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Encyclopedia > Curtis LeMay
General Curtis Emerson LeMay

United States Air Force

November 16, 1906(1906-11-16)October 03, 1990 (aged 83)

Nickname Bombs Away LeMay
Place of birth Columbus, Ohio
Place of death March Air Force Base, Calif
Allegiance Flag of the United States United States of America
Service/branch United States Air Force
United States Army Air Corps
Years of service 1928–1965
Rank General
Commands Strategic Air Command
USAF Chief of Staff
Battles/wars World War II-Pacific Theatre
Awards Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal(3)
Silver Star
Distinguished Flying Cross(3)
Air Medal (4)
Legion of Honor
Other work Candidate for U.S. Vice President

Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1694x1935, 1189 KB) US Air Force photograph of General Curtis LeMay. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States_Air_Force. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF) serves as the senior uniformed United States Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Air Force Distinguished Service Medal was created by an act of the United States Congress on July 6, 1960. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... Air Medal Ribbon The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, on May 11, 1942. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ...


He is credited with designing and implementing an effective systematic strategic bombing campaign in the Pacific Theatre of World War II. After the war, he headed the Berlin airlift, then reorganized the Strategic Air Command into an effective means of conducting nuclear war. The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


Critics have characterized him as a belligerent warmonger (even nicknaming him "Bombs Away LeMay") whose aggressiveness threatened to inflame tense Cold War situations (such as the Cuban Missile Crisis) into open war between the United States and the Soviet Union. LeMay is perhaps most famous for suggesting in a 1965 book that the United States should escalate its bombing of North Vietnam: "My solution to the problem would be to tell them frankly that they’ve got to draw in their horns and stop their aggression, or we’re going to bomb them back into the Stone Age." For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and career

LeMay was born in Columbus, Ohio to Erving LeMay, an ironworker, and Arizona Carpenter; he was raised in his native city. He studied civil engineering at Ohio State University. While in college he was a member of the National Society of Pershing Rifles and the Professional Engineering Fraternity Theta Tau. He joined the Air Corps in 1928 and became an officer through the ROTC. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1930. He married Helen E. Maitland (died 1994) on the 9th of June 1934 with whom he had one child—Patricia Jane LeMay Lodge. Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... A Pershing Rifles color guard competing at the 2004 NATCON drill competition held at Fort Monroe, VA. The Pershing Rifles, a military drill team organization for college-level students, was founded by then 1st Lt. ... ΘΤ (Theta Tau) Fraternity was founded in 1904 by four engineering students at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... ROTC links here. ...


He transferred to bomber aircraft in 1937 and soon demonstrated his abilities. When his crews were not flying missions they were being subjected to his relentless training as he believed that training was the key to saving their lives. The men called him "Iron Ass" because he demanded so much but he was immensely respected.


One apocryphal story has it that he approached a fully-fueled bomber with his ever-present cigar stuck firmly between his lips. When asked by a guard to put it out as it might ignite the fuel, LeMay growled, "It wouldn't dare." The line is actually a scene from the 1955 film Strategic Air Command. Actor Frank Lovejoy, playing General Ennis Hawkes (very clearly modeled on LeMay) is smoking around a new B-36 bomber and a guard expresses concern that there might be a fire. "Dutch" Holland (played by Jimmy Stewart) simply smiles and says, "It wouldn't dare." Strategic Air Command is a 1955 American film starring James Stewart and June Allyson, and directed by Anthony Mann. ... ... The Convair B-36 was a strategic bomber built by Convair for the United States Air Force, the first operational bomber to truly have intercontinental range. ... Jimmy Stewart, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 James Maitland Stewart (May 20, 1908 – July 2, 1997) was an American film actor beloved for his persona as an average guy who faces adversity and tries to do the right thing, an image which was largely reflected in his own...


LeMay's military career was marked by successive promotions beginning with commissioning as a second lieutenant in October 1929. Subsequent promotions were: First Lieutenant: ?; Captain: January 1940; Major: March 1941; Lieutenant Colonel: January 1942; Colonel: 1943; Brigadier General: September 1943; Major General: March 1944; Lieutenant General: January 1948; General: 1951.


