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Encyclopedia > Cyanide
The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. Valence-bond structure 2. Space-filling model 3. Electrostatic potential surface 4. 'Carbon lone pair' HOMO
The cyanide ion, CN.
From the top:
1. Valence-bond structure
2. Space-filling model
3. Electrostatic potential surface
4. 'Carbon lone pair' HOMO

A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group (C≡N), which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. Cyanide specifically is the anion CN-. Many organic compounds feature cyanide as a functional group; these are called nitriles in IUPAC nomenclature (for example, CH3CN is referred to by the names acetonitrile or ethanenitrile per IUPAC, but occasionally it is labeled using the common name methyl cyanide). Of the many kinds of cyanide compounds, some are gases, others are solids or liquids. Some are molecular, some ionic, and many are polymeric. Those that can release the cyanide ion CN- are highly toxic. Cyanide is a chemical compound. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x2269, 415 KB) The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x2269, 415 KB) The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... This is a calotte model of cyclohexane. ... HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN. Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... The crystal structure of sodium chloride, NaCl, a typical ionic compound. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


The word "cyanide" comes from the Greek word for "blue", in reference to HCN, which was called Blausäure ("blue acid") in German after its preparation by acid treatment of Berlin blue.[1] Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula H-C≡N. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. ... For other uses, see Prussian blue (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Appearance and odor

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless gas with a faint bitter almond-like odor. Most people can smell hydrogen cyanide; however, due to an apparent genetic trait, some individuals cannot detect the odor of HCN.[2] Sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are both white powders with a bitter almond-like odor in damp air, due to the presence of hydrogen cyanide formed by hydrolysis: R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...

NaCN + H2O → HCN + NaOH
(Sodium Cyanide + Water → Hydrogen Cyanide + Sodium Hydroxide)

Other Appearances

A young man by the name of Aaron Walker is enrolled in a local organization, accredited by the local court of Neosho, Missouri known as Grave Keeper Incorporated. This organization presents each member with an adequate nickname as fitting their personality. Aaron Walker, enrolled in the late 2006, is aptly named Cyanide. His color, as is also given to each member as describing their character, is maroon.


Occurrence

Cyanides are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae and are found in a number of foods and plants. Cyanide is found, although in small amounts, in apple seeds and almonds.[3] In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores. Cassava roots (aka manioc), an important potato-like food grown in tropical countries (and the base from which tapioca is made), contains cyanogenic glycosides[4][5]. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article refers to the plant. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Yuca redirects here. ...


The Fe-only and [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes contain cyanide ligands at their active sites. The biosynthesis of cyanide in the [NiFe]-hydrogenases proceeds from carbamoylphosphate, which converts to cysteinyl thiocyanate, the CN- donor. [6] A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ...


Hydrogen cyanide is a product of certain kinds of pyrolysis and consequently it occurs in the exhaust of internal combustion engines, tobacco smoke, and certain plastics, especially those derived from acrylonitrile.[citation needed] Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C≡N), is a pungent smelling, extremely flammable organic liquid. ...


Coordination chemistry

Cyanide is considered, in a broad sense, to be the most potent ligand for many transition metals. The very high affinities of metals for cyanide can be attributed to its negative charge, compactness, and ability to engage in π-bonding. Well known complexes include: In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a...

  • hexacyanides [M(CN)6]3− (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co), which are octahedral in shape;
  • the tetracyanides, [M(CN)4]2− (M = Ni, Pd, Pt), which are square planar in their geometry;
  • the dicyanides [M(CN)2] (M = Cu, Ag, Au), which are linear in geometry.

The deep blue pigment Prussian blue, used in the making of blueprints, is derived from iron cyanide complexes (hence the name cyanide, from cyan, a shade of blue). Prussian blue can produce hydrogen cyanide when exposed to acids. For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Cyan (from Greek κυανοs, meaning blue) may be used as the name of any of a number of a range of colors in the blue/green part of the spectrum. ...


