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Encyclopedia > Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Replica of the log house in Dickson County, Tenn. where the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was founded in 1810. The structure sits in the midst of the Montgomery Bell State Park.
Replica of the log house in Dickson County, Tenn. where the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was founded in 1810. The structure sits in the midst of the Montgomery Bell State Park.

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is a theologically moderate evangelical Presbyterian body spawned by the Great Revival of 1800 (also known as the Second Great Awakening). As with any church holding to a presbyterian polity, individual congregations are represented by elders (who form a session to govern the local church) at presbyteries. Presbyteries, in turn, send delegates to synods. Finally, the entire structure is governed by the General Assembly. The Assembly charges various boards and agencies with the day-to-day operation of the denomination. Image File history File links Cabin2. ... Dickson County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Second Great Awakening (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ...


Despite the conservative-to-moderate nature of many Cumberland Presbyterian congregations, the denomination as a whole has a socially tolerant (not necessarily permissive) tradition. Cumberland Presbyterians were among the first denominations to admit women to their educational institutions and to accept them in leadership roles including the ordained clergy. Cumberland Presbyterians were also early to ordain African-Americans to the ministry. The 1984 revision of the Cumberland Presbyterian Confession of Faith, reflecting the denomination's long-standing traditions, was one one the first inclusive confessional documents in the Reformed tradition.

Contents

Formation

On February 4, 1810 in the log cabin home (near what later became the town of Burns, Dickson County, Tennessee) of the Rev. Samuel McAdow, he, together with the Rev. Finis Ewing and the Rev. Samuel King reorganized Cumberland Presbytery, which had been dissolved by the PC(USA). After sufficient growth, Cumberland Presbytery became the Cumberland Presbyterian denomination in 1829, with the establishment of the General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Burns is a town located in Dickson County, Tennessee. ... Dickson County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... Samuel McAdow, a Presbyterian minister, was, in 1810, one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ... Finis Ewing (July 10, 1773 – July 4, 1841) Was the primary founder of the Cumberland Presbyterian Denomination on February 4, 1810. ... Samuel King, a Presbyterian minister, was, in 1810, one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ... In the history of the Presbyterian and Reformed tradition in the United States, there have been a number of judicatories named Cumberland Presbytery. ... Emblem of the PCUSA The Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... In the history of the Presbyterian and Reformed tradition in the United States, there have been a number of judicatories named Cumberland Presbytery. ...


Background

The divisions which led to the formation of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church can be traced back to the First Great Awakening. At that time, Presbyterians split between the Old Side (mainly congregations of Scottish and Scotch-Irish extraction), who favored a doctrinally-oriented church with a highly-educated ministry; and a New Side (mainly of English extraction) who put greater emphasis on the revivalistic techniques championed by the Great Awakening. The formal split between Old Side and New Side only lasted from 1741 to 1758, but the two orientations remained present in the reunified church and would come to the fore again during the Second Great Awakening. The First Great Awakening was a religious revitalization movement that swept the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... “Scot” redirects here. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Second Great Awakening (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ...


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Presbyterians on the frontier suffered from a shortage of educated clergy willing to move to the frontier, beyond the Appalachian Mountains. At the same time, Methodists and Baptists were sending preachers with little or no formal training into frontier regions, and were very successful in organizing Methodist and Baptist congregations. In this situation, Cumberland Presbytery in Kentucky began ordaining men without the educational background required by Kentucky Synod, drawing on New Side precedents. This was bad enough for supporters of the Old Side, but what was even worse was that Cumberland Presbytery allowed ministers to offer a qualified assent to the Westminster Confession and only required them to swear assent to the Confession "so far as they deemed it agreeable to the Word of God." Old Siders in Kentucky Synod (which had oversight over Cumberland Presbytery) sought to discipline Cumberland Presbytery. Presbytery and synod were involved in a protracted dispute, which touched upon the nature of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Ultimately, Kentucky Synod decided to dissolve Cumberland Presbytery and expel a number of its ministers. A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of North American mountains mostly in the United States, and partly in Canada, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from the island of Newfoundland some 1,500 miles... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Kentucky Synod. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... Kentucky Synod. ...


