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Encyclopedia > Cybele
A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles
A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles

Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. As with Gaia (the "Earth") or her Minoan equivalent Rhea, Cybele embodies the fertile Earth, a goddess of caverns and mountains, walls and fortresses, nature, wild animals (especially lions and bees). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (696x601, 162 KB) Summary Same as Image:Cibeles con Palacio de Linares al fondo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (696x601, 162 KB) Summary Same as Image:Cibeles con Palacio de Linares al fondo. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... The Earth Mother is a motif that appears in many mythologies. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) This article is about natural caves; for artificial caves used as dwellings, such as those in north China, see yaodong. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ...


Her title, Potnia Theron, which also is associated with the Minoan Great Mother, alludes to her ancient Neolithic roots as "Mistress of the Animals". She becomes a life-death-rebirth deity in connection with her resurrection of her son and consort, Attis. She is associated with her lion throne and her chariot drawn by lions. This article is about the Greek goddess. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


Her Roman equivalent was Magna Mater or "Great Mother". Walter Burkert, who treats Meter among "foreign gods" in Greek Religion (1985, section III.3,4) puts it succinctly: "The cult of the Great Mother, Meter, presents a complex picture insofar as indigenous, Minoan-Mycenean tradition is here intertwined with a cult taken over directly from the Phrygian kingdom of Asia Minor" (p 177). A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea (great Idaean mother of the gods) was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea. ... The Great Mother manifests itself in myth as a host of archaic images. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Anatolian deities
  • Attis
  • Artemis of Ephesus
  • Cybele

Save that it reveals that the Greeks considered "Cybele" to be Greek, the traditional derivation of her name, as "she of the hair" can be ignored, now that the inscription of one of her Phrygian rock-cut monuments has been read matar kubileya.[1] The inscription matar occurs frequently in her Phrygian sites (Burkert). Kubileya is usually read as a Phrygian adjective "of the mountain", so that the inscription may be read Mother of the Mountain, and this is supported by Classical sources (Roller 1999, pp. 67–68). Another theory is that her name can be traced to the Luwian Kubaba, the deified queen of the Third Dynasty of Kish worshiped at Carchemish and Hellenized to Kybebe (Munn 2004, Motz 1997, pp. 105-106). With or without the etymological connection, Kubaba and Matar certainly merged in at least some aspects, as the genital mutilation later connected with Cybele's cult is associated with Kybebe in earlier texts, but in general she seems to have been more a collection of similar tutelary goddesses associated with specific Anatolian mountains or other localities, and called simply "mother" (Motz). The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Carchemish (pr. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ...


The goddess was known among the Greeks as Meter or Meter oreie ("Mountain-Mother"), or, with a particular Anatolian sacred mountain in mind, Idaea, inasmuch as she was supposed to have been born on Mount Ida in Anatolia, or equally Dindymene or Sipylene, with her sacred mountains Mount Dindymon (in Mysia and variously located) or Mount Sipylus in mind. In Greek mythology, Idaea was a nymph, wife of Scamander and mother of Teucer. ... Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named Mount of the Goddess. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... In Greek mythology Dindymon[1] was a mountain in Phrygia that was sacred to the mountain mother, Cybele or Rhea. ... Mysia. ... Undisturbed wild horses roam within Spil Dağı National Park Spil Mount, or ancient name Mount Sipylus (in Turkish Spil Dağı) is a mountain rich is legends and history situated near the city of Manisa in Aegean Region of Turkey, towering along the road between İzmir and Manisa. ...


Later, Cybele's most ecstatic followers were males who ritually castrated themselves, after which they were given women's clothing and assumed "female" identities, who were referred to by one third-century commentator, Callimachus, in the feminine as, Gallai, but to whom other contemporary commentators in ancient Greece and Rome referred to as Gallos or Galli. Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... Callimachus (Greek: ; ca. ... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ...


There is no mention of these followers in Classical references although they related that her priestesses led the people in orgiastic ceremonies with wild music, drumming, dancing, and drinking. She was associated with the mystery religion concerning her son, Attis, who was castrated, died of his wounds, and resurrected by his mother. The dactyls were part of her retinue. Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... In Greek mythology, the Dactyls were the archaic race of small phallic male beings associated with the Great Mother, whether as Cybele or Rhea, spirit-men like the Curetes, Cabiri and Korybantes. ...


Other followers of Cybele, the Phrygian kurbantes or Corybantes, expressed her ecstatic and orgiastic cult in music, especially drumming, clashing of shields and spears, dancing, singing, and shouting—all at night. The Korybantes, called the Kurbantes in (Phrygia), are the crested dancers who worship the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Cult history

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century BC to the 4th BC. In 203 BC, Rome adopted her cult as well. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC - 203 BC - 202 BC 201 BC... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ...