Upon receiving his fourth star at age 44, LeMay became the youngest full general in American history since Ulysses S. Grant. Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


World War II

LeMay became known for his massive incendiary attacks against Japanese cities during the war using hundreds of planes flying at low altitudes.
LeMay became known for his massive incendiary attacks against Japanese cities during the war using hundreds of planes flying at low altitudes.

At the entry of the USA to World War II, LeMay was a lieutenant colonel and commander of the 305th Bomb Group. He took that B-17 Flying Fortress unit to England in October 1942, as part of the Eighth Air Force and led it in combat until May 1943, notably helping to develop the combat box formation. He led the 4th Bombardment Wing, and was its first commander when it was reorganized into the 3rd Bomb Division in September, 1943. He often demonstrated his courage by personally leading dangerous missions, including the Regensburg section of the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission of August 17, 1943. In that mission he led 146 B-17s beyond the range of escorting fighters to Regensburg, Germany, and after bombing, continued on to bases in North Africa, losing 24 bombers in the process. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 89 KB) Description: B-29s dropping bombs over Japan Source: National Park Service - Disclaimer Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Curtis LeMay ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 89 KB) Description: B-29s dropping bombs over Japan Source: National Park Service - Disclaimer Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Curtis LeMay ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... The Combat box was a tactical formation used by U.S. Army Air Force heavy (strategic) bombers during World War II. Creation of the concept is credited to General Curtis E. LeMay when he was a colonel commanding the 305th Bombardment Group in England. ... // The division entered combat in September 1943, performing strategic bombardment against Axis targets in the European theater of operations. ... It has been suggested that the section World War II from the article Schweinfurt be merged into this article or section. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The heavy losses in veteran crews on this and subsequent deep penetration missions in the autumn of 1943 led the Eighth Air Force to limit missions to targets within escort range until the deployment in the European theater of the P-51 Mustang fighter in January, 1944. The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range single-seat fighter aircraft that entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 became one of the conflicts most successful and recognizable aircraft. ...


In August 1944, LeMay transferred to the China-Burma-India Theater and directed first the XX Bomber Command in China and then the XXI Bomber Command in the Pacific. LeMay was later placed in charge of all strategic air operations against the Japanese home islands. China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, and India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road... The XX Bomber Command of the USAAF was established in November 1943 to oversee B_29 Superfortress training in the US. The XX, an operational unit under the Twentieth Air Force was then moved to India. ... Bomber Command is an organizational military unit, generally subordinate to the air force of a country. ...


LeMay soon concluded that the techniques and tactics developed for use in Europe against the Luftwaffe were unsuited to the conditions of the Pacific theatre of operations. His bombers flying from China were dropping their bombs near their targets only 5% of the time. Losses of aircraft and crews were unsustainably high due to increasingly competent Japanese daylight air defenses including high-altitude interceptor aircraft and flak cannon. He became convinced that high-altitude, precision bombing would be ineffective, given the usual cloudy weather over Japan. As Japanese air defenses made medium and low-level daytime bombing impossible, LeMay switched to low-altitude, nighttime incendiary attacks on Japanese targets. At the time Japanese cities were largely constructed of combustible materials such as wood and paper. Precision high-altitude daylight bombing was ordered to proceed only when weather permitted.


LeMay commanded subsequent B-29 combat operations against Japan, including the massive incendiary attacks on sixty-four Japanese cities. This included the firebombing of Tokyo on March 9–March 10, 1945. For this first attack, LeMay ordered the defensive guns removed from 325 B-29s, loaded each plane with Model E-46 incendiary clusters, magnesium bombs, white phosporus bombs and napalm, and ordered the bombers to fly in streams at 5,000–9,000 feet over Tokyo. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire rather than the blast effects of large bombs. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ...


The first pathfinder planes arrived over Tokyo just after midnight on March 10. Following British bombing practice, they marked the target area with a flaming 'X.' In a three-hour period, the main bombing force dropped 1,665 tons of incendiary bombs, killing more than 100,000 civilians, destroying 250,000 buildings and incinerating 16 square miles of the city. Aircrews at the tail end of the bomber stream reported that the stench of burned human flesh permeated the aircraft over the target.