Organic synthesis

Main article: Nitriles

Because of its high nucleophilicity, cyanide is readily introduced into organic molecules by displacement of a halide group (i.e. The Chloride on Methyl Chloride). Organic cyanides are generally called nitriles. Thus, CH3CN can be methyl cyanide but more commonly is referred to as acetonitrile. In organic synthesis, cyanide is used as a C-1 synthon. I.e., it can be used to lengthen a carbon chain by one, while retaining the ability to be functionalized. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Chloromethane or Methyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used as a refrigerant. ... Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN. Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles. ... A synthon is a concept in retrosynthetic analysis. ...

RX + CN → RCN + X (Nucleophilic Substitution) followed by
  1. RCN + 2 H2O → RCOOH + NH3 (Hydrolysis under reflux with mineral acid catalyst), or
  2. RCN + 0.5 LiAlH4 + (second step) 2 H2O → RCH2NH2 + 0.5 LiAl(OH)4 (under reflux in dry ether, followed by addition of H2O)

An alternative method for introducing cyanide is via the process of hydrocyanation, whereby hydrogen cyanide and alkenes combine: RCH=CH2 + HCN → RCH(CN)CH3 Metal catalysts are required for such reactions. In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), commonly abbreviated to LAH, is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Diagram of typical reflux apparatus. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Applications

Potassium ferrocyanide is used to achieve a blue colour on cast bronze sculptures during the final finishing stage of the sculpture. On its own, it will produce a very dark shade of blue and is often mixed with other chemicals to achieve the desired tint and hue. It is applied using a torch and paint brush while wearing the standard safety equipment used for any patina application: rubber gloves, safety glasses, and a respirator. The actual amount of cyanide in the mixture varies according to the recipes used by each foundry. Potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O), also known as yellow prussiate of potash, is a coordination compound forming lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals at room temperature and decomposing at its boiling point. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ...


Medical uses

The cyanide compound sodium nitroprusside is occasionally used in emergency medical situations to produce a rapid decrease in blood pressure in humans; it is also used as a vasodilator in vascular research. Sodium nitroprusside is the chemical compound Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]. It is a potent peripheral vasodilator that affects both arterioles and venules. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. ...


Mining

Gold and silver cyanides are among the very few soluble forms of these metals, and cyanides are thus used in mining as well as electroplating, metallurgy, jewelry, and photography. In the so-called cyanide process, finely ground high-grade ore is mixed with the cyanide (concentration of about two kilogram NaCN per tonne); low-grade ores are stacked into heaps and sprayed with cyanide solution (concentration of about one kilogram NaCN per ton). The precious-metal cations are complexed by the cyanide anions to form soluble derivatives, e.g. [Au(CN)2] and [Ag(CN)2]. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... The Cyanide Process is a mining technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore via the use of cyanide compounds. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ...

2 Au + 4 KCN + ½ O2 + H2O → 2 K[Au(CN)2] + 2 KOH
2 Ag + 4 KCN + ½ O2 + H2O → 2 K[Ag(CN)2] + 2 KOH

Silver is less "noble" than gold and often occurs as the sulfide, in which case redox is not invoked (no O2 is required), instead a displacement reaction occurs:

Ag2S + 4 KCN → 2 K[Ag(CN)2] + K2S

The "pregnant liquor" containing these ions is separated from the solids, which are discarded to a tailing pond or spent heap, the recoverable gold having been removed. The metal is recovered from the "pregnant solution" by reduction with zinc dust or by adsorption onto activated carbon. This process can result in environmental and health problems. Aqueous cyanide is hydrolyzed rapidly, especially in sunlight. It can mobilize some heavy metals such as mercury if present. Gold can also be associated with arsenopyrite (FeAsS), which is similar to iron pyrite (fool's gold), wherein half of the sulfur atoms are replaced by arsenic. Au-containing arsenopyrite ores are similarly reactive toward cyanide. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ...


Fishing

Main article: Cyanide fishing

Cyanides are illegally used to capture live fish near coral reefs for the aquarium and seafood markets. This fishing occurs mainly in the Philippines, Indonesia and the Caribbean to supply the 2 million marine aquarium owners in the world. In this method, a diver uses a large, needleless syringe to squirt a cyanide solution into areas where the fish are hiding, stunning them so that they can be easily gathered. Many fish caught in this fashion die immediately, or in shipping. Those that survive to find their way into pet stores often die from shock, or from massive digestive damage. The high concentrations of cyanide on reefs on which this has occurred has resulted in cases of cyanide poisoning among local fishermen and their families, as well as irreversible damage to the coral reefs themselves and other marine life in the area. Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can...


