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Encyclopedia > Currency
Numismatics
Terminology
Portal
Currency
Coins, Banknotes,
Forgery

Circulating currencies
Community currencies In finance, the exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... This article is an attempt to combine and condense Numismatic and coin collecting terms into concise, informative explainations for the beginner or professional. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ... In economics, a local currency, in its common usage, is a currency not backed by a national government (and not legal tender), and intended to trade only in a small area. ...

Company scrip, LETS,
Time dollars

Fictional currencies Company scrip is currency issued in certain industries to pay workers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ithaca Hour is an example of time-based currency. ... Fictional currency is currency in works of fiction. ...

Ancient currencies
Greek, Roman,
Byzantine

Medieval currencies
Modern currencies

Africa, The Americas,
Europe, Asia, Oceania
Production
Mint, Designers
Exonumia

Notaphily A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... Coining is a form of precision stamping. ... The term milled coinage is used to describe coins which are produced by some form of machine, rather than by manually hammering coin blanks between two dies (hammered coinage) or casting coins from dies. ... Hammered coinage describes the commonest form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca. ... Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. ... This article is about the payment system. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... A rare and historic Bechuanaland Border Police canteen token. ... Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. ...

Scripophily A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Scripophily is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds. ...

v  d  e

Walter said "there will be one currency on the US, Mexico, and Canada" ... is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and/or services. It is one form of money, where money is anything that serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a standard of value. A currency is the dominant medium of exchange. To facilitate trade between currency zones, there are exchange rates, which are the prices at which currencies (and the goods and services of individual currency zones) can be exchanged against each other. Currencies can be classified as either floating currencies or fixed currencies based on their exchange rate regime. In common usage, currency sometimes refers to only paper money, as in coins and currency, but this is misleading. Coins and paper money are both forms of currency. For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Good. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... To act as a store of value, a commodity, a form of money or financial capital must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved - and be predictably useful when it is so retrieved. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... A floating currency is a currency that uses a floating exchange rate as its exchange rate regime. ... A fixed currency, less commonly called a pegged currency, is a currency that uses a fixed exchange rate as its exchange rate regime. ... The exchange rate regime is the way a country manages its currency in respect to foreign currencies and the foreign exchange market. ...


In most cases, each country has monopoly control over the supply and production of its own currency. Member countries of the European Union's Economic and Monetary Union are a notable exception to this rule, as they have ceded control of monetary policy to the European Central Bank. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... This article is about the economic term. ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...


In cases where a country does have control of its own currency, that control is exercised either by a central bank or by a Ministry of Finance. In either case, the institution that has control of monetary policy is referred to as the monetary authority. Monetary authorities have varying degrees of autonomy from the governments that create them. In the United States, the Federal Reserve System operates without direct interference from the legislative or executive branches. It is important to note that a monetary authority is created and supported by its sponsoring government, so independence can be reduced or revoked by the legislative or executive authority that creates it. However, in practical terms, the revocation of authority is not likely. In almost all Western countries, the monetary authority is largely independent from the government. The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... The Fed redirects here. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Several countries can use the same name, each for their own currency (e.g. Canadian dollars and United States dollars), several countries can use the same currency (e.g. the euro), or a country can declare the currency of another country to be legal tender. For example, Panama and El Salvador have declared U.S. currency to be legal tender, and from 1791-1857, Spanish silver coins were legal tender in the United States. At various times countries have either re-stamped foreign coins, or used currency board issuing one note of currency for each note of a foreign government held, as Ecuador currently does. C$ redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... // A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain an exchange rate with a foreign currency. ...


Each currency typically has one fractional currency, often valued at 1100 of the main currency: 100 cents = 1 dollar, 100 centimes = 1 franc, 100 pence = 1 pound. Units of 110 or 11000 are also common, but some currencies do not have any smaller units. Mauritania and Madagascar are the only remaining countries that do not use the decimal system; instead, the Mauritanian ouguiya is divided into 5 khoums, while the Malagasy ariary is divided into 5 iraimbilanja. However, due to inflation, both fractional units have in practice fallen into disuse. ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... Centime is French for cent, and is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries (including Switzerland and formerly France), where it is one hundredth of a franc. ... For the pre-decimal British one penny coin, see British One Penny coin (pre-decimal). ... GBP redirects here. ... 2000 MRO issued in 2004 The ouguiya (Arabic: أوقية; ISO 4217: MRO) is the currency of Mauritania. ... The khoums (Arabic خمس, fifth) is the subdivisory unit of the Mauritanian Ouguiya. ... The Malagasy ariary (currency code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar. ... The iraimbilanja (singular and plural) is the divisory currency unit of Madagascar, being equal to one fifth of an ariary. ...