A "LeMay Bombing Leaflet" from the war, which warned Japanese civilians that "Unfortunately, bombs have no eyes. So, in accordance with America's humanitarian policies, the American Air Force, which does not wish to injure innocent people, now gives you warning to evacuate the cities named and save your lives."
A "LeMay Bombing Leaflet" from the war, which warned Japanese civilians that "Unfortunately, bombs have no eyes. So, in accordance with America's humanitarian policies, the American Air Force, which does not wish to injure innocent people, now gives you warning to evacuate the cities named and save your lives."

The New York Times reported at the time, "Maj. Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, commander of the B-29s of the entire Marianas area, declared that if the war is shortened by a single day, the attack will have served its purpose." Image File history File links Firebombing_leaflet. ... Image File history File links Firebombing_leaflet. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Precise figures are not available, but the firebombing and atomic bombing campaign against Japan, directed by LeMay between March 1945 and the Japanese surrender in August 1945, may have killed more than one million Japanese civilians. Official estimates from the United States Strategic Bombing Survey put the figures at 330,000 people killed, 476,000 injured, 8.5 million people made homeless and 2.5 million buildings destroyed. Nearly half the built-up areas of sixty-four cities were destroyed, including much of Japan's war industry.


LeMay referred to his nighttime incendiary attacks as "fire jobs." The Japanese nicknamed him "Demon LeMay". Downed B-29 aircrews were frequently tortured and executed when captured by both Japanese civilians and military. Also, the remaining Allied prisoners of war in Japan who had survived imprisonment to that time were frequently subjected to additional reprisals and torture after an air raid. LeMay was quite aware of both the brutality of his actions and the Japanese opinion of him — he once remarked that had the U.S. lost the war, he fully expected to be tried for war crimes, especially in view of Japanese executions of uniformed American flight crews during the 1942 Doolittle raid. However, he argued that it was his duty to carry out the attacks in order to end the war as quickly as possible, sparing further loss of life. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ...


Presidents Roosevelt and Truman justified these tactics by referring to an estimate that one million American troops would be killed if Japan had to be invaded. Additionally, the Japanese had intentionally decentralized 90% of their war-related production into small subcontractor workshops in civilian districts, making remaining Japanese war industry largely immune to conventional precision bombing with high-explosives.[1] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


As the fire bombing campaign took effect, Japanese war planners were forced to expend significant resources to relocate vital war industries to remote caves and mountain bunkers, further reducing production of war materiel.


In addition, LeMay oversaw Operation Starvation, an aerial mining operation against Japanese waterways and ports which disrupted the Japanese shipping and food distribution logistics. Aerial mining supplemented a tight Allied submarine blockade of the home islands, drastically reducing Japan's ability to supply its overseas forces and continue the war effort. Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ...


Cold War

General Curtis E. LeMay
General Curtis E. LeMay

After World War II, LeMay was briefly transferred to The Pentagon as Deputy Chief of Air Staff for Research & Development. In 1947, he returned to Europe as commander of USAF Europe, heading operations for the Berlin Airlift in 1948 in the face of a blockade by the Soviet Union and its satellite states that threatened to starve the civilian population of Berlin. Under LeMay's direction, C-54 cargo planes that could each carry 10 tons of cargo began supplying the city on July 1. By the fall, the airlift was bringing in an average of 5,000 tons of supplies a day. The airlift continued for 11 months — 213,000 flights that brought in 1.7 million tons of food and fuel to Berlin. Faced with the failure of their blockade, the Soviet Union relented and re-opened land corridors to the West. An Image from the US Air Force, of General Curtis E. LeMay. ... An Image from the US Air Force, of General Curtis E. LeMay. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ...


In 1949, he returned to the U.S. to head the Strategic Air Command, replacing Gen. George Kenney. When he took over SAC, it consisted of little more than a few understaffed B-29 groups left over from World War II. Less than half of the available aircraft were operational, and the crews were undertrained. When he ordered a mock bombing exercise on Dayton, Ohio, most bombers missed their targets by one mile or more. For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... George Kenney George Churchill Kenney (August 6, 1889 - August 9, 1977) was one of the most brilliant and successful United States Army Air Forces generals of World War II. He excelled in his his role as commander of the Allied air forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA) from August... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ...


