry Barlow, "Crime and Puzzlement," 1990-06-08 This article is about the year. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ...

As Barlow, and the EFF, continued public education efforts to promote the idea of "digital rights," the term was increasingly used, and became a potent meme during the Internet boom of the late 1990s. It has been suggested that Memetic engineering be merged into this article or section. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ...


Cyberspace as an Internet metaphor

While cyberspace should not be confused with the real Internet, the term is often used to refer to objects and identities that exist largely within the communication network itself, so that a web site, for example, might be metaphorically said to "exist in cyberspace." According to this interpretation, events taking place on the Internet are not therefore happening in the countries where the participants or the servers are physically located, but "in cyberspace". A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ...

Cyberspace is the "place" where a telephone conversation appears to occur. Not inside your actual phone, the plastic device on your desk. Not inside the other person's phone, in some other city. The place between the phones. ...in the past twenty years, this electrical "space," which was once thin and dark and one-dimensional -- little more than a narrow speaking-tube, stretching from phone to phone -- has flung itself open like a gigantic jack-in the- box. Light has flooded upon it, the eerie light of the glowing computer screen. This dark electric netherworld has become a vast flowering electronic landscape. Since the 1960s, the world of the telephone has cross-bred itself with computers and television, and though there is still no substance to cyberspace, nothing you can handle, it has a strange kind of physicality now. It makes good sense today to talk of cyberspace as a place all its own.

—Bruce Sterling, Introduction to The Hacker Crackdown The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier is a book written by science fiction writer Bruce Sterling in 1992. ...

The "space" in cyberspace has more in common with the abstract, mathematical meanings of the term (see Space) than physical space. It doesn't have the duality of positive and negative volume (while in physical space for example a room has the negative volume of usable space delineated by positive volume of walls, Internet users cannot enter the screen and explore the unknown part of the Net as an extension of the space they're in), but spatial meaning can be attributed to the relationship between different pages (of books as well as webservers), considering the unturned pages to be somewhere "out there." The concept of cyberspace therefore refers not to the content being presented to the surfer, but rather to the possibility of surfing among different sites, with feedback loops between the user and the rest of the system creating the potential to always encounter something unknown or unexpected. Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Look up Page in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Page may mean: In graphic design, typography, or printing: Page header, typography Page footer, typography Page (paper), a leaf or one side of a leaf, as of a book An apprentice, assistant or errand boy: Page (servant), a servant or knights... The term web server can mean one of two things: a computer responsible for serving web pages, mostly HTML documents, via the HTTP protocol to clients, mostly web browsers; a software program that is working as a daemon serving web documents. ... Website Site(Geography) ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ...


Videogames differ from text-based communication in that on-screen images are meant to be figures that actually occupy a space and the animation shows the movement of those figures. Images are supposed to form the positive volume that delineates the empty space. A game adopts the cyberspace metaphor by engaging more players in the game, and then figuratively representing them on the screen as avatars. Games don’t have to stop at the avatar-player level, but current implementations aiming for more immersive playing space (i.e. Laser tag) take the form of augmented reality rather than cyberspace, fully immersive virtual realities remaining impractical. A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Example of an avatar as used on internet forums. ... Laser tag is a sport loosely related to the original game of tag. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Although the more radical consequences of the global communication network predicted by some cyberspace proponents (i.e. the diminishing of state influence envisioned by John Perry Barlow[5]) failed to materialize and the word lost some of its novelty appeal, it remains current as of 2006.[6][7] John Perry Barlow (born Jackson Hole, Wyoming, October 3, 1947) is an American poet, essayist, retired Wyoming cattle rancher, and former lyricist for the Grateful Dead. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Some virtual communities explicitly refer to the concept of cyberspace, e.g. Linden Lab calling their customers "Residents" of Second Life, while all such communities can be positioned "in cyberspace" for explanatory and comparative purposes (as Sterling did in The Hacker Crackdown and many journalists afterwards), integrating the metaphor into a wider cyber-culture. A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ... It has been suggested that Second Life issues and criticisms#Customer Security be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of the term Resident, see the Resident disambiguation page) In the context of Second Life, the term Resident is applied to a person who has a stake in the world (login required): Robin Linden (in response to the question of who coined the term Resident and why... This article explains the virtual world. ... Cyberculture is a frequently and flexibly used term lacking an explicit meaning. ...


