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Encyclopedia > Cutting fluid

Cutting fluid or coolant is liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces they are shaping. It is pumped over the cutting site of machines such as lathes, milling machines, shapers and saws. A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... Conventional metalworking lathe See also: Lathe (tool) A metal lathe is a rigid machine tool designed to remove material from a workpiece, through the action of a cutting tool. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... Shaper tool slide, clapper box and cutting tool A shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other materials. ... Portable saw The article is about the cutting tool. ...


Metal cutting operations involve generation of heat due to friction between the tool and the pieces and due to energy lost deforming the material. This heat needs to be carried away otherwise it creates "white spots". Water is a great conductor of heat but is not stable at high temperatures, so stability is often achieved by making an emulsion of water with oil. A. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The (purple) surfactant positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances. ...


There are three types of coolants. Mineral, semi-synthetic and synthetic. Mineral coolants are cheap and have a short life. Semi-synthetic coolants use special chemicals to solubalize the oil into water. Synthetic coolants do not contain oil and hence are much more stable but more expensive.


Bacterial growth can be a problem in cutting fluids that contain water. In case the oil forms a layer on the top of liquid, anaerobic bacterials proliferate due to warm temperatures. This leads to a bad smell and renders the fluid unusable. ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


The properties that are sought after in a good cutting fluid are the ability to:

  • keep the workpiece at a stable temperature (critical when working to close tolerances).
  • maximize the life of the cutting tip by lubricating the working edge and reducing tip welding.
  • prevent the growth of bacteria or fungi.

Cutting fluid may also take the form of a paste when used for some applications, in particular hand operations such as drilling and tapping. Tolerance in Final Fantasy is an allowance, given as a permissible range, in the nominal dimension or value specification of a manufactured object. ... A drill is a tool with a rotating drill bit used for drilling holes in various materials. ... Taps and dies are tools commonly used in metalworking for the cutting of screw threads in metal parts. ...


In many areas, disposal of cutting fluid is subject to environmental regulations intended to prevent pollution. Modern cutting fluid disposal may involve techniques such as ultrafiltration using polymeric or ceramic membranes which concentrates the suspended and emulsified oil phase. Water pollution Pollution is the release of environmental contaminants. ... Ultrafiltration (UF) is a pressure-driven membrane process for purifying and concentrating macromolecular (10^3 - 10^6 Da) solutions, especially protein solutions. ...


Other lubricants


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cutting fluid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (390 words)
Cutting fluid or coolant is liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces they are shaping.
Cutting fluid may also take the form of a paste when used for some applications, in particular hand operations such as drilling and tapping.
Dielectric fluid is the cutting fluid used in Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM).
Cutting Fluid Primer Page (1259 words)
Since cutting fluids are complex in composition, they may be more toxic than their components and may be an irritant or allergenic even if the raw materials are safe [Bienkowski, 1993].
The health effects of exposure to the fluids have been studied for over 50 years, beginning with the concern that cutting fluid oil is a potential etiologic factor for occupational skin cancer [Epidemiological studies indicate that long-term exposure to metalworking fluids can lead to increased incidence of several types of cancer.
Cutting fluids are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis, which may involve either irritant or allergic mechanisms [Byers, 1994].
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