LeMay headed SAC until 1957, overseeing its transformation into a modern, efficient, all-jet force. He was instrumental in the U.S. Air Force's acquisition of a large fleet of new strategic bombers, establishment of a vast aerial refueling system, the formation of many new units and bases, development of a strategic ballistic missile force, and establishment of a strict command and control system with an unprecedented readiness capability. He insisted on rigorous training and very high standards of performance for his aircrews, supposedly saying, "I have neither the time nor the inclination to differentiate between the incompetent and the merely unfortunate."


LeMay was appointed Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force in July 1957, serving until 1961 when he was made the fifth Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force on the retirement of Thomas White. His belief in the efficacy of strategic air campaigns over tactical strikes and ground support operations became Air Force policy during his tenure as Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF) serves as the senior uniformed United States Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ... General Thomas Dresser White (1902–December 22, 1965) was the fourth Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. ...


As Chief of Staff, LeMay clashed repeatedly with Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Air Force Secretary Eugene Zuckert and Joint Chiefs Chairman General Maxwell Taylor. At the time, budget constraints and successive nuclear war fighting strategies had left the armed forces in a state of flux. Each of the armed forces had gradually jettisoned realistic appraisals of future conflicts in favor of developing its own separate nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities. At the height of this struggle, the U.S. Army had even reorganized its combat divisions to fight land wars on irradiated nuclear battlefields, developing short-range atomic cannon and mortars in order to win appropriations. The U.S. Navy in turn proposed delivering strategic nuclear weapons from supercarriers intended to sail into range of the Soviet Air Defense Forces. Of all these various schemes, only LeMay's command structure of the SAC survived complete reorganization in the changing reality of postwar conflicts. For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... Eugene M. Zuckert Eugene M. Zuckert was the seventh Secretary of the Air Force from January 23, 1961 to September 30, 1965. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ...


Though LeMay lost significant appropriation battles (for Skybolt ALBM, and the B-52 replacement, the XB-70), he was largely successful at preserving Air Force budgets. He expanded the service into satellite technology and pushed for the development of the latest electronic warfare techniques. By contrast, the U.S. Army and Navy frequently suffered budgetary cutbacks and program cancellations by Congress and Secretary McNamara. The Douglas GAM-87A Skybolt was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed during the late 1950s. ... “B-52” redirects here. ... The North American XB-70 Valkyrie was conceived for the Strategic Air Command in the 1950s as a high-altitude bomber that could fly three times the speed of sound (Mach 3). ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ...


During the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, LeMay clashed again with President John F. Kennedy and Defense Secretary McNamara, arguing that he should be allowed to bomb nuclear sites in Cuba, even though he himself estimated that his planes could take out only about 90 percent of these sites (post-crisis analysis hypothesized that such attacks would have missed significantly more missiles than that). He opposed the naval blockade, and after the end of the crisis, suggested that Cuba be invaded anyway, even after the Russians agreed to withdraw. President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


LeMay's dislike for tactical aircraft and training backfired in the low-intensity conflict of Vietnam, where existing Air Force interceptor aircraft and standard attack profiles proved incapable of carrying out sustained tactical bombing campaigns in the face of hostile North Vietnamese anti-aircraft defenses. Aircraft losses on tactical attack missions soared, and Air Force commanders soon realized that their large, missile-armed aircraft were exceedingly vulnerable not only to anti-aircraft shells and missiles, but also to cannon-armed, maneuverable Soviet fighter jets.


In the end, LeMay's call for a sustained strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnamese cities, harbors, ports, shipping, and other strategic targets did not take place. The limited interdictive bombing of fluid enemy supply corridors in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia failed to either reach a significant quantity of enemy war supplies or destroy enemy morale. Even if full-scale strategic bombing had been approved, political limitations imposed by President Johnson on bombing Soviet and Chinese ships and cargo at the point of importation prevented any realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of a strategic air campaign in Vietnam. At the very end of the war, the limited Operation Linebacker II air campaign did succeed in forcing the North Vietnamese government to return to treaty negotiations. Combatants United States (U.S.) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders John W. Vogt, jr. ...


