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Encyclopedia > Cumann na nGaedhael

Cumann na nGaedhael (IPA: [ˈkʊmən nə ˈŋɰeːɫ]; "Society of the Gaels"), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal,[1] was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties, the second of which had the greater impact. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Irish (), a Goidelic language spoken in Ireland, is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland, an official language of the European Union, and has official recognition in Northern Ireland as well. ...

Contents

Original Cumann na nGaedhael

The first Cumann na nGaedhael was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1900 to campaign against a visit by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra to Ireland. In 1905 it merged with a number of other parties to form the original Sinn Féin. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... This page is about the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ... Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish) is a name used by a series of Irish political movements of the 20th century, each of which claimed sole descent from the original party established by Arthur Griffith in 1905. ...


Pro-Treaty Cumann na nGaedhael

The second Cumann na nGaedhael was formed by pro-Treaty Sinn Féin TDs in Dáil Éireann in Dublin in April 1923 and was largely centre right in outlook. The leadership of the pro-treaty Sinn Féin group included Arthur Griffith, Michael Collins and W.T. Cosgrave. Cosgrave and Griffith had been part of the original dual monarchist Sinn Féin while Collins rose quickly through its ranks after 1916. Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic which concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of... William Thomas Cosgrave (Irish name Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair; 6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965), known generally as W.T. Cosgrave, was an Irish politician who succeeded Michael Collins as Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government from August to December 1922. ...


Griffith and Collins died during the early stages of the Irish Civil War, leaving Cosgrave to lead the pro-treaty faction. Cosgrave had fought in the 1916 Rising and had been prominent in the Government of the underground Irish Republic. The new Irish Free State had lost its most senior figures and the burden of responsibility, in building the state on solid foundations, was now on Cosgrave and his colleagues. Cumann na nGaedhael came into being when the pro-treaty wing of Sinn Féin decided to formally style themselves as a distinct party. The idea for the new party arose in late December 1922 but its formal launch was delayed until April 1923 as a direct consequence of the turmoil caused by the civil war. Difficult years of state building, in the face of Republican violence, would characterise the party throughout its time in Government. The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and or2=Liam Lynch† Frank Aiken |commander1=Michael Collins† Richard Mulcahy |strength2= c. ... (Redirected from 1916 Rising) The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Casca) was a militarily unsuccessful rebellion staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday in April 1916. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The party contested its first general election in 1923 and won 63 seats (39% of the poll). Until 1932 Cumann na nGaedhael formed the Government of the Irish Free State with Cosgrave as President of the Executive Council. The fact that its leaders and members of parliament had been in Government before the party was founded would prove a major stumbling block to party unity and loyalty. 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the head of government or prime minister of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State, and the leader of the Executive Council (cabinet). ...


State Building and reconstruction

In Government the party established the institutions upon which the Irish state is still built. It also re-established law and order in a country that had long been divided by war and ideology through a number of public safety acts. The party's Minister for Home Affairs, Kevin O'Higgins established An Garda Síochána, an unarmed police force. The same man, as Minister for External Affairs in 1927, was successful in increasing Ireland's autonomy within the Commonwealth. Kevin Christopher OHiggins (Irish name Caoimhín Críostóir Ó hUiginn; June 7, 1892 – July 10, 1927). ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


Cosgrave provided both the party and the country with steady, reliable leadership. In difficult times, his judgement was correct while he succeeded in holding a bitterly divided state intact.


In 1927 the Government, through the Shannon scheme, harnessed the massive potential for electricity generation of that river while providing jobs on a large scale. Coupled with this, repairing infrastructural damage that had been caused during the civil war proved a drain on the new State's resources. Accordingly the government was forced into many unpopular decisions, notoriously reducing the old age pension from 10 sh a week to nine in 1924. In general the party became identified with a conservative fiscal policy, far removed from that associated with Sinn Féin prior to 1922. The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and or2=Liam Lynch† Frank Aiken |commander1=Michael Collins† Richard Mulcahy |strength2= c. ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ...


Consolidation and Competition

In the general election in June 1927, Cumann na Gaedheal performed very poorly, winning just 47 seats with 27% of the vote, and was able to survive in office only because of Fianna Fáil's contained refusal to take up its 44 seats due to the party's rejection of the Oath of Allegiance. Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; (mistranslated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though a literal translation is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland),¹ is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ...