Anatolia and Greece

Plate depicting Cybele pulled in her chariot drawn by lions, a votive sacrifice and the Sun God - Ai Khanoum, Bactria (Afghanistan), 2nd century BCE
Plate depicting Cybele pulled in her chariot drawn by lions, a votive sacrifice and the Sun God - Ai Khanoum, Bactria (Afghanistan), 2nd century BCE

Greek mythographers recalled that Broteas, the son of Tantalus, was the first to carve the Great Mother's image into a rock-face. At the time of Pausanias (2nd century CE), a sculpture carved into the rock-face of a spur of Spil Mount was still held sacred by the Magnesians.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1064x1053, 2079 KB) Plate depicting Cybele, a votive sacrifice and the sun God. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1064x1053, 2079 KB) Plate depicting Cybele, a votive sacrifice and the sun God. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Hellenistic foot fragment of a giant statue, from Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BCE. Ai-Khanoum or Ay Khanum (lit. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... In Greek mythology, Broteas was the ugly son of Tantalus, whose other offspring were Niobe and Pelops. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Undisturbed wild horses roam within Spil Dağı National Park Spil Mount, or ancient name Mount Sipylus (in Turkish Spil Dağı) is a mountain rich is legends and history situated near the city of Manisa in Aegean Region of Turkey, towering along the road between İzmir and Manisa. ... Magnesia ad Sipylum was a city of Lydia, situated about 65 km northeast of Smyrna on the river Hermus at the foot of Mount Sipylus. ...


At Pessinos in Phrygia, an archaic image of Cybele had been venerated as well as the cult of Agdistis, in 203 BC its aniconic cult object was removed to Rome. Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 km SW of Ankara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... In Greek mythology heavily influenced by cultures from the East, Cybele was a goddess pursued by Zeus who raped her after she disguised herself as a rock called Agdistis. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC - 203 BC - 202 BC 201 BC...


Her cult had already been adopted in 5th century BC Greece, where she is often referred to euphemistically as Meter Theon Idaia ("Mother of the Gods, from Mount Ida") rather than by name. Mentions of Cybele's worship are found in Pindar and Euripides, among other locations. Classical Greek writers, however, either did not know of or did not mention the castrated galli, although they did mention the castration of Attis. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ...


Cybele's cult in Greece was closely associated with, and apparently resembled, the later cult of Dionysus, whom Cybele is said to have initiated and cured of Hera's madness. They also identified Cybele with the Mother of the Gods Rhea. This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ...


Anatolian Cybele

Athenian Cybele seated on her throne with a tymbalon, (4th century BC, Athens)
Athenian Cybele seated on her throne with a tymbalon, (4th century BC, Athens)

Various aspects of Cybele's Anatolian attributes probably predate the Bronze Age in origin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1932x2496, 360 KB) Summary Cybèle trônant dans un naïskos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1932x2496, 360 KB) Summary Cybèle trônant dans un naïskos. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


A figurine found at Çatalhöyük, (Archaeological Museum, Ankara), dating about 6000 BC, depicts a corpulent and fertile Mother Goddess in the process of giving birth while seated on her throne, which has two hand rests in the form of lion's heads. No direct connection with the later matar goddesses is documented, but the similarity to some of the later iconography is striking. Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By the 2nd millennium BC the Kubaba of Bronze Age Carchemish was known to the Hittites and Hurrians: "[O]n the basis of inscriptional and iconographical evidence it is possible to trace the diffusion of her cult in the early Iron Age; the cult reached the Phrygians in inner Anatolia, where it took on special significance" (Burkert, III.3.4, p. 177). If the theory on the Luwian origin of Cybele's name is correct, Kubaba must have merged with the various matar goddesses well before time the Phrygian matar kubileya inscription was made around the first half of the 6th century BC(Vassileva 2001). The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...


In Phrygia Rhea-Cybele was venerated as Agdistis, with a temple at the great trading city Pessinos, mentioned by the geographer Strabo. It was at Pessinos that her lover Attis (son of Nana) was about to wed the daughter of the king, when Agdistis-Cybele appeared in her awesome glory, and he castrated himself. In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... In Greek mythology heavily influenced by cultures from the East, Cybele was a goddess pursued by Zeus who raped her after she disguised herself as a rock called Agdistis. ... Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 km SW of Ankara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... According to Greek mythology, Nana was a nymph of Sangarius, a river located in present-day Turkey. ...