Post-military

Due to his unrelenting opposition to the Johnson administration's Vietnam policy and what was widely perceived as his hostility to Secretary McNamara, LeMay was essentially forced into retirement in February 1965, and seemed headed for a political career. Moving to California, he was approached by conservatives to challenge moderate Republican Thomas Kuchel for his seat in the United States Senate in 1968, but he declined. For the presidential race that year, LeMay originally supported Richard Nixon; he turned down two requests by George Wallace to join his American Independent Party that year, on the grounds that a third party candidacy might hurt Nixon's chances at the polls. (By coincidence, Wallace had served as a sergeant in a unit commanded by LeMay during World War II.). However, LeMay gradually became convinced that Nixon planned to pursue a conciliatory policy with the Soviets, and to accept nuclear parity, rather than retain America's first strike supremacy. This led him to not only throw his support to Wallace (who advocated a strong military), but also accept the spot as his running mate. The General was dismayed, however, to find himself attacked in the press as a racial segregationist because he was running with Wallace; indeed, LeMay had been a strong advocate for desegregating the armed forces, and he had never considered himself a bigot. When Wallace announced his selection in October 1968, LeMay opined that he, unlike many Americans, clearly did not fear using nuclear weapons. His saber-rattling did not help the Wallace campaign. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Categories: People stubs | 1910 births | 1994 deaths | United States Senators ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from his own. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Saber noise. ...


The Wallace/LeMay AIP ticket received a not-inconsiderable 13.5 percent of the popular vote and 46 electoral votes, although this was not enough to deny Nixon his victory at the polls. Following the 1968 election, LeMay returned to private life, including pursuing several charitable projects. He declined further suggestions to try for political office.


He was honored by several countries, receiving the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters, the Distinguished Flying Cross with two oak leaf clusters, the Distinguished Service Cross, Distinguished Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the French Legion of Honor and the Silver Star. On December 7, 1964 the Japanese government in an ironic gesture conferred on him the First Order of Merit with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun. He was elected to the Alfalfa Club in 1957. He served as a general officer for twenty-one years. Air Medal Ribbon The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, on May 11, 1942. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Air Force Distinguished Service Medal was created by an act of the United States Congress on July 6, 1960. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Order of the Rising Sun ribbon The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu shō (旭日章) is a Japanese Order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Alfalfa Club is an exclusive Washington, D.C. social organization, founded in 1913. ...


He died on October 1, 1990, and is buried in the United States Air Force Academy Cemetery at Colorado Springs, Colorado. The United States Air Force Academy Cemetery is a cemetery at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


LeMay and UFOs

The April 25, 1988 issue of The New Yorker carried an interview of former Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, who said he repeatedly asked his friend Gen. LeMay if there was any truth to the rumors that UFO evidence was stored in a secret room at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, and if he (Goldwater) might have access to the room. According to Goldwater, an angry LeMay gave him "holy hell" and said, "Not only can't you get into it but don't you ever mention it to me again." is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Fairborn and Dayton, Ohio. ...


LeMay and sports car racing

General LeMay was also a sports car owner and enthusiast; as the "SAC era" began to wind down, LeMay loaned out facilities of SAC bases for use by the Sports Car Club of America, as the era of early street races began to die out. He was awarded the Woolf Barnato Award, SCCA's highest award for contributions to the Club, in 1954. In November 2006, it was announced that General LeMay would be one of the 2007 inductions into the SCCA Hall of Fame. source The Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) is a club and sanctioning body supporting road racing, rally, and autocross in the United States and was formed in 1944. ... Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal auto racing which takes place on public roads. ... 1929 Blower Bentley. ...


The spreading of judo

Judo's resurgence after the War was due primarily to two individuals: Kyuzo Mifune and Curtis LeMay. The pre-war death of Jigoro Kano (the founder of judo), wartime demands, the Japanese surrender, postwar occupation and the martial arts ban all contributed to a time of uncertainty for judo. As assistant to General MacArthur during the American occupation of Japan, LeMay made practicing judo a routine part of Air Force tours of duty in Japan, and many Americans brought home stories of this tiny old man (Mifune), throwing healthy young men without apparent effort. LeMay became an enthusiastic promoter of judo training, and provided so much political support for the judo in the early years after the war, he was awarded the unique rank of Shihan. In addition, he promoted judo in the armed forces of the United States. This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Kyuzo Mifune Kyuzo Mifune (三船久蔵 Mifune Kyuzo April 21, 1883 – January 27, 1965) has been categorized as one of the greatest exponents of the art of judo after the founder, Jigoro Kano. ... Dr. Jigorō Kanō (嘉納 治五郎 Kanō Jigorō, 1860 in Kobe, Japan - 1938) is the founder of Judo. ... Shihan is a Japanese title, often used in budo. ...