See non-decimal currencies for other (mostly historic) currencies with non-decimal divisions. Today, only two countries in the world use currencies which have subdivisions that are a non-decimal fraction of their main unit. ...

Contents

History

Early currency

The origin of currency is the creation of a circulating medium of exchange based on a unit of account which quickly becomes a store of value. Currency evolved from two basic innovations: the use of counters to assure that shipments arrived with the same goods that were shipped, and later with the use of silver ingots to represent stored value in the form of grain. Both of these developments had occurred by 2000 BC. Originally money was a form of receipting grain stored in temple granaries in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system. ... A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement for the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. ... To act as a store of value, a commodity, a form of money or financial capital must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved - and be predictably useful when it is so retrieved. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


This first stage of currency, where metals were used to represent stored value, and symbols to represent commodities, formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place that was safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. Trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of international treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the North West to Elam and Bahrein in the South East. Although it is not known what functioned as a currency to facilitate these exchanges, it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus may have functioned as a currency. This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain, is a borderless country in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ...


It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse, possibly produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought this trading system to an end. It was only with the recovery of Phoenician trade in the ninth and tenth centuries, that saw a return to prosperity, and the appearance of real coinage, possibly first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ...


In Africa many forms of value store have been used including beads, ingots, ivory, various forms of weapons, livestock, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides, and so on. The manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to buy and sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many places various forms of barter still apply. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Manilla rings or Manilla currency were C-shaped partial rings designed to be slotted onto a stick for carrying purposes. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A 19th-centure example of barter: A sample labor for labor note for the Cincinnati Time Store. ...


Coinage

These factors led to the shift of the store of value being the metal itself: at first silver, then both silver and gold. Metals were mined, weighed, and stamped into coins. This was to assure the individual taking the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but they also created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle was that the next link in currency occurred: coins could now be easily tested for their fine weight of metal, and thus the value of a coin could be determined, even if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with (see Numismatics). A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement for the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ...


In most major economies using coinage, copper, silver and gold formed three tiers of coins. Gold coins were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Silver coins were used for large, but common, transactions, and as a unit of account for taxes, dues, contracts and fealty, while copper coins represented the coinage of common transaction. This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. In Europe, this system worked through the medieval period because there was virtually no new gold, silver or copper introduced through mining or conquest. Thus the overall ratios of the three coinages remained roughly equivalent. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


Era of hard and credit money

In premodern China, the need for credit and for circulating a medium that was less of a burden than exchanging thousands of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, commonly known today as banknotes. This economic phenomenon was a slow and gradual process that took place from the late Tang Dynasty (618-907) into the Song Dynasty (960-1279). It began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes from shops of wholesalers, notes that were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song Dynasty government began circulating these notes amongst the traders in their monopolized salt industry. The Song government granted several shops the sole right to issue banknotes, and in the early 12th century the government finally took over these shops to produce state-issued currency. Yet the banknotes issued were still regionally-valid and temporary; it was not until the mid 13th century that a standard and uniform government issue of paper money was made into an acceptable nationwide currency. The already widespread methods of woodblock printing and then Bi Sheng's movable type printing by the 11th century was the impetus for the massive production of paper money in premodern China. China Territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... A receipt is a written acknowledgement that a specified article or sum of money has been received as an exchange. ... In commerce, a wholesaler buys goods in large quantities from their manufacturers or importers, and then sells smaller quantities to retailers, who in turn sell to the general public. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ... Pì Shēng (Wade-Giles selling) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1052) was the inventor of the first know movable type printing system. ... For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... For other uses, see Print. ...


At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world, a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th-12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar). Innovations introduced by Muslim economists, traders and merchants include the earliest uses of credit,[1] cheques, promissory notes,[2] savings accounts, transactional accounts, loaning, trusts, exchange rates, the transfer of credit and debt,[3] and banking institutions for loans and deposits.[4] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... A monetary economy is a societys economy where products and services are traded in exchange for money. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... A promissory note is a contract detailing the terms of a promise by one party (the maker) to pay a sum of money to the other (the payee). ... The passbook is the traditional document to keep track of earnings in a savings account Savings accounts are accounts maintained by commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mutual savings banks that pay interest but can not be used directly as money (by, for example, writing a cheque). ... The cheque is the traditional mode of payment for a transactional account. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... The term trust has several meanings: In sociology, trust is willing acceptance of one persons power to affect another. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A banking institution provides banking services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Europe paper money was first introduced in Sweden in 1661. Sweden was rich in copper, thus, because of copper's low value, extraordinarily big coins (often weighing several kilograms) had to be made. Because the coin was so big, it was probably more convenient to carry a note stating your possession of such a coin than to carry the coin itself.


