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Encyclopedia > Cybernetics

Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations including self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [1]. A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [2]. Cybernetics may refer to more than one thing: Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ... Image File history File links Science-symbol-13a. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a theorist in operational research and management cybernetics. ... Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask (* June 28, 1928 in Derby, England; † March 28, 1996 London) was an English cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology and educational technology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behavior of dynamical systems. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Couffignal (1902-1966) was a French Cybernetics pioneer. ...


The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [3]. Louis Kauffman, topologist Louis Kauffman is a topologist, whose work is primarily in knot theory and connections with statistical mechanics, quantum theory, algebra, combinatorics and foundations. ...

Contents

Overview

The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems. Studies of this field are all ultimately means of examining different forms of systems and applying what is known to make artificial systems, such as business management, more efficient and effective. Efficiency is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. ... Efficiency is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. ...


Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device. Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The eye is an adaptation. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... Look up efficiency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... Not to be confused with interdependence. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Look up device in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other fields of study which have influenced or been influnced by cybernetics include game theory; system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics); psychology, especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology; and philosophy. Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Yo man This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


History

The Roots of Cybernetic theory

The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify the governance of people. The words govern and governor are related to the same Greek root through the Latin cognates gubernare and gubernator. The word ('cybernétique') was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... André-Marie Ampère (January 20, 1775 – June 10, 1836), was a French physicist who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ...


The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles. A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Greek Κτησίβιος) (flourished 285–222 BC) was a Greek[1] or Egyptian[2] inventor and mathematician in Alexandria. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ...


The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end, goal, or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 1700s when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor, a centripetal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... A governor is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwells equations — including an important modification (extension) of the Ampères...


The Early 20th century

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control theory. ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics that is concerned with formal systems and the way they encode intuitive concepts of proof and computation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Numerous papers spearheaded the coalesing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P.K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback ("back afferentation") was studied. The Romanian scientist Ştefan Odobleja published Psychologie consonantiste (Paris, 1938), describing many cybernetic principles. The study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. These papers were "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow; and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ... In nervous systems, afferent signals or nerve fibers carry information toward the brain. ... Åžtefan Odobleja (1902 - 1978) was a Romanian scientist considered to be one of the precursors of cybernetics. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arturo Rosenblueth (* October 2, 1900 in Ciudad Guerrero, Chihuahua- † September 20, 1970 in Mexico City) was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... Julian Bigelow (1913 - 2003) was John Von Neumanns engineer. ... Warren McCulloch (November 16, 1899 - September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician. ... Walter Pitts (1923? - 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of cognitive psychology. ...


Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as W. Ross Ashby and W. Grey Walter. Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... One or more images would improve this articles quality. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... W. Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 - May 6, 1977) was a neurophysiologist and robotician. ...


Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. Together with the US and UK, an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was France. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


In the spring of 1947, Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis, held in Nancy, France. The event was organized by the Bourbaki, a French scientific society, and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899-1983), uncle of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... Nicolas Bourbaki is the pseudonym under which a group of mainly French 20th-century mathematicians wrote a series of books of exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. ... Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899 – 1983) was a French mathematician, from a Polish-Lithuanian Jewish background. ... Benoît B. Mandelbrot, PhD, (born November 20, 1924) is a Franco-American mathematician, best known as the father of fractal geometry. Benoît Mandelbrot was born in Poland, but his family moved to France when he was a child; he is a dual French and American citizen and was...


During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. The following summer, back in the United States, Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory. The name cybernetics was coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine (1948). In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club. Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ratio Club was a small informal dining club of young psychologists, physiologists, mathematicians and engineers who met to discuss issues in cybernetics. ...


In the early 1940's John von Neumann, although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann cellular automata, and their logical follow up the Von Neumann Universal Constructor. The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of self replication which cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study. For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Von Neumann cellular automata are the original expression of cellular automata, the development of which were prompted by suggestions made to John von Neumann, by his close friend and mathematician Stanisław Ulam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Universal Assembler. ... Self-replication is the process by which a thing may act, and thereby make a copy of itself. ... Meme, (rhymes with cream and comes from Greek root with the meaning of memory and its derivative mimeme), is the term given to a unit of information that replicates from brains and inanimate stores of information, such as books and computers, to other brains or stores of information. ...


Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).