In Archaic Phrygian images of Cybele of the sixth century, already betraying the influence of Greek style (Burkert), her typical representation is in the figuration of a building’s façade, standing in the doorway. The façade itself can be related to the rock-cut monuments of the highlands of Phrygia. She is wearing a belted long dress, a polos (high cylindrical hat), and a veil covering the whole body. In Phrygia, her usual attributes are the bird of prey and a small vase. Sometimes lions are related to her in an aggressive, but tamed, manner. Often the lions are shown drawing her chariot, which may be related as the sun traversing the sky daily. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Chinese vase A vase with a sunflower pattern A modern designed vase The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


Later, under Hellenic influence along the coastal lands of Asia Minor, the sculptor Agoracritos, a pupil of Pheidias, produced a version of Cybele that became the standard one. It showed her still seated on a throne but now more decorous and matronly, her hand resting on the neck of a perfectly still lion and the other hand holding the circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine, (tymbalon or tympanon), which evokes the full moon in its shape and is covered with the hide of the sacred lunar bull. Agoracritus was a Parian and Athenian sculptor of the age of Phidias, and said to have been his favourite pupil. ... Phidias, (or Pheidias), son of Charmides, (circa 490 BC - circa 430 BC) was an ancient Greek sculptor, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors. ... A framedrum is a membranophone that has a drumhead diameter greater than its depth. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ...


Cybele and Attis

The goddess appears alone, 8th6th centuries BC. Later she is joined by her son and consort Attis, who incurred her jealousy. He, in an ecstasy, castrated himself, and subsequently died. Grieving, Cybele resurrected him. This tale is told by Catullus in one of the long poems of his Carmina ( Poems ) —number 63. The evergreen pine and ivy were sacred to Attis. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis...


Some ecstatic followers of Cybele, known in Rome as galli, willingly castrated themselves in imitation of Attis. For Roman devotees of Cybele Mater Magna who were not prepared to go so far, the testicles of a bull, one of the Great Mother's sacred animals, were an acceptable substitute, as many inscriptions show. An inscription of AD 160 records that a certain Carpus had transported a bull's testes from Rome to Cybele's shrine at Lyon, France. Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ... Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. ... Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Rome, the manufacturing of soap containing grease, lime and ashes begins. ...


Aegean Cybele

Marble statuette of Cybele wearing the polos on her head, from Nicaea in Bithynia, - (Istanbul Archaeology Museum)
Marble statuette of Cybele wearing the polos on her head, from Nicaea in Bithynia, - (Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

The worship of Cybele spread from inland areas of Anatolia and Syria to the Aegean coast, to Crete and other Aegean islands, and to mainland Greece. She was particularly welcomed at Athens. The geographer Strabo (book x, 3:18) made some useful observations: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne İznik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi) is an archeological museum, located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...

"Just as in all other respects the Athenians continue to be hospitable to things foreign, so also in their worship of the gods; for they welcomed so many of the foreign rites ... the Phrygian [rites of Rhea-Cybele are mentioned] by Demosthenes, when he casts the reproach upon Aeskhines' mother and Aeskhines himself, that he was with her when she conducted initiations, that he joined her in leading the Dionysiac march, and that many a time he cried out evoe saboe, and hyes attes, attes hyes; for these words are in the ritual of Sabazios and the Mother [Rhea]."

In Ancient Egypt at Alexandria, Cybele was worshiped by the Greek population as "The Mother of the Gods, the Savior who Hears our Prayers" and as "The Mother of the Gods, the Accessible One". Ephesus, one of the major trading centers of the area, was devoted to Cybele as early the 10th century BC, and the city's ecstatic celebration, the Ephesia, honored her. Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Sabazios is the nomadic horseman sky and father god of the Phrygians and Thracians. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ...


The goddess was not welcome among the Scythians north of Thrace. From Herodotus (4.76-7) we learn that the Scythian Anacharsis (6th century BC), after traveling among the Greeks and acquiring vast knowledge, was put to death by his fellow Scythians for attempting to introduce the foreign cult of Magna Mater. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Anacharsis He marvelled that among the Greeks, those who were skillful in a thing vie in competition; those who have no skill, judge —Diogenes Laertius, of Anacharsis. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...


Atalanta and Hippomenes were turned into lions by Cybele or Zeus as punishment for having sex in one of her or his temples because the Greeks believed that lions could not mate with other lions. Another account says that Aphrodite turned them into lions for forgetting to do her tribute. As lions they then drew Cybele's chariot, which sometimes numbered to seven. For other meanings, see Atalanta (disambiguation). ... Atalanta and Hippomenes, Guido Reni, c. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ...


