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Encyclopedia > Cusco

Coordinates: 13°30′30″S, 71°58′20″W Cusco (also often spelled Cuzco) is the Inca capital in modern Peru and the most populous city in the Andes Cusco may also refer to: Cusco Region, geographic and political region in Peru with Cusco city as its capital Cusco Province, province in the Cusco Region Cusco District, district in... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Cusco
Qusqu
Panoramic View of Cusco from Sacsayhuaman
Official flag of Cusco
Flag

Seal
Nickname: La Ciudad Imperial (The Imperial City)
Location in Peru
Coordinates: 13°30′30″S 71°58′20″W / -13.50833, -71.97222
Country Peru
Region Cusco
Province Cusco
Founded 1100 A.D. 1st
Government
 - Type Democracy
 - Mayor Carlos Valencia Miranda
Elevation 3,310 m (10,860 ft)
Population
 - City 319,422 (2,002)
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) PET (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 84
Website: www.municusco.gob.pe
City of Cuzco*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Coricancha temple and Church of Santo Domingo
State Party Flag of Peru Peru
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Reference 273
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription History
Inscription 1983  (7th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Cusco (also spelled in Spanish Cuzco, and in the native Quechua language as Qusqu IPA: ['qos.qo]) is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley (Sacred Valley) of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province. The city has a population of about 300,000, triple the population it contained just 20 years ago. The altitude of the city, located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, is around 3,500 m (11,500 feet). The historic capital of the sun-worshiping Inca empire, it was found in 2006 to be the spot on Earth with the highest ultraviolet light level.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 757 KB)Panoramic View of Cusco from Sacsayhuaman Credit Photo courtesy of bikertony www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cusco. ... Official flag of Cusco. ... Image File history File links Escudo-echenique3. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... See other Peruvian regions President Carlos R. Cuaresma Capital Cusco Area 71,986. ... Cusco Province is the smallest of thirteen provinces in the Cusco Region in the southern highlands of Peru. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Koricancha. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Machu Pichu looking down on the Urubamba Valley The Urubamba Valley is located in Peru below the sacred city of Machu Pichu. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... See other Peruvian regions President Carlos R. Cuaresma Capital Cusco Area 71,986. ... Cusco Province is the smallest of thirteen provinces in the Cusco Region in the southern highlands of Peru. ... Sol redirects here. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Name

Upon the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, the Quechua (Indian) name ("Qusqu") was transliterated into Castilian Spanish as "Cusco", which is how it appears on maps from the 17th and 18th centuries.[2][3] On maps from the 19th century (as early as 1810[4][5]) and through the mid 20th century (until at least 1976), the name appears as "Cuzco". Today, in official Peruvian cartography the name has returned to the original transliteration: Cusco, with an S rather than a Z. The Z version of the name is still used in some official circumstances, such as the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites [6], but the S version is official usage in English [7]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Inca history

Cusco was the capital of the Inca Empire. Many believe that the city was planned to be shaped like a puma. The city had two sectors: the urin and hanan, which were further divided to each encompass two of the four provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Qontisuyu (SW), and Collasuyu (SE). A road led from each of these quarters to the corresponding quarter of the empire. Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in Cusco, but only in the quarter of Cusco that corresponded to the quarter of the empire he had territory in. After Pachacuti, when an Inca died his title went to one son and his property was given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (a process called split inheritance), so each title holder had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own the land his family needed to maintain after his death. Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Species P. concolor P. yagouaroundi Puma is a Felidae genus that contains the Cougar (also known as the Puma, among other names) and the Jaguarundi. ... Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Antisuyu was the southeastern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Contisuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Collasuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ...


According to Inca legend, the city was built by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who transformed the Kingdom of Cusco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire of Tahuantinsuyu. But archaeological evidence points to a slower, more organic growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. There was however a city plan, and two rivers were channeled around the city. The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ...


Incan Art

Cusco also has a rich history of Incan art. Ceramic objects made and used in Cusco are known under the rubric of the Cusco Inca style. This pottery was considered a prestige ware and was closely associated with the fine craftsmanship and status of the capital. Cusco Inca pottery was handmade and often decorated with polychrome slips, particularly red and black.[8] Two museums in Cusco exhibit artifacts of the pre-Columbian Andean civilization: Pre-Columbian Art Museum and Museo Inka. Pre-Columbian Art Museum Ceremonial Plate Formative Gallery 1250 B.C. – 1 A.D. Large Inca Aribalo Emperial Era 1300-1532 A.D. The Pre-Columbian Art Museum (Spanish: ),or MAP, is located in the Plaza Nazarenas in the San Blas region of Cusco, Peru. ...