While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics, the Biological Computer Lab at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, under the direction of Heinz von Foerster, was a major center of cybernetic research for almost 20 years, beginning in 1958. He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ...


The Fall and Rebirth of Cybernetics

For a time during the past 20 years, the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (ie. cyborgs) and when this research fell out of favor, the field as a whole fell from grace. Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as Game Theory (the analysis of group interaction), systems of feedback in evolution, and Metamaterials (the study of materials with properties beyond the newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have lead to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field.[1] Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... The evolutionarily stable strategy (or ESS; also evolutionary stable strategy) is a central concept in game theory introduced by John Maynard Smith and George R. Price in 1973 (a full account is given by Maynard Smith, 1982). ... A Metamaterial is a composite material that has electromagnetic properties unlike the materials of origin. ...


Subdivisions of the field

Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many subject matters. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.


Pure Cybernetics

Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principals underlying such things as

Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control theory. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Peter Senge defined a learning organization as human beings cooperating in dynamical systems (as defined in systemics) that are in a state of continuous adaptation and improvement. ... New Cybernetics is the term used by Gordon Pask. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

In Biology

Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation[4]. There is also a secondary focus on cyborgs. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ...

Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... Biocybernetics is the biological science of studying the informatic aspect of living systems. ... Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Medical Cybernetics covers an emerging working program for the application of systems- and communications-theory, connectionism and decision theory on biomedical research and health related questions. ... Synthetic biology is a new area of research that combines science and engineering in order to design and build novel biological functions and systems. ...

In Complexity Science

Complexity Science attempts to analyze the nature of complex systems, and the reasons behind their unusual properties.

There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complexity theory can refer to more than one thing: Computational complexity theory: a field in theoretical computer science and mathematics dealing with the resources required during computation to solve a given problem Systems theory (or systemics or general systems theory): an interdisciplinary field including engineering, biology and philosophy that incorporates...

In Computer Science

Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information.

Decision support systems are a class of computer-based information systems including knowledge based systems that support decision making activities. ... This article is about the general term. ...

In Engineering

Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze cascading failures and System Accidents, in which the small errors and imperfections in a system can generate disasters. Other topics studied include: A cascading failure is failure in a system of interconnected parts, where the service provided depends on the operation of a preceding part, and the failure of a preceding part can trigger the failure of successive parts. ... A system accident, is defined as an accident that involves the unanticipated interaction of multiple failures in a complex system. ...

An adaptive system is a system that is able to adapt its behavior according to changes in its environment or in parts of the system itself. ... Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems. ... Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Ergonomics Association in 2007). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means...

In Management

Entrepreneurial Cybernetics Entrepreneurial Cybernetics has developed as a variant of management cybernetics. ... Management cybernetics has evolved as one of the many subdivisions of cybernetic theory. ... Management cybernetics has evolved as one of the many subdivisions of cybernetic theory. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means...

In Mathematics

Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information, interaction of parts in systems, and the structure of systems.

The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...

In Psychology

Psycho Cybernetics by Dr. Maxwell Maltz Psycho-Cybernetics is a book on self-improvement, written by Maxwell Maltz in 1960 which combines the cognitive therapy of Prescott Lecky with the cybernetics of Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

In Sociology

By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics, sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous events as smart mobs and riots, as well as how communities develop rules, such as etiquette, by consensus without formal discussion. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior, emotions, and labeling theory in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited by McClelland and Fararo[5]. A smart mob is a form of self-structuring social organization through technology-mediated, intelligent emergent behavior. The concept was introduced by Howard Rheingold in his book Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... Affect control theory proposes that individuals maintain affective meanings through their actions and interpretations of events. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Labelling be merged into this article or section. ...

Affect control theory proposes that individuals maintain affective meanings through their actions and interpretations of events. ... Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ... Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the General Systems Theory and Cybernetics. ...