Roman Cybele

See also: Temples of Cybele in Rome
Cybele with her attributes, (Getty Museum), a Roman marble, c. 50 AD
Cybele with her attributes, (Getty Museum), a Roman marble, c. 50 AD

According to Livy in 10 A.D., an archaic version of Cybele, from Pessinos in Phrygia, as mentioned above, that embodied the Great Mother was ceremoniously and reverently moved to Rome, marking the official beginning of her cult there. Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War at the time (218 to 201 BC). An inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, that foe could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her image as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian.[3] // List of temples in Rome dedicated to Cybele, a deification of the Earth Mother. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1784 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1784 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was a consul of ancient Rome in 191 BC. He was a son of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Plutarch relates that in 103 BC, Battakes, a high priest of Cybele, journeyed to Rome to announce a prediction of Gaius Marius's victory over the Cimbri and Teutoni. A. Pompeius, plebeian tribune, together with a band of ruffians, chased Battakes off of the Rostra. Pompeius supposedly died of a fever a few days later.[4] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC - 103 BC - 102 BC 101 BC... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rostra can be seen in the middle left of the photo. ...


Under the emperor Augustus, Cybele enjoyed great prominence thanks to her inclusion in Augustan ideology. Augustus restored Cybele's temple, which was located next to his own palace on the Palatine Hill. On the cuirass of the Prima Porta of Augustus, the tympanon of Cybele lies at the feet of the goddess Tellus. Livia, the wife of Augustus, ordered cameo-cutters to portray Cybele with her likeness.[5] The Malibu statue of Cybele bears the visage of Livia.[6] For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... Prima Porta now a distant suburb 14. ... Terra or Tellus was a primeval Roman goddess, mother of Fama. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ...


In Roman mythology, Cybele was given the name Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods"), in recognition of her Phrygian origins (although this title was given to Rhea also). A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named Mount of the Goddess. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ...


Roman devotion to Cybele ran deeply. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele[citation needed] to occupy the site, the sanctuary was rededicated to the Mother of God, as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. However, later, Roman citizens were forbidden to become priestesses of Cybele, who were eunuchs like those of their Asiatic Goddess. The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ...


The worship of Cybele was exported to the empire, even as far away as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.) The popularity of the Cybele cult in the city of Rome and throughout the empire is thought to have inspired the author of Book of Revelation to allude to her in his portrayal of the mother of harlots who rides the Beast. Cybele drew ire from Christians throughout the Empire; famously, St. Theodore of Amasea is said to have spent the time granted to him to recant his beliefs, burning a temple of Cybele instead.[7] In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Setif is a city and wilaya in Algeria in which an uprising occurred against the French colonizers. ... Events Maximian becomes Roman Consul Deaths Saint Sebastian martyred Umro Bin Ada AI Lakhami, a king in what is now Bahrain Categories: 288 ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Saint Theodore of Amasea (Amasenus, now Amasya, Turkey) is one of the Greek military saints of the 4th century, the earlier patron saint of Venice, now outshone there by Saint Mark, but still represented atop one of the two Byzantine columns standing in the Piazzetta of the Piazza San Marco...


Today, a modern monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper left). This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Statue of Cybele in a chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cíbeles, Madrid The Plaza de Cibeles is an attractive square featuring a beautiful sculpture and fountains that have been adopted as a symbol for the city of Madrid, Spain. ...


In Roman poetry

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem ( number 63 ) on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly." Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... “Buben” redirects here. ... ♠ This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Maenad carrying a hind, fragment of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. ...


In the second book of his De rerum natura, Lucretius appropriately uses the image of Cybele, the Great Mother, as a metaphor for the Earth. His description of the followers of the goddess is thought to be based on autopsy of the celebration of her cult in Rome. Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ...


Cybele in the Aeneid

In his Aeneid, which was written in the first century BC (between 29 and 19 BC), Virgil called her, Berecyntian Cybele, alluding to her place of origin. He described her as the mother of the gods. Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Cybele with her attributes. ...


In his late version of the ledgendary story, the Trojans are in Italy and have kept themselves safe in a walled city, following Aeneas's orders. The leader of the Rutuli, Turnus, then ordered his men to burn the ships of the Trojans. At this point in the new legend, there is a flashback to Mount Olympos years before the Trojan War: after Cybele had given her sacred trees to the Trojans so that they could build their ships, she went to Zeus and begged him to make the ships indestructible; Zeus granted her request by saying that when the ships had finally fulfilled their purpose (bringing Aeneas and his army to Italy) they would be turned into sea nymphs rather than be destroyed; so, as Turnus approached with fire, the ships came to life, dove beneath the sea, and emerged as nymphs. For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... The Rutuli were members of a legendary Italian tribe. ... In Vergils Aeneid , Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. ... In literature, film, television and other media, a flashback (also called analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached. ... The Roman bath in Olympos - Turkey Olympos is a valley at the south coast of Turkey, 90 km southwest of Antalya city near the Town of Kemer. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ...


