FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Cumans" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cumans

Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: Половцы Polovcy, Ukrainian: Половцi Polovtsi, Turkish: Kumanlar, Bulgarian: Кумани Kumani, Romanian: Cumani, Hungarian: Kunok), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. The Cumans were a nomadic Turkic tribe who inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea known as Cumania along the Volga River. Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, QÄ«nchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...

Contents

History

Originally inhabiting the steppes of southern Siberia and northern Kazakhstan the Cumans entered the lands of present-day southern Ukraine, as well as historic Moldavia, Wallachia, and part of Transylvania, in the 11th century. Having conquered the area, they continued their assaults by attacking and plundering the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, and Rus. In 1089, they were defeated by Ladislaus I of Hungary. The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... “Siberian” redirects here. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of the Kievan Rus, 11th century Kievan Rus′ or Kievan Ruthenia was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Events Northumbria divided by the Normans into the counties of Northumberland, County Durham, Yorkshire, Westmorland and Lancashire August 11, powerful Britain Coronation of Rama Varma Kulasekhara in Kerala Synod of Melfi under Pope Urban II imposes slavery on the wives of priests Palmyra destroyed by earthquake Byzantine conquest of Crete... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ...


Pechenegs, a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the steppes of southwestern Eurasia, were annihilated as an independent force at the Battle of Levounion by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army under Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1091. Attacked again in 1094 by the Cumans, many Pechenegs were slain or absorbed. Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cumans, Vlachs, Bulgars and Frankish and Flemish mercenaries. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I...


In alliance with the Vlachs and the Bulgarians during the Vlach-Bulgar Rebellion by brothers Asen and Peter of Tarnovo, the Cumans are believed to have played a significant role in the rebellion's final victory over Byzantium and the restoration of Bulgaria's independence (1185). The Cumans defeated the Great Prince Vladimir Monomakh of Kievan Rus in the 12th century (at the Battle of the Stugna River) but were crushed by the Mongols in 1238, after which most of them fled Wallachia and Moldova and took refuge in Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire. After many clashes with the Hungarians, the Cumans were eventually evicted from Hungary to join their kin who lived in Bulgaria. Later, however, a large segment of them were re-invited back to Hungary. The Cumans who remained scattered in the steppe of what is now Russia joined the Golden Horde khanate. In the 11th century the Cumans established their own country named Cumania, in an area comprised of Moldavia and Walachia. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion was a revolt of the Vlachs and Bulgarians living in the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Volodymyr Monomakh (Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Russian: Владимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was the ruler of Kievan Rus. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Battle of the Stugna River (26 May 1093) was a battle between the princes of Kievan Rus (Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh of Chernigiv) and the nomadic Polovtsy tribe (a Turkic peoples). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


The Hungarian kings claimed supremacy on the territory of Cumania, among the 9 titles of the Hungarian kings of the Arpad and Anjou dynasties were the rex Cumaniae (further titles of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia—since Ladislaus I of Hungary inherited the 2 kingdoms based on his sister's right from his brother in law, and of Servia (Serbia), Rama (Bosnia), Lodomeria, Galitia and Bulgaria—based on their possession of Vidin, ca. 2% of the whole territory, further the Anjous were princes of Salerno as well). For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ...


In the 13th century, the Western Cumans adopted Roman Catholicism (in Hungary they later became all Calvinist) and the Gagauzes Pravoslav/Orthodox, while the Eastern Cumans converted to Islam. The Catholic Diocese of Cumania founded in Milcov in 1227 and including what is now Romania and Moldova, retained its title until 1523. It was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Esztergom. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Diocese of Cumania was a Roman Catholic diocese in Hungary. ... Milcov (Hungarian: Milkó) is a town in the historical region of Moldavia in Romania. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... This historical diocese created in the 10th century became Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest on 31 May 1993. ...