The denomination was made up of members of the Presbyterian Church and others in the area left abandoned when Kentucky Synod dissolved the original Cumberland Presbytery and expelled many of its ministers. A replica of the Rev. Samuel McAdow's cabin now stands where the three founded the church, and a sandstone chapel commemorating the event has been erected nearby. These two buildings are two of the main attractions in the surrounding Montgomery Bell State Park. An outgrowth of "The Great Revival of 1800", also called the "Second Great Awakening", the new denomination arose to minister to the spiritual needs of a pioneer people who turned from the doctrine of predestination to embrace the "Whosoever Will" gospel of the new church, influenced in great degree from Wesleyanism. The Red River Meeting House in Logan County, Ky., marks the location of the revival meeting thought by some to have given rise to the first organized Cumberland Presbyterian congregation.[1] "Cumberland" came from the area's name (the Cumberland River valley); "Presbyterian" described the form of government. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Kentucky Synod. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Second Great Awakening (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... The Red River Meeting House was the site of the first religious camp meeting in the United States and the start of the Second Great Awakening in June 1800. ... Logan County is a county located in the state of Kentucky. ... The Cumberland River is an important waterway in the southern United States. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Cumberland College

In 1826, Cumberland Presbyterians established Cumberland College in Princeton, Kentucky, in order to better train their candidates for the ministry. Although very much a frontier institution, under the presidency of Franceway Ranna Cossitt, Cumberland College was one of the first colleges in the United States to accept women as students. Ann Harpending, for example, enrolled in the very first class. This institutition is unrelated, other than by similarity of name, to Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee or Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. ... Princeton is a city located in Caldwell County, Kentucky. ... Franceway Ranna Cossitt (April 24, 1790 - February 3, 1863) was an early Cumberland Presbyterian Minister and the first stated clerk of the Cumberland Presbyterian General Assembly in 1829. ... This institutition is unrelated, other than by similarity of name, to Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee or Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. ...


Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America, a primarily African-American denomination, split (by choice) from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1878. Relations between the two groups have for the most part been very cordial, and many of the CPCA ministers have trained at Memphis Theological Seminary. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America is a primarily African-American denomination which developed from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in about 1878. ... Memphis Theological Seminary is a Protestant theological seminary located in Memphis, Tennessee at the corner of Union and East Parkway. ...


Ordination of Women

In 1889, Cumberland Presbyterians were the first body in the Presbyterian and Reformed tradition to ordain a woman as a minister, Louisa Mariah Layman Woosley. Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... -1... Louisa Woosley c. ...


Partial Union

By 1900, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was the third largest Presbyterian or Reformed body in the United States and was rapidly growing. In 1906, the Presbyterian Church (USA) (the so-called "Northern" denomination) proposed reunification with the CPC in the wake of revisions they had made to the Westminster Confession of Faith in 1903. As a result, a large number of Cumberland congregations re-entered the PC(USA) and those who remained in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church felt somewhat antagonistic towards the PC(USA) for some generations afterward. Over the years, the bitterness subsided but has never entirely been forgotten. However, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America held concurrent 2006 general assemblies in Birmingham, Ala. in celebration of 300 years of Presbyterianism in North America. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (UPCUSA or UPUSA) was the northern branch of Presbyterianism in the United States. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America is a primarily African-American denomination which developed from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in about 1878. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby Government  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area  - City  151. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Schools & Institutions

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church maintains a four-year liberal arts college, Bethel College, located in McKenzie, Tenn., and a seminary, Memphis Theological Seminary, in Memphis, Tennessee. The Cumberland Presbyterian Center, also located in Memphis, houses other church boards and agencies. The denomination maintains a Childrens' Home in Denton, Texas. The Historical Foundation of the CPC and the CPCA maintains its library and archives at the Cumberland Presbyterian Center in Memphis. In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... For other institutions of this name, see the Bethel College disambiguation page. ... McKenzie is a city located in Tennessee. ... Memphis Theological Seminary is a Protestant theological seminary located in Memphis, Tennessee at the corner of Union and East Parkway. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Cumberland Presbyterian Center: The denominational headquarters of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church located at 1978 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, since 1951. ... Motto: Just North of Ordinary Location within the state of Texas County Denton County Government  - Mayor Perry McNeill Area  - City 161. ... Cumberland Presbyterian Center: The denominational headquarters of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church located at 1978 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, since 1951. ...