Further reading

  • W. Ross Ashby (1956), Introduction to Cybernetics. Methuen, London, UK. PDF text.
  • Stafford Beer (1974), Designing Freedom, John Wiley, London and New York, 1975.
  • Lars Bluma, (2005), Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Münster.
  • Steve J. Heims (1980), John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 3. Aufl., Cambridge.
  • Steve J. Heims (1993), Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America. The Cybernetics Group, 1946-1953, Cambridge University Press, London, UK.
  • Helvey, T.C. The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1971.
  • Francis Heylighen, and Joslyn C. (2001), "Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics", in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), Vol. 4, (Academic Press, New York), p. 155-170.
  • Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980), Norbert Wiener, Leipzig.
  • P. Rustom Masani (1990), Norbert Wiener 1894-1964, Basel.
  • Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.
  • Paul Pangaro (1990), "Cybernetics — A Definition", Eprint.
  • Gordon Pask (1972), [http://www.cybsoc.org/gcyb.htm Cybernetics], entry in Encyclopaedia Britannica 1972.
  • B.C. Patten, and E.P. Odum (1981), "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems", The American Naturalist 118, 886-895.
  • Plato, "Alcibiades 1", W.R.M. Lamb (trans.), pp. 93–223 in Plato, Volume 12, Loeb Classical Library, London, UK, 1927.
  • Heinz von Foerster, (1995), Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics.
  • Norbert Wiener (1948), Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Paris, Hermann et Cie - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a theorist in operational research and management cybernetics. ... Francis Heylighen (born 1960) is a Belgian cyberneticist. ... Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask (* June 28, 1928 in Derby, England; † March 28, 1996 London) was an English cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology and educational technology. ... Eugene Pleasants Odum (1913-2002) was an American scientist known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world. Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-48340-8. 
  2. ^ Couffignal, Louis, "Essai d’une définition générale de la cybernétique", The First International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Belgium, June 26-29, 1956, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1958, pp. 46-54
  3. ^ CYBCON discussion group 20 September 2007 18:15
  4. ^ Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular nitch, such as the case of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments.
  5. ^ McClelland, Kent A., and Thomas J. Fararo (Eds.). 2006. Purpose, Meaning, and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Binomial name Biston (moth) betularia Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies betularia cognataria parva The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth often used by educators as an example of natural selection (see theory of evolution, industrial melanism). ...