Environmental organizations are critical of the practice, as are some aquarists and aquarium dealers, to prevent the trade of illegally-caught aquarium fish. The Marine Aquarium Council (Headquarters: Honolulu, Hawaii) has created a certification in which the tropical fish are caught legally with nets only. To ensure authenticity, "MAC-Certified marine organisms bear the MAC-Certified label on the tanks and boxes in which they are kept and shipped." MAC Certification.


Magnesium cyanide is also used in some countries illegally to stun and harvest stream fish.


Fumigation

Cyanides are used as insecticides for the fumigating of ships. In the past cyanide salts have and still are in some places being used as rat poison. It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...


Toxicity

Main article: Cyanide poisoning

Many cyanide-containing compounds are highly toxic, but many are not. Prussian blue, with an approximate formula Fe7(CN)18 is the blue of blue prints and is administered orally as an antidote to poisoning by thallium and Caesium-137. The most dangerous cyanides are hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and salts derived from it, such as potassium cyanide (KCN) and sodium cyanide (NaCN), among others. Also some compounds readily release HCN or the cyanide ion, such as trimethylsilyl cyanide (CH3)3SiCN upon contact with water and cyanoacrylates upon pyrolysis. [citation needed] Cyanide poisoning occurs when a living organism injests cyanide. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... One common use of this reagent is to convert pyridine-N-oxides into 2-cyanopyridine. ... A tube of Super glue Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for substances such as methyl-2-cyanoacrylate, which is typically sold under trademarks like Superglue and Krazy Glue, and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, which are used in medical glues such as Dermabond and Traumaseal. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ...


Cyanide is an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (also known as aa3) in the fourth complex in the membrane of the mitochondria of cells. It attaches to the iron within this protein. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted, meaning that the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Cyanides have been used as a poison many times throughout history. Its most infamous application was the use of hydrogen cyanide by the Nazi regime in Germany for mass murder in some gas chambers during the Holocaust. Cyanide has been used for murder, as in the case of Rasputin. It has also been used for suicide. Some notable cases are Erwin Rommel, Eva Braun, Adolf Hitler, Wallace Carothers, Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Alan Turing, and Odilo Globocnik. Finally, cyanide is a very common poison in crime fiction. National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Grigori Rasputin Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: ) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic with an influence in the later days of Russias Romanov dynasty. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most famous German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Eva Anna Paula Braun, died Eva Hitler[1] (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and briefly his wife. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Odilo Globocnik Odilo Globocnik (April 21, 1904 - May 31, 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mystery_fiction. ...


References

  1. ^ Alexander Senning. Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemoetymology. Elsevier, 2006. ISBN 0444522395.
  2. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Cyanide, inability to smell
  3. ^ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ToxFaqs for Cyanide, Jul 2006.
  4. ^ J. Vetter (2000). "Plant cyanogenic glycosides". Toxicon. 38: 11-36. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00128-2. 
  5. ^ D. A. Jones (1998). "Why are so many food plants cyanogenic?". Phytochemistry 47: 155-162. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00425-1. 
  6. ^ Reissmann, S.; Hochleitner, E.; Wang, H.; Paschos, A.; Lottspeich, F.; Glass, R. S. and Böck, A. (2003). "Taming of a Poison: Biosynthesis of the NiFe-Hydrogenase Cyanide Ligands". Science 299 (5609): 1067-70. doi:10.1126/science.1080972. 

The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR), is directed by congressional mandate to perform specific functions concerning the effect on public health of hazardous substances in the environment. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Sources

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cyanide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3002 words)
In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores.
Cyanide ions bind to the iron atom of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria of cells.
Cyanide will bond to methemoglobin because methemoglobin is more readily available than the cytochrome oxidase of the cells, effectively pulling the cyanide off the cells and onto the methemoglobin.
Potassium cyanide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (389 words)
Potassium cyanide or KCN is the potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid.
Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and hence blocking electron transport.
Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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