Post-Columbian Cusco

The Church of La Compañia on the Plaza de Armas in Cusco
The Church of La Compañia on the Plaza de Armas in Cusco

The first Spaniards arrived in the city on November 15, 1533. Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, officially discovered Cusco on March 23, 1534, naming it the "Very noble and great city of Cusco". The many buildings constructed after the Spanish conquest are of Spanish influence with a mix of Inca architecture, including the Santa Clara and San Blas barrios. The Spanish undertook the construction of a new city on the foundations of the old Inca city, replacing temples with churches and palaces with mansions for the conquerors. During the colony, Cusco was very prosperous thanks to the agriculture, cattle raising, mining as well as the trade with Spain. This allowed the construction of many churches and convents, and even a Cathedral, University and an Archbishopric. Often, Spanish buildings were juxtaposed atop the massive stone walls built by the Inca. The Church of La Compania, Plaza de Armas, Cusco, Peru - Photograph by Michael Reeve, 29/09/2003. ... The Church of La Compania, Plaza de Armas, Cusco, Peru - Photograph by Michael Reeve, 29/09/2003. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Conquistadors (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) were Spanish soldiers, explorers and adventurers who invaded and conquered much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement by Christopher Columbus in what is now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ...


A major earthquake in 1950 badly destroyed the Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on top of the impressive Coricancha (Temple of the Sun). The city's Inca architecture, however, withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite walls of the Coricancha were exposed, as well as many walls throughout the city. While some wanted to restore the buildings to their colonial splendor, a contingent of Cusco citizens urged city officials to retain the exposed walls. Eventually they won out. Cusco was also hit by a major earthquake in 1650. Coricancha The Coricancha (from the Quechua word Quri Qancha meaning Golden Courtyard), originally named Inti Qancha ( Temple of the Sun) was the most important temple in the Inca Empire, dedicated primarily to Inti, the Sun God. ...


Ecclesiastical history

The diocese, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima, was erected by Pope Paul III on 5 September 1536, comprising the departments of Cusco and Apurimac, an area of 21, 677 m²., containing in the early 20th century a Catholic population of 480,000, with 106 parishes, 650 churches and chapels, 150 priests, a seminary and schools. A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. ... Archibishop Palace (Palacio Arzobispal) The Archbishop Palace is the home of the Archbishop of Lima. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Apur mac is a region in central Peru. ...


Sights

The original Inca city, said to have been founded in the eleventh century, was sacked by Pizarro in 1535. There are still remains, however, of the palace of the Incas, the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun. There are still Inca building remains and foundations, which have been in some cases been proved to be stronger than the foundations built in the present day Peru.Among the most noteworthy buildings of the city is the cathedral of Santo Domingo.


The major nearby Inca sites are Pachacuti's presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which can be reached on foot by a Inca trail or by train; the "fortress" at Ollantaytambo and the "fortress" of Sacsayhuaman. Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... Ollantaytambo terraces Ollantaytambo is a town in southern Peru, located in the district of Ollantaytambo, province of Urubamba, Cusco region. ... Categories: Archaeology stubs ...


Other less visited ruins include Inca Wasi, the highest of all Inca sites at 3,980 m (13,134 feet), Old Vilcabamba the capital of the Inca after the capture of Cusco, the sculpture garden at Chulquipalta (aka Chuquipalta, Ñusta España, The White Rock, Yurak Rumi), as well as Huillca Raccay, Patallacta, Choquequirao, Moray and many others. Ury House, Aberdeenshire ruined by removal of the roof after the second world war to avoid taxation. ... Last refuge of the Inca Empire, Vilcabamba was founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signalling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule. ... The Esplanade Ernest-Cormier, a sculpture garden in Montreal, with Melvin Charneys work Colonnes allégoriques. ... View of Choquequirao Choquequirao (Quechua: Choqekiraw) is a partly excavated ruined city of the Inca in the south of Peru. ... Moray is a town in Peru approximately 50 km Northwest of Cuzco that is noted for a large complex of unusual Inca ruins. ...


