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Encyclopedia > Curriculum

In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow and mature in becoming adults. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Core Curriculum was originally developed as the main curriculum used by Columbia Universitys Columbia College. ... Look up résumé, curriculum vitae, resume in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Horseracing track, Happy Valley Racecourse of The Hong Kong Jockey Club About the paper and pencil game, see Racetrack. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... See Adult. ...


Historical conception

Curricula Vector (to view-print: [1] click thumbnail image; [2] follow directions to linked page.)

In The Curriculum, the first textbook published on the subject, in 1918, John Franklin Bobbitt said that curriculim, as an idea, has its roots in the Latin word for race-course, explaining the curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences through which children become the adults they should be, for success in adult society. Furthermore, the curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not experiences occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. (cf. image at right.) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... John Franklin Bobbitt was born in Crawford County, Indiana, on February 16, 1876. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... See Adult. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...

To Bobbitt, the curriculum is a social engineering arena. Per his cultural presumptions and social definitions, his curricular formulation has two notable features: (i) that scientific experts would best be qualified to and justified in designing curricula based upon their expert knowledge of what qualities are desirable in adult members of society, and which experiences would generate said qualities; and (ii) curriculum defined as the deeds-experiences the student ought to have to become the adult he or she ought become. Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ...

Hence, he defined the curriculum as an ideal, rather than as the concrete reality of the deeds and experiences that form people to who and what they are. For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ...

Contemporary views of curriculum reject these features of Bobbitt's postulates, but retain the basis of curriculum as the course of experience(s) that forms human beings in to persons. Personal formation via curricula is studied at the personal level and at the group level, i.e. cultures and societies (e.g. professional formation, academic discipline via historical experience). The formation of a group is reciprocal, with the formation of its individual participants. The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ...

Although it formally appeared in Bobbitt's definition, curriculum as a course of formative experience also pervades John Dewey's work (who disagreed with Bobbitt on important matters). Although Bobbitt's and Dewey's idealistic understanding of "curriculum" is different from current, restricted uses of the word, curriculum writers and researchers generally share it as common, substantive understanding of curriculum. For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ...

Curriculum in formal schooling

In formal education or schooling (cf. education), a curriculum is the set of courses, course work, and content offered at a school or university. A curriculum may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authoritative body (i.e. the National Curriculum for England in English schools). In the U.S., each state, with the individual school districts, establishes the curricula taught. Each state, however, builds its curriculum with great participation of national academic subject groups selected by the United States Department of Education, e.g. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) for mathematical instruction. In Australia each state's Education Department establishes curricula. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education primary mission is studying curricula and their implementation worldwide. Students in Rome, Italy. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Education in the United Kingdom is covered in the following articles: Education in England Education in Northern Ireland Education in Scotland Education in Wales Grammar schools in the United Kingdom Achievement in British Education List of schools in the United Kingdom School governors British universities School inspection organisations: Office for... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...

Curriculum means two things: (i) the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study, and (ii) a specific learning program. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study.

Currently, a spiral curriculum (or tycoil curriculum) is promoted as allowing students to revisit a subject matter's content at the different levels of development of the subject matter being studied. The constructivist approach, of the tycoil curriculum, proposes that children learn best via active engagement with the educational environment, i.e. discovery learning.

A crucial aspect for learning, understanding by stimulating the imagination, is absent in the so-called "neo-conservative curriculum" that stresses the ineffective aspects of knowledge amounts and of logico-mathematical thinking, i.e. rote learning.[1][2] For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ...

Crucial to the curriculum is the definition of the course objectives that usually are expressed as learning outcomes' and normally include the program's assessment strategy. These outcomes and assessments are grouped as units (or modules), and, therefore, the curriculum comprises a collection of such units, each, in turn, comprising a specialised, specific part of the curriculum. So, a typical curriculum includes communications, numeracy, information technology, and social skills units, with specific, specialized teaching of each.