Awards and decorations

LeMay received recognition for his work from thirteen countries, receiving twenty-two medals and decorations. A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ...


  Command pilot WWII Pilot Command Badge File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USAF aeronautical ratings are military aviation skill standards established and awarded by the United States Air Force for commissioned officers participating in aerial and space flight. ...

  •    European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal plus three bronze campaign stars
  •   Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
  •   Croix de Guerre with Palm (France)
  • Argentina – Order of Aeronautical Merit — Grades of Grand Official and Grand Cross
  • Brazil – Order of the Southern Cross and Order of Aeronautical Merit
  • Chile – Order of Merit and Medalla Militar de Primera Clase
  • Ecuador – Order of Aeronautical Merit (Knight Commander)
  • Japan – The First Class of the Order of the Rising Sun (Presented Dec. 7 1964) for his contribution to the reestablishment of the Air Force and Air Defence. The award was met with significant domestic protest due to his role in WWII. Hirohito, who led Japan when it waged war against the US, did not personally present this award.
  • Morocco – Oissam Alaouite
  • Sweden – Commander of the Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Sword
  • Uruguay – Aviador Militar Honoris Causa (Piloto Commandante)
  • U.S.S.R – Order of Patriotic War — 1st Degree

DSC Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... Army DSM Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article concerns the United States Army Distinguished Service Medal. ... Bronze and Silver oak leaf clusters An Oak leaf cluster is a common device which is placed on military awards and decorations to denote those who have received more than one bestowal of a particular decoration. ... Silver Star Ribbon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Air Medal Ribbon The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, on May 11, 1942. ... Presidential Unit Ribbon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Presidential Unit Citation is a senior unit award granted to military units which have performed an extremely meritorious or heroic act, usually in the face of an armed enemy. ... American Campaign Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The American Defense Service Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created in 1941 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... American Campaign Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... American Campaign Medal The American Campaign Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1942 by order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... EAME Campaign Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a miliary decoration of the United States armed forces which was first created in 1942 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... Asia Campaign Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal is a service decoration of the Second World War which was awarded to any member of the United States military who served in the Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. ... WWII Victory Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ... Airlift Device File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Occupation Ribbon with Airlift Device The Airlift Device is a decoration of the United States military which is presented as an attachment to both the Army of Occupation Medal and the Navy Occupation Service Medal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Medal for Humane Action The Medal for Humane Action is a military decoration of the United States armed forces which was created by an act of the United States Congress on July 20, 1949. ... Image File history File links National_Defense_Service_Medal_ribbon. ... Ribbon for the National Defense Service Medal The National Defense Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States military originally commissioned by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Air Force Longevity Service Award is a military decoration of the United States Air Force which was first issued in 1957 by order of General Thomas D. White, Air Force Chief of Staff. ... Distinguished Flying Cross, United Kingdom, Ribbon File links The following pages link to this file: Awards and decorations of the United States military Template:US-ForeignDecorations Categories: User-created public domain images ... The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy... Criox de Guerre 1945 Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Croix de guerre 1939-1945 (French for Cross of War) is a French military decoration created in September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis force at any time during World War II. // The recipients were pretty various according to the large line... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Royal Swedish Order of the Sword (Svärdsorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Seraphim and the Order of the Polar Star. ... CCCP redirects here. ...

Works

Books

  • (with MacKinlay Kantor) Mission with LeMay: My Story (Doubleday, 1965) ISBN B00005WGR2
  • (with Dale O. Smith) America is in Danger (Funk & Wagnalls, 1968) ISBN B00005VCVX
  • (with Bill Yenne) Superfortress: The Story of the B-29 and American Air Power (McGraw-Hill, 1988) ISBN 0-07-037160-1

MacKinlay Kantor (1904–1977) was an American novelist and screenwriter who won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1956 for his novel Andersonville. ...