The advantages of paper currency were numerous: it reduced transport of gold and silver, and thus lowered the risks; it made loaning gold or silver at interest easier, since the specie (gold or silver) never left the possession of the lender until someone else redeemed the note; and it allowed for a division of currency into credit and specie backed forms. It enabled the sale of stock in joint stock companies, and the redemption of those shares in paper. For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... A joint stock company (JSC) is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ...


However, these advantages held within them disadvantages. First, since a note has no intrinsic value, there was nothing to stop issuing authorities from printing more of it than they had specie to back it with. Second, because it created money that did not exist, it increased inflationary pressures, a fact observed by David Hume in the 18th century. The result is that paper money would often lead to an inflationary bubble, which could collapse if people began demanding hard money, causing the demand for paper notes to fall to zero. The printing of paper money was also associated with wars, and financing of wars, and therefore regarded as part of maintaining a standing army. For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ...


For these reasons, paper currency was held in suspicion and hostility in Europe and America. It was also addictive, since the speculative profits of trade and capital creation were quite large. Major nations established mints to print money and mint coins, and branches of their treasury to collect taxes and hold gold and silver stock. A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ...


Legal tender era

With the creation of central banks, currency underwent several significant changes. During both the coinage and credit money eras the number of entities which had the ability to coin or print money was quite large. One could, literally, have "a license to print money"; many nobles had the right of coinage. Royal colonial companies, such as the Massachusetts Bay Company or the British East India Company could issue notes of credit—money backed by the promise to pay later, or exchangeable for payments owed to the company itself. This led to continual instability of the value of money. The exposure of coins to debasement and shaving, however, presented the same problem in another form: with each pair of hands a coin passed through, its value grew less.


The solution which evolved beginning in the late 18th century and through the 19th century was the creation of a central monetary authority which had a virtual monopoly on issuing currency, and whose notes had to be accepted for "all debts public and private". The creation of a truly national currency, backed by the government's store of precious metals, and enforced by their military and governmental control over an area was, in its time, extremely controversial. Advocates of the old system of Free Banking repealed central banking laws, or slowed down the adoption of restrictions on local currency. (See Gold standard for a fuller discussion of the creation of a standard gold based currency). Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ...


At this time both silver and gold were considered legal tender, and accepted by governments for taxes. However, the instability in the ratio between the two grew over the course of the 19th century, with the increase both in supply of these metals, particularly silver, and of trade. This is called bimetallism and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists. Governments at this point could use currency as an instrument of policy, printing paper currency such as the United States Greenback, to pay for military expenditures. They could also set the terms at which they would redeem notes for specie, by limiting the amount of purchase, or the minimum amount that could be redeemed. Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ... For the concept in cosmology, see cosmic inflation. ... 1880 United States Notes A United States Note is a fiat paper currency that was issued directly into circulation by the United States Department of the Treasury. ...


By 1900, most of the industrializing nations were on some form of gold standard, with paper notes and silver coins constituting the circulating medium. Governments too followed Gresham's Law: keeping gold and silver paid, but paying out in notes. Greshams law is commonly stated as: When there is a legal tender currency, bad money drives good money out of circulation. or more accurately Money overvalued by the State will drive money undervalued by the State out of circulation. ...


Paper money era

Main articles: Banknote and Fiat currency

A banknote (more commonly known as a bill in the United States and Canada) is a type of currency, and commonly used as legal tender in many jurisdictions. With coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all modern money. A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Look up fiat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... For other uses, see Cash (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...


Modern currencies

To find out which currency is used in a particular country, check list of circulating currencies. Download high resolution version (2392x1561, 621 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2392x1561, 621 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ...


Currently, the International Organization for Standardization has introduced a three-letter system of codes (ISO 4217) to define currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion that there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and many called the franc. Even the pound is used in nearly a dozen different countries, all, of course, with wildly differing values. In general, the three-letter code uses the ISO 3166-1 country code for the first two letters and the first letter of the name of the currency (D for dollar, for instance) as the third letter. “ISO” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... This is a list of countries which current use or have previously used the pound as a currency. ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ...


The International Monetary Fund uses a variant system when referring to national currencies. IMF redirects here. ...

For exchange rates, see exchange rate and tables of historical exchange rates.