Of course, Cybele was a powerful goddess who had existed long before the "birth" of Zeus, and she would have been worshipped in that area from antiquity, so this new legend may contain elements of much older myths that have been lost—such as the trees that turned into sea nymphs.


Notes

  1. ^ C.H.E. Haspels, The Highlands of Phrygia, 1971, I 293 no 13, noted in Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, 1985, III.3.4, notes 17 and 18.
  2. ^ Pausanias: "the Magnesians, who live to the north of Spil Mount, have on the rock Coddinus the most ancient of all the images of the Mother of the gods. The Magnesians say that it was made by Broteas the son of Tantalus." (Description of Greece)
  3. ^ Livy, History of Rome, 29.10-11, .14 (written circa AD 10).
  4. ^ Plutarch, "Life of Marius," 17.
  5. ^ P. Lambrechts, "Livie-Cybele," La Nouvelle Clio 4 (1952): 251-60.
  6. ^ C. C. Vermeule, "Greek and Roman Portraits in North American Collections Open to the Public," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 108 (1964): 106, 126, fig. 18.
  7. ^ "St. Theodore of Amasea". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1914). New York: Encyclopedia Press. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. 

A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see 10 (disambiguation). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Burkert, Walter, 1982. Greek Religion (Cambridge:Harvard University Press), especially section III.3.4
  • Motz, Lotte (1997). The Faces of the Goddess. New York: Oxford University Press US. 
  • Mark Munn, "Kybele as Kubaba in a Lydo-Phrygian Context": Emory University cross-cultural conference "Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia", 2004 (Abstracts)
  • Roller, Lynn Emrich (1999). In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. 
  • Vassileva, Maya (2001). "Further considerations on the cult of Kybele". Anatolian Studies 51, 2001: pp. 51-63. doi:10.2307/3643027. 
  • Virgil. The Aeneid trans from Latin by West, David (Penguin Putnam Inc. 2003) p.189-190 ISBN 0-14-044932-9
  • Emmanuel Laroche, "Koubaba, déesse anatolienne, et le problème des origines de Cybèle", Eléments orientaux dans la religion grecque ancienne, Paris 1960, p. 113-128.

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Hyde, Walter Woodburn Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire (U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1946)
  • Knauer, Elfried R. (2006). "The Queen Mother of the West: A Study of the Influence of Western Prototypes on the Iconography of the Taoist Deity." In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 62-115. ISBN-13: ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN-10: ISBN 0-8248-2884-4 (An article showing the probable derivation of the Daoist goddess, Xi Wangmu, from Kybele/Cybele)
  • Lane, Eugene. Ed. Cybele, Attis, and Related Cults: Essays in Memory of M.J. Vermaseren (E.J. Brill, 1996)
  • Showerman, Grant The Great Mother of the Gods (Argonaut, 1969)
  • Vermaseren, Maarten Jozef. Cybele and Attis: The Myth and the Cult trans. from Dutch by A. M. H. Lemmers (Thames and Hudson, 1977)
  • Virgil. The Aeneid trans from Latin by West, David (Penguin Putnam Inc. 2003)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cybele
  • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/romrelig2.html
  • Classical Mythology, translates the Catullus poem "Attis."
  • http://www.gendercentre.org.au/37article3.htm
  • http://www.gallae.com/
  • http://www.magnamaterproject.org/ A site devoted to the cult of Magna Mater and her temple on the Capitoline Hill

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cybele - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1862 words)
Cybele's most ecstatic followers were males who ritually castrated themselves, after which they were given women's clothing and assumed "female" identities, who were referred to by the third century commentator Callimachus in the feminine Gallai, and who other contemporary commentators in ancient Greece and Rome referred to as Gallos or Galli.
Cybele's cult in Greece was closely associated with, and apparently resembled, the cult of Dionysus, whom Cybele is said to have initiated.
In Archaic Phrygian images of Cybele of the sixth century, already betraying the influence of Greek style (Burkert), her typical representation is in the figuration of a building’s façade, standing in the doorway.
AllRefer.com - Cybele (Ancient Religion) - Encyclopedia (253 words)
Cybele was primarily a nature goddess, responsible for maintaining and reproducing the wild things of the earth.
She frequented mountains and woodland areas and was usually represented either riding a chariot drawn by lions or seated on a throne flanked by two lions.
Cybele is frequently identified with various other mother goddesses, notably Agdistis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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