Demographics/Culture

Cumberland Presbyterian congregations can be found all over the U.S. as well as in several foreign countries (Japan, Hong Kong, Colombia, etc.) but are primarily located in the American South and border states, with strong concentrations in Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Missouri, southern Illinois, Arkansas, and Texas. Most of those congregations are located outside major metropolitan areas, in small towns and rural communities; the majority of those churches founded in towns and cities in the 1800s defected to the PCUSA, as did a fair number of the country churches. The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... In a European context, the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense, refer to attempts during the interbellum to unite the countries that had won their independence from Imperial Russia due to the Russian Revolution, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of Imperial... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis Metro[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


For the most part, the CPC's constituency and theology resembles that of the United Methodist Church, appealing mainly to long-established families with revivalistic religious tastes and generally conservative cultural dispositions, derived chiefly from the agricultural orientation of most of its historic territory, the Upper South. Although explicit fundamentalism is rare in the CPC, it is by no means entirely absent, and ministers usually avoid training at schools strongly associated with liberal Protestantism (e.g., Vanderbilt Divinity School, Perkins School of Theology of Southern Methodist University). The CPC's membership growth generally lags behind the larger faith traditions in its territory, such as the Southern Baptists and Pentecostalism, mainly because it has relatively few congregations in suburbia. This article is about the current denomination africa. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... Fundamentalism originally referred to a movement in North American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism (see below, History), stressing that the Bible is literally inerrant, not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record. ... Vanderbilt Divinity School is a university-based interdenominational theological school based at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN. It is one of only four such schools in the United States, and is the only such school located in the South. ... Faculty and Former Faculty Hoyt McWhorter Dobbs - Professor of Christian Doctrine, and Dean (1916-20). ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow Southern Methodist University (also known as SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas, (an enclave of Dallas). ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ...


Notable Cumberland Presbyterians

19th Century

Finis Ewing (July 10, 1773 – July 4, 1841) Was the primary founder of the Cumberland Presbyterian Denomination on February 4, 1810. ... Samuel McAdow, a Presbyterian minister, was, in 1810, one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ... Samuel King, a Presbyterian minister, was, in 1810, one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ... Richard Beard opened Englands first professional photography studio in London in 1841. ... Franceway Ranna Cossitt (April 24, 1790 - February 3, 1863) was an early Cumberland Presbyterian Minister and the first stated clerk of the Cumberland Presbyterian General Assembly in 1829. ... This institutition is unrelated, other than by similarity of name, to Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee or Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... James Davis Porter (December 7, 1828–May 18, 1912) was governor of the U.S. state of Tennessee from 1875 to 1879. ... James Smith is the name of: Americans: James Smith (frontiersman) (ca. ... Louisa Woosley c. ...

20th Century

Thomas H. Campbell (1907-1989) was a Cumberland Presbyterian minister, a former president and dean of Memphis Theological Seminary, and a former director of the Historical Foundation of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. ... The Rev. ... The Rev. ... James Wade Kinght (1925-2005) was a Cumberland Presbyterian minister. ... Charles McCaskey, born in Idabel, Oklahoma, of mixed Choctaw and Cherokee heritage, is a Cumberland Presbyterian Minister. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Beverly St. ...

21st Century

  • Daniel J. Earheart-Brown
  • Robert D. Rush

The Rev. ...

References

  1. ^ Red River -- the Mother of Kentucky Churches

External links

Sources

  • Thomas Hardesty Campbell, Milton L. Baughn, and Ben M. Barrus. A People Called Cumberland Presbyterian (Memphis: Tennessee, 1972).
  • Matthew H. Gore. The History of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Kentucky to 1988. Published by the Joint Heritage Committee of Covenant and Cumberland Presbyteries (Memphis: Tennessee, 2000).
  • 2006 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (Memphis: Tennessee, 2006).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Greene County, TN, Genealogy New Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church (930 words)
Under the floor of the church is a hug stump from the tree which sheltered the people during those early camp meetings.
Church minutes have several references to session meetings, preaching services and other gatherings taking place in the Meeting House, thus, some type of structure proceeded the present church building (possibly log).
The present church building is made of white wood frame construction with eight large double windows having a total of 450 small window panes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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