The Cuman influence in the region of Wallachia and Moldavia was so strong that the earliest Wallachian rulers bore Cuman names. Given that the rulers Tihomir and Bassarab I governed territories formerly ruled by Romanian leaders (mentioned in the Diploma of the Joannites of 1247), and given that there is no archaeological evidence to sustain the continuous presence of a Cuman population (only Hungarian documents mentioning a toll-paying Wallachian population), the ruler elite was gradually assimilated like in Bulgaria's case by the majority population they governed, which became Romanian. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Issued by Bela IV, King of Hungary in 1247 for Master Rembald, lider of the Knights of Order of St John of Jerusalem (the Johannieter Knights, the Joannites Knights widely known as Knights Hospitaller). ...


Basarab I, son of the Wallachian prince Tihomir of Wallachia obtained independence from Hungary at the beginning of the 14th century. The name Basarab is considered as being of Cuman origin, meaning "Father King". Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as ÃŽntemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... Tihomir or Tocomerius/Togomer/Totomer/Tugomir (circa 1290 - circa 1310) was a Cumanian (Kipchak) warlord, possibly the father of Basarab I, the founder of the principality of Wallachia. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Cuman influence also persisted in the Kingdom of Hungary with the Cuman language and customs persisting in autonomous Cuman territories (Kunság) until the 17th century. Kunság (English: ) is a historical and geographical region in Hungary situated in the current Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


It is generally believed that the Bulgarian mediaеval dynasties Asen, Shishman and Terter had some Cuman roots. The Asen dynasty ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1187 and 1280. ... Shishman may refer to: Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria Shishman Street Category: ...


Legacy

The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Kypchaks by Viktor Vasnetsov
The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Kypchaks by Viktor Vasnetsov

While the Cumans were gradually assimilated into eastern European populations, their trace can still be found in placenames as widespread as the city of Kumanovo in the Northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, Comăneşti in Romania and Comana in Dobruja. Image File history File links Igorsvyat. ... Image File history File links Igorsvyat. ... Igor Svyatoslavich (April 3, 1151-1202) was the prince of Novhorod-Siversky from 1180 to 1202. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Kumanovo municipality Elevation 340 m Population 105 484 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 031 Postal code 1300 Car plates KU Official Website www. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The principal attraction of the town - the Ghica Palace Woodcraft from Ghica Pallace etnographic museum ComăneÅŸti is a town in Bacău county, Romania, with a population of 26,230. ... Comana is the name of two different ancient cities in Asia Minor: Comana was a city of Cappadocia (frequently called Crryse or Aurea, i. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ...


The Cumans settled in Hungary had their own self-government there in a territory that bore their name, Kunság, that survived until the 19th century. There, the name of the Cumans (Kun) is still preserved in county names such as Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and town names such as Kiskunhalas and Kunszentmiklós. Kunság (English: ) is a historical and geographical region in Hungary situated in the current Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bács-Kiskun is a county (megye in Hungarian) located in southern Hungary. ... This article is about the modern county, for the historical one see Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (former county). ... Kiskunlacháza is a town in Pest county in the northern part of Central Hungary, approximately 4 miles from the Danube river and its largest neighbor, Ráckeve. ... Kunszentmiklós is a town in Bács-Kiskun county, Hungary. ...


The Cumans were organized into four tribes in Hungary, Kolbasz / Olas in the big Cumania around Karcag, and the other three in the lesser Cumania. The other Cuman group in Hungary is the paloc group, the name deriving from the Slav Polovetz. They live in the Northern Hungary and current Slovakia and have a specific dialect. Their Cuman origin is not documented as the other two Cuman territory but their name derives from the above word. They have a very special "a" sound close to Turkish "a", unlike Hungarian pronunciation.


Unfortunately, the Cuman language disappeared from Hungary in the 17 century, possibly following the Turkish occupation.
Their 19 century biographer, Gyarfas Istvan in 1870 was on the opinion that they speak Hungarian together with the Iazyges population. Despite this mistake he has the best overview on the subject concerning details of material used. [1] The Iazyges (Jazyges is an orthographic variant) were a nomadic tribe. ...

