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Encyclopedia > Cumin
Cumin

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Cuminum
Species: C. cyminum
Binomial name
Cuminum cyminum
L.

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) (sometimes spelled cummin) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to East India. A girah (also geerah) was a unit of length in India and Pakistan approximately equal to 2. ... Image File history File links Koeh-198. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families Apiaceae (carrot family) Araliaceae (ginseng family) Pittosporaceae Griseliniaceae Torriceliaceae The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. ... Genera See text Ref: Hortiplex 2003-11-14 The Apiaceae, the carrot or parsley family, are a family of usually aromatic plants with hollow stems, including parsley, carrot, and other relatives. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera See text Ref: Hortiplex 2003-11-14 The Apiaceae, the carrot or parsley family, are a family of usually aromatic plants with hollow stems, including parsley, carrot, and other relatives. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


It is a herbaceous annual plant, with a slender branched stem 20-30 cm tall. The leaves are 5-10 cm long, pinnate or bipinnate, thread-like leaflets. The flowers are small, white or pink, and borne in umbels. The fruit is a laterall fusiform or ovoid achene 4-5 mm long, containing a single seed. Cumin seeds are similar to fennel seeds, but are smaller and darker in colour. This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Umbels on Wild Carrot (Daucus carota) An umbel is an inflorescence which consists of a number of short flower stalks (called pedicels) which are equal in length and spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... An oval or ovoid was originally an egg shape (from Latin OVVM); it is now usually used to refer to ellipses, but can also mean any similar shape, such as egg shapes or race-course shapes (a semicircle on either side of a quadrilateral). ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...

Contents

Cultivation and uses

Cumin seeds are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma, popular in North African, Middle Eastern, western Chinese, Indian, Cuban and Mexican cuisine. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This topic should not be confused with Tex-Mex, which is often referred to as Mexican food in the U.S. Mexican food is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ...


Cumin's distinctive flavour and strong, warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde). Important aroma compounds of toasted cumin are the substituted pyrazines, 2-ethoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine, 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine, and 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ... Flash point 93 °C R/S statement R: 22 S: 36/37 RTECS number CU7000000 Related compounds Related compounds benzaldehyde cumene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Cuminaldehyde, or 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, is a natural... Substitution in the context of organic chemistry has the general meaning of replacing an atom, a functional group, or a substituent in a molecule. ... Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule. ...


Today, cumin is identified with Indian and Mexican cuisine and Cuban cuisine. It is used as an ingredient of curry powder. Cumin can be found in some Dutch cheeses like Leyden cheese, and in some traditional breads from France. It is also wide-spread used by traditional culinary in Brazil. In herbal medicine, cumin is classified as stimulant, carminative, and antimicrobial. This topic should not be confused with Tex-Mex, which is often referred to as Mexican food in the U.S. Mexican food is a style of food that originated in Mexico. ... Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish, African and Caribbean cuisines. ... This article is about the dish. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Leidse cheese, which is also known as Komijnekaas or Boeren-Leidsekaas in Dutch, is a spiced cheese made in the Netherlands from partly skimmed cows milk to which color is added. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A carminative, also known as carminativum ( plural: carminativa), is a medicinal drug with antispasmodic activity that is used against cramps of the digestive tract in combination with flatulence. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ...


Cumin can be used to season many dishes, as it draws out their natural sweetnesses. It is traditionally added to curries, enchiladas, tacos, and other Middle-eastern, Indian, Cuban and Mexican-style foods. It can also be added to salsa to give it extra flavour. Cumin has also been used on meat in addition to other common seasonings. The spice is a familiar taste in Tex-Mex dishes and is extensively used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. Cumin was also used heavily in ancient Roman cuisine. Tex-Mex is a term for a type of American food which is used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional cuisine which blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans that are influenced by the cuisines of...


Cultivation of cumin requires a long, hot summer of 3-4 months, with daytime temperatures around 30°C (86°F); it is drought tolerant, and is mostly grown in mediterranean climates. It is grown from seed sown in spring, and needs a fertile, well-drained soil.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ...


Cumin can be boiled in tea to make "cumin cider", first made by native Mexicans and spread throughout South America.


Description

Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum, a member of the parsley family. The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (1-2 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. Cumin is a key component in both chili powder and curry powder. Chili powder (also called chili mix) is a spice mix consisting of various ratios of dried ground chile peppers, cumin, garlic, and oregano. ... Curry powder in a jar Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition developed by the British during their colonial rule of India. ...