Alternate realities in philosophy and art

Predating computers

Before cyberspace became a technological possibility, many philosophers suggested the posibility of a virtual reality similar to cyberspace. In The Republic, Plato sets out his allegory of the cave, widely cited as one of the first conceptual realities. He suggests that we are already in a form of virtual reality which we are deceived into thinking is true. True reality for Plato is only accessible through mental training and is the reality of the forms. These ideas are central to Platonism and neoplatonism. The Republic (Greek ) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. ... Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Illustration of Platos cave Platos allegory of the cave is perhaps the best-known of his many metaphors, allegories, and myths. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


Another forerunner of the modern ideas of cyberspace is Descartes' thought that people might be deceived by an evil demon which feeds them a false reality. This argument is the direct predecessor of the modern ideas of brain in a vat and many popular conceptions of cyberspace take Descartes' ideas as their starting point. René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... In philosophy, the brain-in-a-vat is any of a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, and meaning. ...


Visual arts have a tradition, stretching back to antiquity, of artefacts meant to fool the eye and be mistaken for reality. This questioning of reality occasionally led some philosophers and (especially) theologians to distrust art as deceiving people into entering a world which was not real (see Aniconism). The artistic challenge was resurrected with increasing ambition as art became more and more realistic with the invention of photography, film (see Arrival of a Train at a Station) and finally immersive computer simulations. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Zeuxis and Parrhasius, painters of Ephesus in the 5th century BC, are reported in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder to have staged a contest to determine which of the two was the greater artist. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... Aniconism is the absence of representations, in a restricted sense that of God and living beings, and more generally of any type of artificial production of substitutes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Influenced by computers

Philosophy

American counterculture exponents like William S. Burroughs (whose literary influence on Gibson and cyberpunk in general is widely acknowledged[8][9]) and Timothy Leary[10] were among the first to extoll the potential of computers and computer networks for individual empowerment.[11] In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms of behavior run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... William Seward Burroughs II (pronounced ) (February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ...


Some contemporary philosophers and scientists (i.e. David Deutsch in The Fabric of Reality) employ virtual reality in various thought experiments. For example Philip Zhai in Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality connects cyberspace to the platonic tradition: David Deutsch (born 1953) is a physicist at Oxford University. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... Philip Zhai (also known as Zhenming Zhai 翟振明)is a philosopher who writes in both English and Chinese. ...

Let us imagine a nation in which everyone is hooked up to a network of VR infrastructure. They have been so hooked up since they left their mother's wombs. Immersed in cyberspace and maintaining their life by teleoperation, they have never imagined that life could be any different from that. The first person that thinks of the possibility of an alternative world like ours would be ridiculed by the majority of these citizens, just like the few enlightened ones in Plato's allegory of the cave.

Note that this brain-in-a-vat argument conflates cyberspace with reality, while the more common descriptions of cyberspace contrast it with the "real world". In philosophy, the brain in a vat is any of a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, and meaning. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The term Real World or real world may mean: the stage of life that one enters after completing ones schooling, as in the sentence, After students enter the real world, they may not be able to sleep late as often as they did while in school. ...


Art

Main article: New media art New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ...