Cuman steppe art, as exhibited in Dnipropetrovsk.

Also, toponyms of Cuman language origin can be found especially in the Romanian counties of Vaslui and Galaţi, including the names of both counties. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Museum of Kipchak steppe art in Dnepropetrovsk. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Museum of Kipchak steppe art in Dnepropetrovsk. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... Administrative map of Romania with Vaslui county highlighted Vaslui is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Moldovia region, with the capital city at Vaslui (population: 79,658). ... Facts Development region: Sud-Est Historic region: Moldavia Capital city: GalaÅ£i Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 619,556 139/km² Area: 4,466 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO GL RO-GL Telephone code: (+40) x36 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ...


In the countries where the Cumans were assimilated, family surnames derived from the words for "Cuman" (such as coman or kun, "kuman") are not uncommon. Among the people that have such a name are Romanian gymnast Nadia Comăneci, Romanian poet Otilia Coman (Ana Blandiana), contemporary painter Nicolai Comănescu and Romanian football player Gigel Coman.
Traces of the Cumans are also the Bulgarian surname Kumanov (feminine Kumanova), its Macedonian variant Kumanovski (feminine Kumanovska) and the widespread Hungarian surname Kun. This name was also used as a magyarized version of the Jewish-German name Kohn/Cohen , like for the communist leader Bela Kun. Nadia Elena Comaneci (originally Comăneci ; born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian gymnast, winner of five Olympic gold medals, and the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. ... Ana Blandiana (born Otilia Valeria Coman, b. ... Gigel Coman (born October 4, 1978 in Bucharest) is a Romanian football player, raised at FC Naţional Bucharest, who currently plays for Steaua Bucharest. ... la Kun B la Kun (February 20, 1886 - 1939?) was a Hungarian Communist who ruled Hungary for a brief time in 1919. ...


The Cumans appear in Russian culture in the The Tale of Igor's Campaign and are the Russians' military enemies in Alexander Borodin's opera Prince Igor which features a set of "Polovtsian Dances". The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku Igorevě; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Prince Igor (Russian: Knâz Igor) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Alexander Borodin. ... The Polovetsian Dances (or Polovtsian Dances) are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ...


Further reading

  • Vasary, Istvan (2005) "Cumans and Tatars", Cambridge University Press.
  • Gyarfas Istvan: A Jaszkunok Törtenete: http://vfek.vfmk.hu/gyarfas_istvan/jaszkunok/
  • Györffy György: A Codex Cumanicus mai kerdesei
  • Györffy György: A magyarsag keleti elemei
  • Hunfalvy: Etnographia

See also

The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Battle of the Stugna River (26 May 1093) was a battle between the princes of Kievan Rus (Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh of Chernigiv) and the nomadic Polovtsy tribe (a Turkic peoples). ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cumans, Vlachs, Bulgars and Frankish and Flemish mercenaries. ...

External links

  • Catholics and Cumans
  • Mitochondrial DNA of ancient Cumanians: culturally Asian steppe nomadic immigrants with substantially more western Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cumans and Tatars - Cambridge University Press (2926 words)
The Cumans and the Tatars were nomadic warriors of the Eurasian steppe who exerted an enduring impact on the medieval Balkans.
As a consequence, groups of the Cumans and the Tatars settled and mingled with the local population in various regions of the Balkans.
From 1091 the Cumans gained the upper hand in the Balkans, and their role in the re-establishment of the Bulgarian Empire in 1185–6 and in its eventual fate was fundamental.
Cumans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (495 words)
Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga.
While the Cumans were assimilated, their name can still be seen in placenames such as the city of Kumanovo in Macedonia, Comăneşti in Moldavia and Comana in Dobruja.
Cumans having settled in Hungary had their own self-government there, and their name (kun) is still preserved in the county names Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, and town names as (eg.) Kiskunhalas, Kiskunszentmiklós as well.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m