The surrounding area, located in the Huatanay Valley, is strong in agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee and gold mining. This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Binomial name Willd. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Thanks to remodelling, Cusco's main stadium, Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega, attracted many more tourists during South America's continental soccer championship, the Copa América 2004 held in Peru. The stadium is home to one of the country's most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano. Cusco's local team has made a name for itself in the world of club soccer, as it has won several international competitions in South America. However, it has yet to achieve such success in its home country. Nonetheless, it is still considered to be one of the best teams in Peru. The team is greatly supported throughout Cusco and a match to the people of cusco is quite important. In the streets the men that don't have a television will stand and watch it from a shop (with televsions) window. The tickets are very popular and involve big queues. Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega in Cusco The Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega is Cuscos principal stadium and the home venue of the local team Cienciano. ... The Copa América 2004 was a football tournament held in Peru, from July 6 to July 25, 2004. ... Cienciano del Cuzco is a small Football (soccer) club from Cuzco, Peru. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport. Cuscos Airport Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport (IATA: CUZ, ICAO: SPZO) serves Cusco, Peru the countrys largest tourist attraction. ...

Plaza De Armas (main square). The Cathedral lies on the left and the "Compañia de Jesus" on the right.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2559x768, 361 KB) The main square of Cusco. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2559x768, 361 KB) The main square of Cusco. ...

Food

Cusco is one of the andean cities of Peru where visitors may taste many spices, of different origins, and agricultural produce, mostly organic, treated and grown in environmental friendly and traditional ways, frequently using ancient techniques such as the "Chaquitajlla" (hands and foot soil remover).[citation needed] As headquarters to the Inca Empire, Cusco was always an important agricultural production region, and a natural reserve for thousands of Peruvian originary species, including hundreds of native potato varieties.[citation needed]


During recent years, driven by Peruvian and foreign citizens, Cusco has began to host many fusion and neo andean food places where traditional andean taste is found fusioned with modern techniques and ingredients, delivering a very innovative, exciting and trendy cuisine. [9]

A panorama of Cusco by night
   
:Image:Cuzco - Panorama de nuit.JPG
A panorama of Cusco by night

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 88 pixel Image in higher resolution (8200 × 900 pixel, file size: 663 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cusco ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 88 pixel Image in higher resolution (8200 × 900 pixel, file size: 663 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cusco ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Industry

  • Cusqueña brewery

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Gallery

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - City 470 km²  (181. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Click here for the entry on Baguio City ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the Cuban city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... “Xian” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... List of cities called Cuenca: Cuenca, Ecuador Joara, la Florida, Native American settlement renamed Cuenca by Spanish Cuenca, Spain, the capital of Cuenca province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Ipanema beach Cristo Redentor Rio de Janeiros waterfront and the Morro de Castello from the Ilha das Cobras in 1919 by Harriet Chalmers Adams A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location of Madison in Dane County, Wisconsin Coordinates: , Municipality City Incorporated 1848 Government  - Mayor Dave Cieslewicz Area  - City 219. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...

References

  1. ^ Liley, J. Ben and McKenzie, Richard L. (April 2006) "Where on Earth has the highest UV?" UV Radiation and its Effects: an update NIWA Science, Hamilton, NZ;
  2. ^ Ianssonium, Ioannem (1647) Mapa del Perú, image in Wikipedia Commons
  3. ^ Bellin, Jacques Nicolas (1758) Suite du Perou Audience de Charcas Paris, France, image in Wikipedia Commons;
  4. ^ Pinkerton, John (1810) "Peru" World Atlas Cadell and Davies, London, image in the David Rumsey Map Collection;
  5. ^ Carey, Mathew (1814) "Peru" World Atlas Mathew Carey, Philadelphia, image in the David Rumsey Map Collection;
  6. ^ Unesco World Heritage List
  7. ^ CIA World FActbook
  8. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York:Thames and Hudson, 1997
  9. ^ Guide to Peruvian Food, Cusco Reference

Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...

See also

Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Inka Adventure.Cusco the centre of the Inka empire. (230 words)
CUSCO (also spelt Cuzco with a "z"), mythical capital of the Inca Empire, preserves its stone walls and battlements with pride, evoking the greatness of the "Children of the Sun".
Cusco is an unforgettable place, as it allows you to uncover some of the mysteries of the Inkas, because Cusco was known as the center, the "navel" of the Andean world.
The city of Cusco is surrounded by impressive archeological remains such as the citadel of Machu Picchu, the fortress of Sacsayhuaman, the Ollantaytambo compound and picturesque towns such as Pisaq, Calca and Yucay, which still preserve the traditions of their ancestors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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