See also

Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... Artificial Life, (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and art form that examines systems related to life, its processes and its evolution through simulations using computer models, robotics, and biochemistry [1] (called soft, hard, and wet approaches respectively[2]). Artificial life complements traditional Biology by trying to... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... Decision theory is an interdisciplinary area of study, related to and of interest to practitioners in mathematics, statistics, economics, philosophy, management and psychology. ... Entrepreneurial Cybernetics Entrepreneurial Cybernetics has developed as a variant of management cybernetics. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, and earlier generally referred to as marriage therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Italic textBold textLink titleLink title. ... Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence. ... Not to be confused with interdependence. ... Management cybernetics has evolved as one of the many subdivisions of cybernetic theory. ... Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Network theory or diktyology is a branch of applied mathematics and physics, with the same general subject matter as graph theory. ... New Cybernetics is the term used by Gordon Pask. ... -1... Principia Cybernetica is a international organisation in the field of cybernetics and systems science focused on the collaborate developing of a computer-supported evolutionary-systemic philosophy in the context of the transdisciplinary academic fields of Systems Science and Cybernetics [1]. // The organisation is initiated around 1991 by Francis Heylighen from... Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Semiotic information theory considers the information content of signs and expressions as it is conceived within the semiotic or sign-relational framework developed by Charles Sanders Peirce. ... A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms. ... Inspired by the laser theory and founded by Hermann Haken, synergetics is an interdisciplinary science explaining the formation and self-organization of patterns and structures in open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Gotthard Gunthers term for Subjectivity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In mathematics, catastrophe theory is a branch of bifurcation theory in the study of dynamical systems; it is also a particular special case of more general singularity theory in geometry. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behavior of dynamical systems. ... Decision theory is an interdisciplinary area of study, related to and of interest to practitioners in mathematics, statistics, economics, philosophy, management and psychology. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Inspired by the laser theory and founded by Hermann Haken, synergetics is an interdisciplinary science explaining the formation and self-organization of patterns and structures in open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. ... Biological Cybernetics investigates communication and control processes in living organisms and ecosystems. ... Biomedical cybernetics deals with investigating signal processing, decision making and control structures in living organisms. ... Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Neuroinformatics. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Management cybernetics has evolved as one of the many subdivisions of cybernetic theory. ... Medical Cybernetics covers an emerging working program for the application of systems- and communications-theory, connectionism and decision theory on biomedical research and health related questions. ... // Word explanation Neuro cybernetics is a compound word of neuro, regarding to the common biological way to convey information within a organism by means of nerves, and cybernetics - the science of communication and automatic control systems in relation to both machines and living beings. ... Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the General Systems Theory and Cybernetics. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Claude Bernard Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 - February 10, 1878) was a French physiologist. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Valentin Braitenberg is a cyberneticist and former director at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany. ... Gordon Stanley Brown (born 1907 in Australia — died 23 August 1996 in Tucson, Arizona) was a professor of electrical engineering at MIT. He originated many of the concepts behind automatic-feedback control systems and the numerical control of machine tools. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... Ernst von Glasersfeld is a proponent of radical constructivism and is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Georgia, Research Associate at the Scientific Reasoning Research Institute, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. ... Francis Heylighen (born 1960) is a Belgian cyberneticist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who has given much thought to the origin of life on Earth. ... Kurdyumov Sergei Pavlovich (1928-2004) is an outstanding Russian scholar, an expert in mathematical physics, computational mathematics, plasma physics and synergetics. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Warren McCulloch (November 16, 1899 - September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask (* June 28, 1928 in Derby, England; † March 28, 1996 London) was an English cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology and educational technology. ... Walter Pitts (1923? - 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of cognitive psychology. ... Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (January 17, 1881–October 24, 1955) was a British social anthropologist who developed the theory of Structural Functionalism, a framework that describes basic concepts relating to the social structure of primitive civilizations. ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a British theorist, academic, and consultant, best known for his work in the fields of operational research and management cybernetics. ... Robert Trappl is a cybernetics and artificial intelligence researcher. ... Valentin Turchin (born 1931) is a Russian-American cybernetician and computer scientist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... Prof. ... JOHN N. WARFIELD The career of John Warfield has been described as passing through four phases: Phase 1: Electrical engineering faculty member: 1948-1965 Phase 2: Starting a systems science research career path: 1966-1980 Phase 3: Accruing evidence and developing components of systems science: 1980-2000 Phase 4: Aggregating... Kevin Warwick speaking at the Tomorrows People conference hosted by Oxford University. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systems science is a term in use since the 1960s that refers to the field of science surrounding systems theory, cybernetics, the science of complex systems. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... GPS redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... In mathematics, a nonlinear system is one whose behavior cant be expressed as a sum of the behaviors of its parts (or of their multiples. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behavior of dynamical systems. ... Holism in science, or Holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems. ... Sociotechnical systems theory is theory about the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of machines and technology. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... System Dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Russell Lincoln Ackoff (born 12 February 1919) is a Professor Emeritus of the Wharton School in operations research and systems theory. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Kenneth E. Boulding Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 - March 18, 1993) was an economist, educator, peace activist, poet, religious mystic, devoted Quaker, systems scientist, and interdisciplinary philosopher. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Ralph Waldo Gerard (7 October 1900, Harvey, Illinois - 17 February 1974) was an American neurophysiologist and behavioral scientist known for his wide-ranging work on the nervous system, nerve metabolism, psychopharmacology, and biological bases of schizophrenia [1]. // Gerard was born in Harvey, Illinois at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Debora Hammond down the Green River in Canyonlands National Park Debora Hammond is an American systems theorist, working as an Associate Professor professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal Studies at the Sonoma State University. ... George Jiri Klir (1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is an Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Mihajlo D. Mesarovic (1928) is a Yugoslavian scientist, who was professor of Systems Engineering and Mathematics at Case Western Reserve University. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... JOHN N. WARFIELD The career of John Warfield has been described as passing through four phases: Phase 1: Electrical engineering faculty member: 1948-1965 Phase 2: Starting a systems science research career path: 1966-1980 Phase 3: Accruing evidence and developing components of systems science: 1980-2000 Phase 4: Aggregating... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cybernetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1279 words)
Cybernetics is the study of communication and control, typically involving regulatory feedback, in living organisms, in machines, and in combinations of the two, for example, in sociotechnical systems.
Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener, McCulloch and others, such as W.
The main innovation of cybernetics was the creation of a scientific discipline focused on goals: an understanding of goal-directedness or purpose, resulting from a negative feedback loop which minimizes the deviation between the perceived situation and the desired situation (goal).
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