Sample curricula

Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly research on this practice. ... Business Mathematics refers to mathematics courses taken at an undergraduate level by business students. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry The Canadarm2 robotic manipulator on the International Space Station is operated by controlling the angles of its joints. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... Reading education is the process by which an individual learns to read, that is, to construct meaning from printed language. ... Media literacy is the skill of understanding the nature of communications, particularly in regard to telecommunications and mass media. ... Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ... Sex education is education about sexual reproduction in human beings, sexual intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Social studies is a term used to describe the broad study of the various fields which involve past and current human behavior and interactions. ... A page from a reference booklet depicting the Employment topic One of the very first topics a new high school student will learn would be the pressure groups Modern Studies is a social subject taught in secondary schools in Scotland. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Civics is the study of citizenship and government with particular attention given to the role of citizens in the operation and oversight of government. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Design Technology is an IB course focusing on design, materials, and manufacturing processes. ... For information technology in general, see Information technology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Recruit training. ... This article is about the teaching of religion. ... Family and consumer sciences, or home economics, is an academic discipline concerning consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting, interior decoration, textiles, gardening, and other subjects related to home management. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... Study skills are strategies and methods of purposeful learning, usually centered around reading and writing. ...

See also

Look up Curriculum in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Core Curriculum was originally developed as the main curriculum used by Columbia Universitys Columbia College. ... A course catalog is an organized, detailed, descriptive list of course offerings at a college or university or other educational outlet. ... A course atlas is a computer database created to address the need to find and compare college and university curriculum offered by many academic institutions across a region, country or around the world. ... Curriculum studies is a field that addresses distinct and important issues related to education. ... A lesson is a structured period of time where learning is intended to occur. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... Extracurricular activities are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education. ... Description Of A Career (DOAC) is a semantic vocabulary created by Ramon A. Parada to describe professional capabilities of a worker. ... The concept hidden curriculum expresses the idea that schools do more than simply transmit knowledge, as laid down in the official curricula. ... The Hidden Curriculum (1973 edition) The Hidden Curriculum (1970) is a book by Benson R. Snyder, the then-Dean of Institute Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


  1. ^ Norman, R. (2000) Cultivating Imagination in Adult Education Proceedings of the 41st Annual Adult Education Research.
  2. ^ Egan, K. (1992). Imagination in Teaching and Learning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Bobbitt, John Franklin. The Curriculum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1918.
  • Jackson, Philip W. "Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists." In Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association, edited by Philip W. Jackson, 3-40. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1992.
  • Pinar, William F., William M. Reynolds, Patrick Slattery, and Peter M. Taubman. Understanding Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.
  • Kelly, A.V. (1989) The Curriculum: theory and practice 3rd Ed
  • National Education Standards...They're Back! (article)
  • Diane Ravitch, National Standards in American Education A Citizen's Guide (book)
  • World Council for Curriculum and Instruction

  Results from FactBites:
BIGpedia - Core curriculum - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (139 words)
In education, a core curriculum is a curriculum, or course of study, which is deemed central and usually made mandatory for all students of a school or school system.
Core curricula are often instituted, at the primary and secondary levels, by school boards, Departments of Education, or other administrative agencies charged with overseeing education.
But because of increasing specialization and depth in the student's major field of study, a typical core curriculum in higher education mandates a far smaller proportion of a student's course work than a high school or elementary school core curriculum prescribes.
curriculum theory and practice (7263 words)
He defined curriculum tentatively: 'A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice'.
Curriculum for her is what actually happens in classrooms, that is, 'an ongoing social process comprised of the interactions of students, teachers, knowledge and milieu' (1990: 5).
Chapters explore the nature of the curriculum problem; the content of education; teaching; the school as an institution; behavioural objectives and curriculum development; a critique of the objectives model; the process model; evaluation; a research model of curriculum development; the teacher as researcher; and the school and innovation.
  More results at FactBites »



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