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The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. Curzon's plan was not accepted by the Soviet Russia, and in fact it did not play any role in establishing the Polish-Soviet border in 1921 because of the Polish demands. The final peace treaty in Riga (1921) provided Poland with almost 52,000 sq mi (135,000 sq km) of land east of the line (on average about 200 km east from the Curzon line). However, Curzon line was used by Stalin as a significant argument in the talks with the Allies during 1942-1945. Curzon line was similar to the border between the Soviet Union and the Nazi Germany agreed secretly to in the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact. Stalin in the talks with the Allies argued that USSR cannot demand less territory for the Soviet Union than lord Curzon in 1919. It lay approximately along the border which was established between Prussia and Russia in 1797, after the third partition of Poland, which was the last border recognised by the United Kingdom. The line separating the German and Soviet zones of occupation following the defeat of Poland in 1939 followed the Curzon Line in places, while diverging from it around Bialystok in the north and in the southern region of Galicia. There were two versions of the line "A" and "B". Version "B" allocated Lwów (now Lviv) to Poland. The line "A" was used in 1945 as the basis for the permanent border between Poland and the Soviet Union, although with some differences. Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Polish-Soviet War or Russo-Polish War — in Polish, often called the Bolshevik War (Wojna bolszewicka) — was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between two nascent states in post-World War I Europe, Soviet Russia and the Second Polish Republic. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Riga (Latvian:RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′ N 24°8′ E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries that fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of World War II. Other... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries that fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of World War II. Other... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad... Jump to: navigation, search 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski, Lithuanian Padalijimas) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Jump to: navigation, search State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km² ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse... Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Jump to: navigation, search Lviv is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The Curzon Line and territorial changes to Poland, 1945

It is sometimes said that the Curzon Line represented an ethnic border between Poland to the west and Belarus and Ukraine to the east. This was not the intention when Lord Curzon of Kedleston proposed the line: its origins were diplomatic and historical. Nevertheless it did run along a line which, with some notable anomalies, approximated a division between regions to the west which were mixed, but majority Polish, and regions to the east which were mixed but majority non-Polish. (This is further discussed below). Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ... Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ...

Contents


History of the Curzon Line

At the end of World War I the Allies agreed that an independent Polish state should be formed from territories previously part of the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Germany. The Treaty of Versailles in 1919 said that the eastern border of Poland would be "subsequently determined." The lands lying between Poland and its eastern neighbours were inhabited by a mixed population of Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Ukrainians and Belarusians, with no single group being a majority. Lord Curzon of Kedleston, on behalf of the Allies, suggested a line running from Grodno through Brest-Litovsk to Lwow, although leaving unclear which side of the proposed border Lwow would be on. A later version of the Line, known as Curzon Line "B", definitely awarded Lwow to Poland (see map). Jump to: navigation, search World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Jump to: navigation, search The treaty was an International affair The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allies and Germany. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Hrodna (or Grodno) (also: Hóradnia, Haródnia); Belarusian: Гро́дна, Го́радня, Гаро́дня; Lithuanian Gardinas ; Grodno in Polish, Гро́дно; in Russian) is a city in Belarus. ... Brest (Belarusian: Бе́расьце, Брэст | BieraÅ›cie, Brest; also known as Brest-Litovsk and in Polish as Brześć Litewski, Brześć nad Bugiem or Brześć BiaÅ‚oruski; Russian: Брест, Lithuanian: Lietuvos Brasta (literally meaning shallows of Lithuania) is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western... Lviv coat of arms Motto: Semper fidelis Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population    total 2000    density 808,900 4786/km² Founded city rights 13th century 1353 Area code + 0322 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Twin towns...


Because the Russian Empire had collapsed into a state of civil war following the Russian Revolution, there was no recognised Russian government with whom the eastern border of Poland could be negotiated. However, one of the first acts of the new Russian government was to publicly denounce the treaties which had partitioned Poland. That left Poland in legal possession of the territories that Poland had held before the Partitions of Poland in 1772. The Bolshevik regime in Russia, on the other hand, wanted to invade Poland in order to carry the socialist revolution into the heart of Europe, and particularly into Germany. In this circumstances war was inevitable, and broke out in late 1919. Jump to: navigation, search The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski, Lithuanian Padalijimas) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In December 1919, the Allied powers made the following declaration: "The Principal Allied and Associated Powers, recognising that it is important as soon as possible to put a stop to the existing conditions of political uncertainty in which the Polish nation is placed, and without prejudging the provisions, which must in the future define the eastern frontiers of Poland, hereby declare that they recognize the right of the Polish Government to proceed, according to the conditions previously provided by the Treaty with Poland of June 28, 1919, to organise a regular administration of the territories of the former Russian Empire situated to the West of the line described below. The rights that Poland may be able to establish over the territories situated to the East of the said line are expressly reserved." Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