Local currencies

Main article: Local currency

In economics, a local currency is a currency not backed by a national government, and intended to trade only in a small area. Advocates such as Jane Jacobs argue that this enables an economically depressed region to pull itself up, by giving the people living there a medium of exchange that they can use to exchange services and locally-produced goods (In a broader sense, this is the original purpose of all money.) Opponents of this concept argue that local currency creates a barrier which can interfere with economies of scale and comparative advantage, and that in some cases they can serve as a means of tax evasion. In economics, a local currency, in its common usage, is a currency not backed by a national government (and not legal tender), and intended to trade only in a small area. ...


Local currencies can also come into being when there is economic turmoil involving the national currency. An example of this is the Argentine economic crisis of 2002 in which IOUs issued by local governments quickly took on some of the characteristics of local currencies.


Accounting units

The Franc Poincaré is a unit of account that was used in the international regulation of liability. ... Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) is a potential claim on the freely usable currencies of International Monetary Fund members. ... The European Currency Unit (₠; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fictional currency is currency in works of fiction. ... In economics, a local currency is a currency not backed by a national government, and intended to trade only in a small area. ... Petrocurrency is the currency of a country with oil to export, for instance, Saudi Arabian riyals. ... A currency pair depicts a quotation of two different currencies. ...

Proposed currencies

States of WAMZ Light green: interested in joining The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency the West African Monetary Zone plans to introduce by 2009 in the framework of ECOWAS. Category: ... States of WAMZ Light green: interested in joining The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency the West African Monetary Zone plans to introduce by 2009 in the framework of ECOWAS. See Also West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ... The metica (plural meticas) was the currency of Mozambique between 1975 and 1980. ... Perun was currency which was planned for introduction in Montenegro by Petar II Petrović NjegoÅ¡ in 1851. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Currency union in the Americas is a proposal supported by some economists, but it is an idea that is not likely to be enacted in the near future. ... The Fraser Institutes proposed symbol/logo for the amero Currency union in the Americas is an idea based on the common European Union currency, the euro. ... Members of the ASEAN 10+3 circle The Asian Currency Unit (ACU) is a proposed currency unit for the ASEAN 10+3 economic circle (ASEAN, the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea). ... Members of the ASEAN Plus Three ASEAN Plus Three is a forum that functions as a coordinator of cooperation between Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the three East Asian nations of China, Japan, and South Korea. ... The East African Shilling is the proposed name for the common currency the East African Community plans to introduce by 2009. ... Anthem To Be Determined Arusha, Tanzania Membership 5 East African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Juma Mwapachu Area  -  Total 1,817,945 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 124,858,568   -  Density 55 /km²   /sq mi GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate  -  Total US$ 104. ... Gulf Arabic (occasionally Persian Gulf Arabic) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken around both shores of the Persian Gulf, mainly in Kuwait, eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and parts of Oman. ... Map indicating CCASG members Official languages Arabic Type Trade bloc Membership Arab states of the Persian Gulf (6) Leaders  -  Secretary-General Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah Establishment  -  As the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) May 25, 1981  Population  -   estimate 40,338,196[1]  GDP (nominal)  estimate  -  Total $1 Trillion   -  Per... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ...

References

  1. ^ Jairus Banaji (2007), "Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism", Journal Historical Materialism 15 (1), p. 47-74, Brill Publishers.
  2. ^ Robert Sabatino Lopez, Irving Woodworth Raymond, Olivia Remie Constable (2001), Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative Documents, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231123574.
  3. ^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96 [93].
  4. ^ Subhi Y. Labib (1969), "Capitalism in Medieval Islam", The Journal of Economic History 29 (1), p. 79-96 [81-84].
  5. ^ CARICOM Single Market (CSM) ratified. This article mentions a single currency but does not speculate on a name

Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...

Lists

A list of all currencies, current and historic. ... This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ... This is a list of historic currencies. ... This is a list of current motifs on the banknotes of different countries. ... International trade - an overview Absolute advantage Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) APEC Autarky Balance of trade barter Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) Bimetallism branch plant Bretton Woods Conference Bretton Woods system British timber trade Cash crop Comparative advantage Continental trading bloc Cost, insurance and freight Currency... An exchange rate represents the value of one currency in another. ...

See also

Numismatics Portal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Today, only two countries in the world use currencies which have subdivisions that are a non-decimal fraction of their main unit. ... The foreign exchange (currency or forex or FX) market exists wherever one currency is traded for another. ... Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ... In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. ... The history of money is a story spanning thousands of years. ... The euro and US dollar are by far the most used currencies in terms of global reserves. ...

External Links

  • Univos - Universal World Dollars. Proposal for a common currency for the entire world.
  • Forex Trading Info.

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Learn more about the three-letter currency codes used above, or have a look at our list of world currency symbols.
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