Uses

The flavour of cumin plays a major role in Cuban, Mexican, Thai, Vietnamese, and Indian cuisines. Cumin is a critical ingredient of chili powder, and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, and bahaarat. Binomial name Bixa orellana L. Achiote, or Achiotl, (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree from the tropical regions of the Americas, also known also by its Tupi name of urucum. ... Sofrito is a Spanish word for a well cooked and fragrant sauce. ... Garam masala is a blend of ground spices common in the Indian cuisine, whose literal meaning is hot (or warm) spice. There are many variants: most traditional mixes use just cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg (and/or mace) and green cardamom seed or black cardamom pods. ... Curry powder in a jar Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition developed by the British during their colonial rule of India. ...


Origins

Historically, Iran has been the principal supplier of cumin, but currently the major sources are India, Sri Lanka, Syria, Pakistan, and Turkey.


Folklore

Superstition during the Middle Ages cited that cumin kept chickens and lovers from wandering. It was also believed that a happy life awaited the bride and groom who carried cumin seed throughout the wedding ceremony. Cumin is also said to help in treatment of the common cold, when added to hot milk and consumed. Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ...


Cumin tea is also believed to help induce labor in a woman who has gone post-dates with her pregnancy.


History

Cumin Seeds
Cumin Seeds

Cumin has been in use since ancient times. Seeds, excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der, have been dated to the second millennium BC. They have also been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1066x710, 787 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cumin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1066x710, 787 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cumin ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ...


Originally cultivated in Iran and the Mediterranean region, cumin is mentioned in the Bible in both the Old Testament (Isaiah 28:27) and the New Testament (Matthew 23:23). It was also known in ancient Greece and Rome. The Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container (much as pepper is frequently kept today), and this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin fell out of favour in Europe except in Spain and Malta during the Middle Ages. It was introduced to the Americas by Spanish colonists. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Since returned to favour in parts of Europe, today it is mostly grown in Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, India, Syria, Mexico, and Chile.


Etymology

The English form is derived from the Latin cuminum and Greek κύμινον. The Greek term itself seems to have been borrowed from a Semitic source; forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages, including Akkadian. The ultimate source seems to be the Sumerian word gamun [1]. Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...


A folk etymology connects the word with the Persian city Kerman, where, the story goes, most of ancient Persia's cumin was produced. For the Persians the expression "carrying cumin to Kerman" has the same meaning as the English language phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle". Kerman, locally called Kermun, would have became Kumun and then cumin in the European languages. Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... For the U.S. city, see Kerman, California. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


In India and Pakistan, cumin is known as jeera or jira; in Iran and Central Asia, cumin is known as zira; in northwestern mainland China, cumin is known as ziran. In Arabic, it is known as kamuwn, (الكمــــــــون). Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Confusion with other spices

Cumin is hotter to the taste, lighter in colour, and larger than caraway (Carum carvi), another umbelliferous spice that is sometimes confused with it. Many European languages do not distinquish clearly between the two. For example, in Czech caraway is called 'kmín' while cumin is called 'římský kmín' or "Roman caraway." Some older cookbooks erroneously name ground coriander as the same spice as ground cumin. [2] Categories: | | | | ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


The distantly related Bunium persicum and the unrelated Nigella sativa are both sometimes called black cumin (q.v.). Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... The English common name Black Cumin is usually used for Nigella sativa L. but also, less commonly for Bunium persicum [Boiss. ...

Cumin seeds
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 370 kcal   1570 kJ
Carbohydrates     44.24 g
- Sugars  2.25 g
- Dietary fiber  10.5 g  
Fat 22.27 g
- saturated  1.535 g
- monounsaturated  14.04 g  
- polyunsaturated  3.279 g  
Protein 17.81 g
Water 8.06 g
Vitamin A equiv.  64 μg  7%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.628 mg   48%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.327 mg   22%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  4.579 mg   31%
Vitamin B6  0.435 mg 33%
Folate (Vit. B9)  10 μg  3%
Vitamin B12  0 μg   0%
Vitamin C  7.7 mg 13%
Vitamin E  3.33 mg 22%
Vitamin K  5.4 μg 5%
Calcium  931 mg 93%
Iron  66.36 mg 531%
Magnesium  366 mg 99% 
Phosphorus  499 mg 71%
Potassium  1788 mg   38%
Sodium  168 mg 11%
Zinc  4.8 mg 48%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...

Images

References

  1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 206
  2. ^ Growingtaste.com

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Cumin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Whole Cumin Seed Spice (260 words)
Cumin spice is an important ingredient in chili, chili powder, Mexican recipes, and the world famous curry powder.
Cumin seed's flavor is extremely strong, sharp, penetrating, and has a hint of bitterness.
Cumin is a small plant with spares foliage; the seeds of the cumin plant are quite similar to those of both caraway and dill.
Cumin (200 words)
Cumin (pronounced "comein") is the pale green seed of Cuminum cyminum, a small herb in the parsley family.
An ancient spice, Cumin is native to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Egypt.
Cumin is one of the ancient spices, a favorite of the Romans and it is mentioned in the Old Testament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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