Having originated among writers, the concept of cyberspace remains most popular in literature and film. Although artists working with other media have expressed some interest in the concept, "cyberspace" in modern art is mostly used as a synonym for "virtual reality" and remains more discussed than enacted.[12]


Popular culture examples

  • In the math mystery cartoon Cyberchase, the action takes place in Cyberspace, managed by the benevolent ruler, Motherboard. It is used as a conceit to allow storylines to take place in virtual worlds -- "Cybersites" -- on any theme and where specific math concepts can be best explored.
  • The anime Digimon is set in a variant of the cyberspace concept called the "Digital World". The Digital World is a parallel universe made up of data from the Internet. Similar to cyberspace, except that people could physically enter this world instead of merely using a computer.
  • In the computer game System Shock, the player can use a neural implant to "jack in" to cyberspace terminals, where they can collect data, fight security programs and trigger certain events in the real world, such as unlocking doors.
  • In the movie Tron, a programmer was physically transferred to the program world, where programs were personalities, resembling the forms of their creators.
  • The idea of "the matrix" in the movie The Matrix resembles a complex form of cyberspace where people are "jacked in" from the real world, and can create anything and do anything they want in this cyber world.
  • In the EXE series of MegaMan, there is a place where A.I. programs called NetNavis can "jack in" to Cyberspace from about any electrical appliance.
  • In the Japanese anime series Lain, the main character begins to learn of a new dimension of reality taking place in cyberspace.
  • Irregular Webcomic!'s Space theme frequently involves the characters going into Cyberspace.
  • In the Xenosaga video game series on the PlayStation 2, there is virtual reality called the U.M.N. ("Unus mundus network") that uses the human collective unconscious as an interstellar, cyberspace network. It is similar to the matrix mentioned above, but also facilitates hyperspace travel for spacecraft and can create a virtual reality representation of human memories.
  • In the Ghost in the Shell fictional universe, there is an extrapolation of the Internet (called "The Net") which a large section of society seems to be able to access. The interface can range from simply visual (through conventional displays or implants) to full-sensory immersion via neural jacks, where (as in William Gibson's Cyberspace) data is shown as visual constructs such as objects that present servers or databases, with graphical depictions of security mechanisms and information stores. Entering and/or traveling The Net is referred to as "net diving", which is an activity with the potential to be physically dangerous.
  • In the video game Shadow the Hedgehog, two cyberspace levels were made: Digital Circuit and Mad Matrix.

CyberChase is a childrens American animated television series PBS Kids and PBS Kids GO!, produced by Thirteen/WNET New York and Nelvana. ... This is a list of characters that have appeared on the PBS Kids GO! series Cyberchase Spoiler warning: // Major Protagonists Cyberspace Leaders (Control Central) Motherboard Motherboard is a character in the math-mystery cartoon Cyberchase. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cyberchase. ... This article is about the media franchise. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... System Shock is a computer game developed by Looking Glass Technologies (later Looking Glass Studios). ... Tron is a 1982 Walt Disney Productions science fiction movie starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Lora (and Yori)and Dan Shor as Ram. ... The Matrix is a science fiction/action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano and Hugo Weaving. ... Serial Experiments Lain is an anime series by Ryutaro Nakamura and a PlayStation game of the same name. ... Irregular Webcomic! was a webcomic created by David Morgan-Mar, an Australian physicist. ... Xenosaga ) is primarily a series of video games developed by Monolith Soft and published by Namco. ... The PlayStation 2 (PS2) ) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... In physics, hyperspace is a theoretical entity. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ... The Net is a movie released in 1995, starring Sandra Bullock. ... There are a number of people who have been (or are) named William Gibson. ... Shadow the Hedgehog is a video game starring an antihero of the Sonic the Hedgehog series, Shadow the Hedgehog. ...