Film

As himself

  • The Last Bomb (Documentary, 1945)
  • In the Year of the Pig (Documentary, 1968)
  • The World at War (Documentary TV Series, 1974)
  • Race for the Superbomb (Documentary, 1999)
  • JFK (Movie, 1991; featured in archival footage)
  • Roots of the Cuban Missile Crisis (Documentary, 2001)
  • The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (Documentary, 2003)
  • DC3: Ans Sista Resa (Documentary, 2004)

JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara, is a documentary film directed by Errol Morris and released in December 2003. ...

Fictional references

Strategic Air Command is a 1955 American film starring James Stewart and June Allyson, and directed by Anthony Mann. ... ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... For the non-fiction book, see Thirteen Days (book). ... Kevin Conway (born May 29, 1942 in New York City) is an American actor and film director. ...

Notes

  1. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945, Random House, 1970, p. 671.

References

  • Atkins, Albert Air Marshall Sir Arthur Harris and General Curtis E. Lemay: A Comparative Analytical Biography. AuthorHouse, 2001. ISBN 0-7596-5940-0.
  • Craig, William The Fall of Japan. The Dial Press, 1967. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 67-10704.
  • Coffey, Thomas M. Iron Eagle: The Turbulent Life of General Curtis LeMay. Random House, 1986. ISBN 0-517-55188-8.
  • LeMay, Curtis E. "Mission with LeMay: My Story". Doubleday, 1965
  • McNamara, Robert S. In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. Vintage Press, 1995. ISBN 0-679-76749-5.
  • Moscow, Warren "City’s Heart Gone". The New York Times. 11 Mar. 1945: 1, 13.
  • Narvez, Alfonso A. "Gen. Curtis LeMay, an Architect of Strategic Air Power, Dies at 83". The New York Times. October 2, 1990.
  • Allison, Graham. Essence of Decision:Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (1971 – updated 2nd edition, 1999). Longman. ISBN 0-321-01349-2.
  • Rhodes, Richard Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-684-80400-X
  • Tillman, Barrett. LeMay. Palgrave's Great Generals Series, 2007. ISBN 1-4039-7135-8
  • USAF National Museum, "Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, Awards and Decorations"

AuthorHouse, formerly known as 1stBooks, is a print on demand publisher that provides aspiring authors self-publishing services. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Graham T. Allison is a professor at Harvard University. ... Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis is an analysis, by political scientist Graham T. Allison, of the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... Barrett Tillman (b. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Curtis LeMay
  • Air Force Magazine bio of LeMay, March 1998
  • Bio from American Airpower Biography: A Survey of the Field by Colonel Phillip S. Meilinger, USAF
  • Richard Rhodes on: General Curtis LeMay, Head of Strategic Air Command
  • Richard Rhodes on: LeMay's Vision of War
  • Annotated bibliography of Curtis LeMay from the Alsos Digital Library
  • Gen. Curtis E. LeMay bio on USAF National Museum site
  • General Curtis E. LeMay Gravesite
Preceded by
Gen. George C. Kenney
Commander, Strategic Air Command
1948—1957
Succeeded by
Gen. Thomas S. Power
Preceded by
Gen. Thomas D. White
Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force
1961—1965
Succeeded by
Gen John P. McConnell
Preceded by
'''(none)'''
American Independent Party Vice Presidential Candidate
1968 (3rd)
Succeeded by
Thomas J. Anderson

  Results from FactBites:
 
Curtis E. LeMay (1455 words)
Returning to the States, LeMay served briefly as the head of the AAF research and development effort, then was sent to Germany as commander of the air forces in Europe arrayed against the Soviets.
LeMay was one of the coldest of America's cold warriors, and partly for this reason his tenure as chief was neither successful nor happy.
LeMay later stated vehemently that he disagreed with administration policy during the war, but we are given no details on an alternative.
General Curtis LeMay - Demented Cold Warrior (2173 words)
LeMay was appointed Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force in 1957 and Chief of Staff in 1961.
LeMay was a ringleader in the Joint Chiefs of Staff insofar as urging Kennedy to go to war in the Bay of Pigs and later in the Cuban missile crisis.
LeMay was the foremost proponent of the nuclear first strike, saying that we should give the Russians the "Sunday punch" before they did it to us.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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