During the Polish-Soviet war (1919–1921), in May 1920, the Bolsheviks gained the advantage and advanced into Poland, and in July the Poles appealed to the Allies to intervene. On 11 July Lord Curzon of Kedleston proposed to the Soviet government a ceasefire along the line which had been suggested the previous year. The Soviets, believing they had the upper hand, rejected the proposal, and fighting continued. In August, however, the Soviets were defeated just outside Warsaw and forced to retreat. At the Treaty of Riga in March 1921 the Soviets had to concede a frontier well to the east of the Curzon Line, giving Poland both Lwow and Wilno (today Vilnius). The area around Wilno, called Central Lithuania was the subject of a referendum in 1922, followed by incorporation to Poland according to the wish of 65% of the voters. The Polish-Soviet border was recognised by the League of Nations in 1923 and confirmed by various Polish-Soviet agreements. Jump to: navigation, search The Polish-Soviet War or Russo-Polish War — in Polish, often called the Bolshevik War (Wojna bolszewicka) — was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between two nascent states in post-World War I Europe, Soviet Russia and the Second Polish Republic. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events WIKIPEDIA EATS VAGINA January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Riga (Latvian:RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′ N 24°8′ E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Three Crosses monument in Vilnius. ... Map of the region, with Central Lithuania marked in Green Central Lithuania (Polish Republika Litwy Åšrodkowej, Lithuanian VidurinÄ— Lietuva, Belarusian Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the Lithuanian-Belarusian division of the Polish Army. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the First World War at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939 provided for the partition of Poland along the line of the San, Vistula and Narew rivers. In September, after the military defeat of Poland, the Soviet Union annexed all territories east of the Curzon Line plus Bialystok and Eastern Galicia. The territories east of this line were incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR after so-called referendums, and hundreds of thousands of Poles and a lesser number of Jews were deported eastwards into the Soviet Union. In July 1941 these territories were seized by Germany in the course of the invasion of the Soviet Union. During the German occupation most of the Jewish population was killed. Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Ribbentrop-Molotov pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was in theory a... Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The San or Sian (Ukrainian: Сян, Sian). ... Length 1,047 km Elevation of the source 1,106 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 192,000 km² Origin  Barania Góra, Beskidy Mouth  GdaÅ„sk Bay, Baltic Sea Basin countries Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia The Vistula (Polish: WisÅ‚a) is the longest river in Poland. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. ...


In 1944 the Soviet armed forces recaptured eastern Poland from the Germans. The Soviets unilaterally declared the former Soviet-German border (approximately the Curzon Line) to be the new frontier between the Soviet Union and Poland. This time, however, Bialystok was retained by Poland. The Polish government-in-exile in London bitterly opposed this action, and at the Teheran and Yalta conferences between Stalin and the western Allies, the allied leaders Roosevelt and Churchill asked Stalin to reconsider, particularly over Lwow, but he refused. The Curzon Line thus became the permanent eastern border of Poland, and was recognised as such by the western Allies in July 1945. Jump to: navigation, search 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... Jump to: navigation, search Joseph Stalin â–¶(?) (Russian, in full: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин (Josef Vissarionovich Stalin), real name: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили (Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvilli), Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი (Ioseb Jughashvili); December 6 (OS)/December 18 (NS), 1878 – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, FRS, PC (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


When the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1991, the Curzon line became Poland's eastern border with Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine.


Ethnography to the east of the Curzon Line

The territory which lay between the Curzon Line and the 1921 eastern border of Poland had a population of about 12 million people in an area of 188,000 square kilometres. According to statistics from the Polish census of 1931 (which was unlikely to underestimate the number of Poles), the population of these territories by mother-tongue was: Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...