See also

Look up cyberspace in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Cyberculture is a frequently and flexibly used term lacking an explicit meaning. ... Cyber law encompasses a wide variety of legal issues related to use of communications technology. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Cybersecession is an approach to cyberlaw which promotes a legal map of the Cyberspace featuring different Cyberspace zones, with different legal status. ... Cybersex, computer sex or net sex is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more persons connected remotely via a computer network send one another sexually explicit messages describing a sexual experience. ... A Cyberzine (a portmanteau of Cyberspace, which itself is a portmanteau word, and magazine) is a magazine almost entirely online (occasionally may have a print version too). ... Cipherspace (also spelled cypherspace) is the encrypted (and often pseudonymous or fully anonymous) equivalent to cyberspace. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... A digital pet, also known as a virtual pet, is a type of artificial human companion. ... Electronic sports, abbreviated e-sports or eSports, is used as a general term used to describe computer and video games that are played as competitive sports. ... The adolescent Internet. ... Infosphere neologism coined by Luciano Floridi on the basis of biosphere, a term referring to that limited region on our planet that supports life. ... Internet art (often called net. ... Next Nature is culturally emerged nature. ... The Metaverse, a phrase coined by Neal Stephensons science fiction novel Snow Crash (1992) constitutes Stephensons vision of how a virtual reality-based Internet might evolve in the near future. ... Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI. A simulation is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. ... Social software enables people to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities. ... It has been proposed that Telerobotics be merged and redirected into this article. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Po-Mo SF "William Gibson's Neuromancer and Post-Modern Science Fiction"
  2. ^ Vanderbilt University, "Postmodernism and the Culture of Cyberspace", Fall 1996 course syllabus
  3. ^ Principia Cybernetica "Cyberspace"
  4. ^ John Perry Barlow, "Crime and Puzzlement," June 8, 1990
  5. ^ John Perry Barlow, "A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace," February 8, 1996
  6. ^ White House, "The National Strategy To Secure Cyberspace"
  7. ^ FindLaw Legal News site, Tech and IP: Cyberspace section, retrieved November 14, 2006.
  8. ^ Alexander Laurence, An Interview with John Shirley, 1994
  9. ^ "Burroughs/Gysin/Throbbing Gristle", retrieved December 31, 2006
  10. ^ "Internet will be the LSD of the 90's", quoted by an on-line biography
  11. ^ Douglas Rushkoff, "Godfathers of Cyberspace"
  12. ^ Eduardo Kac, "Telepresence Art"

November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... John Shirley (born February 10, 1953) is an author of novels, short stories, and television & film scripts. ... Douglas Rushkoff (born 18 February 1961) is a New York-based writer, columnist and lecturer on technology, media and popular culture. ...

References

  • Gibson, William. Neuromancer:20th Anniversary Edition. New York:Ace Books, 2004.
  • Ippolito, Jon (December 1998–January 1999). "Cross Talk: Is Cyberspace Really a Space?". Artbyte: 12–24.
  • Irvine, Martin. "Postmodern Science Fiction and Cyberpunk", retrieved 2006-07-19.
  • Sterling, Bruce. The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder On the Electronic Frontier. Spectra Books, 1992.
  • Zhai, Philip. Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998.

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cyberspace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1491 words)
Cyberspace, a metaphoric abstraction used in philosophy and computing, is a (virtual) reality which represents the Noosphere/Popperian Cosmology (3 worlds) both "inside" computers and "on" computer networks.
The word "cyberspace" (a portmanteau of cybernetics and space) was coined by William Gibson, the Canadian/American science fiction writer who defined its cyberpunk sub-genre, in 1982 in his novelette "Burning Chrome" in Omni magazine.
Immersed in cyberspace and maintaining their life by teleoperation, they have never imagined that life could be any different from that.
Cyberspace (786 words)
Word "cyberspace" was first used by William Gibson in his book "Burning Chrome" in 1982.
Serious efforts to construct virtual reality interfaces modeled explicitly on Gibsonian cyberspace are under way, using more conventional devices such as glove sensors and binocular TV headsets.
In particular, the dominant colors of this subjective `cyberspace' are often gray and silver, and the imagery often involves constellations of marching dots, elaborate shifting patterns of lines and angles, or moire patterns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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