The assassination of its controversial Minister Kevin O'Higgins by Republicans shortly after the election came as a bitter blow to the party. Indirectly, the murder lead to Fianna Fáil's forced entry to the Dáil and in August 1927 the government narrowly survived a vote of no confidence. Following victory in two by-elections, Cosgrave called a snap election in September 1927. Cumann na nGaedheal regained most of the ground lost in June, winning 62 seats and 39% of the vote, although most of these gains were from potential allies. A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... In the Westminster parliamentary system a snap election is an early election called when the Prime Minister (or Premier) dissolves the legislature mid-way in a governments mandate. ...


For the first time the party now faced vigorous parliamentary (if not entirely constitutional) opposition in the Dáil, as Fianna Fáil also made significant gains. Since the foundation of the state Dáil business had been relatively calm as the relatively small Labour party functioned as the official opposition in the absence of die-hard Republicans. The scene was now set for a volatile atmosphere in parliament as the two sides who had fought each other in the civil war now met face to face.


Electoral Decline and Merger

The party's support base gradually slipped to Éamon de Valera's new party Fianna Fáil after its inception in 1926. Cosgrave's Cumann na nGaedheal became solely identified with protecting the treaty and defending the new State while it seemed pre-occupied with public safety. Economically the party favoured balanced budgets and free trade at a time when its opponents advocated protectionism. Nonetheless it came as a surprise when Cumann na nGaedhael was defeated by Fianna Fáil in the general election of February 1932, winning 57 seats to Fianna Fáil's 72. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; (mistranslated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though a literal translation is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland),¹ is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (IPA ; (mistranslated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though a literal translation is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland),¹ is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


Its support base contracted further in the general election of January 1933 (48 seats compared to Fianna Fáil's 77) as it failed to counter de Valera's populism and was increasingly labelled the party of the middle class. The party subsequently entered discussions with the National Centre Party and the National Guard (Blueshirts) on the possibility of a merger. This came about in September 1933 with the formation of Fine Gael - The United Ireland party from the three parties, though in reality Fine Gael was a larger version of Cumann na nGaedhael. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Centre Party was a political party in the Irish Free State in the early 1930s. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicized to (approximate English translation: Family of the Irish) and officially, Fine Gael - The United Ireland Party, is the second largest political party in Ireland, presently forming the largest opposition party in the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament), and claims a membership of over 34,000. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Different sources give different spellings of the name. The Department of the Taoiseach, the Fine Gael website, History Ireland and academic studies generally use ae rather than ea as the original spelling. That format is used here on that basis. The ea spelling, however, is consistent with Irish orthography.

See also

  • Category:Irish Cumann na nGaedhael Party politicians


Defunct Political Parties in Ireland
To 1918: All-for-Ireland League | Catholic Union | Home Government Association | Home Rule League | Independent Irish Party | Irish Conservative Party | Irish Liberal Party | Irish Metropolitan Conservative Society | Irish National Federation | Irish National League | Irish Parliamentary Party | Irish Unionist Party | National Association | United Irish League
Post 1918: Anti-Partition of Ireland League | Aontacht Éireann | Clann na Poblachta | Clann na Talmhan | Córas na Poblachta | Cumann na nGaedhael | Cumann na Poblachta | Democratic Left | Democratic Socialist Party | Farmers' Party | Independent Fianna Fáil | Irish Independence Party | Muintir na hÉireann | National Centre Party | National Corporate Party | National Labour | National League Party | National Party | National Progressive Democrats | Republican Congress | Saor Éire | Socialist Labour Party | Socialist Party of Ireland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cumann na nGaedhael - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1042 words)
The first Cumann na nGaedhael was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1904 to campaign against a visit by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra to Ireland.
The second Cumann na nGaedhael was formed by pro-Treaty Sinn Féin TDs in Dáil Éireann in Dublin in April 1923 and was largely centre right in outlook.
Cumann na nGaedheal regained most of the ground lost in June, winning 62 seats and 39% of the vote, although most of these gains were from potential allies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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