 Poles 4,794,000 39.9% Ukrainians and Ruthenians 4,139,000 34.4% Jews 1,045,000 08.4% Belarusians 993,000 08.5% Russians 120,000 01.0% Lithuanians 76,000 00.6% Others and not given 845,000 06.4% 

(The majority from "Others and not given" were Poleszuks from Polesie.) Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ... Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian, formerly also Polesia in Latin) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. ...


By religion the population was classified as follows:

 Roman Catholics 4,016,000 33.4% Greek Catholics or Uniates 3,050,000 25.4% Orthodox 3,529,000 29.3% Other Christians: 180,000 01.5% Jewish 1,222,000 10.2% 

It can be seen from these figures (ten years after the Treaty of Riga) that although the Poles were the largest single ethnic and religious group in these territories, they were far from being a majority, and that the Ukrainians, Rusyns, Belarusians and Poleszuks together outnumbered them (the Ukrainians outnumbering Poles in combined southern sections). Due to the long reign of Polish rule over these areas, much of the Polish population was urban, while much of the Ukrainian and Belarusian population was rural. Jump to: navigation, search Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Rysins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the Ruthenians who did not become Ukrainians in the 19th century. ...


The deportations of Poles to the Soviet Union in 19391941 (see Polish minority in Soviet Union) and the elimination of the Jewish population between 1941 and 1945 probably left Ukrainians and Belarusians as a majority of the population in the territories, though far from a large one. The cities of Lwów, Wilno, Grodno and some smaller towns still had Polish majorities during this period. After 1945, most of the Polish population of the area east of the new Soviet-Polish border fled or was expelled to Poland, and the area today is almost entirely Belarusian (in the north) or Ukrainian (in the south). Despite the expel, nowadays there is still around 0.5 mln of Poles in Belarus (5% of the Belarus population). Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Lviv is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Three Crosses monument in Vilnius. ... Hrodna (or Grodno) (also: Hóradnia, Haródnia); Belarusian: Гро́дна, Го́радня, Гаро́дня; Lithuanian Gardinas ; Grodno in Polish, Гро́дно; in Russian) is a city in Belarus. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Ethnography to the west of the Curzon Line

Similar problems pertained to the West of the Curzon line. The Polish population was generally overwhelmingly predominant in the towns and especially the cities, but the opposite situation, based on older settlement patterns, was often in evidence in the rural districts. A sizeable Belarusian rural population was incorporated into modern Poland around Bialystok, south of this a similar Ukrainian population lived around Chelm. The extreme south had a large Ukrainian population too, but this time of Galician descent. Much of this population was resettled in Poland's newly Recovered Territories of Silesia, Pomerania, Lubus Land, Warmia and Masuria after World War II. Chełm is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... Note: although the term recovered territories has a clear meaning in Poland and Polish historiography, it is not a widely accepted term or concept in Germany or in English-speaking nations. ... Silesia (-Latin, Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on... Lubus Land, ( pol: Ziemia Lubuska ger:Land Lebus, czech:LubuÅ¡sko) on the Oder river. ... Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin: Warmia or Varmia, German: Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... This article is about geographic region of Masuria (Mazury), Poland. ...


See also

I saw Poland betrayed: An American ambassador reports to the American people (1948) is a book written by Arthur Bliss Lane, former U.S. ambassador to Poland, who observed what he considered to be the betrayal of Poland by the Western Allies at the end of World War II. See... Jump to: navigation, search Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold... Polands old and new borders, 1945 In Western Europe the start of the Second World War is usually dated from the German invastion of Poland, 1 September 1939. ...

External links

  • Quotes on Yalta

  Results from FactBites:
 
Curzon Line - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1789 words)
The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon of Kedleston as a possible armistice line between Poland to the west and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) to the east during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20.
It is sometimes said that the Curzon Line represented an ethnic border between Roman Catholic Poland to the west and Russian Orthodox Ukraine and Belarus to the east.
The altered Curzon Line thus became the permanent eastern border of Poland and was recognised by the western Allies in July 1945.
Curzon Dax - Memory Alpha - A Wikia wiki (709 words)
Curzon Dax (played by Frank Owen Smith and played by Rene Auberjonois during Jadzia Dax's zhian'tara) was a joined Trill, the seventh host of the Dax symbiont from 2285 to 2367.
Curzon walked out of the conference while Kang was speaking, but this opened the door for Curzon to form a close relationship with all three Klingon warriors.
Curzon was also known and feared for "breaking" Trill initiates as a field docent for the Symbiosis Commission, and even eliminated Jadzia from the program.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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