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Encyclopedia > Culture of Turkey
Traditional Turkish coffee

The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3207 KB) Summary A cup of turkish coffee. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3207 KB) Summary A cup of turkish coffee. ... A cup of Turkish coffee served at an Ä°stanbul terrace. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


The nation was modernized primarily by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. As he transformed a religion-driven former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, there was a corresponding increase in the methods of artistic expression. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts such as paintings, sculpture and architecture. This was done as both a process of modernisation and of creating a cultural identity. Modernization is closely linked to classical liberalism. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, dictator and the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Because of the different historical factors playing an important role in defining a Turkish identity, the culture of Turkey is an interesting combination of clear efforts to be "modern" and Western, alongside a desire to maintain traditional religious and historical values. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ...

Contents

People

Main article: People of Turkey

The question "Who are these Turks?" does not have an easy answer. During the Turn of the century Ottomans were a multinational state extending over three continents. This page limits this problem to the borders of the Republic of Turkey. The location of the pictures are given with the name of the city or as a region, in the case the source do not mention. ImageMetadata File history File links MiddleEastTechnicalUniversity2003SpringFestival800x560. ... ImageMetadata File history File links MiddleEastTechnicalUniversity2003SpringFestival800x560. ... Middle East Technical University (METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, or ODTÜ) is a public research university in Ankara, Turkey, founded in 1956. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... The People of Turkey covers the changes to Turkish people during the 20th century. ...


The change in culture of Turkish people within the last century is very surprising. Today, Turkey might be the only country that contains every extreme depiction of east and west culture and many in between grey tones. The Ottoman system was a multi-federation state that enabled the people not to mix with each other. From the cultural viewpoint, balkanization was the end of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish Republic adapted a unitary approach, which forced all the different cultures within its borders to mix with each other under the name of "Turkish". The mixing, instead of assimilation, has produced the end result of many grey tones. 83 years of transformation undeniably produced many grey colors of east-west duality. These pictures should be taken as a proof achievement of Turkish democracy as a cauldron of ideas and representations.


Music

Main article: Music of Turkey
Tarkan, a popular Turkish singer

Turkey is a Eurasian country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, and is a crossroads of cultures from across Europe, North Africa, the Caucasus and South and Central Asia. The music of Turkey includes elements of Central Asian folk music, Arabic, Persian classical music, ancient Greco-Roman music and modern European and American popular music. Turkey, rich in musical heritage, has developed this art in two areas, Turkish classical music (similar to Greco- Roman) and Turkish folk music (Similar to Central Asian). The biggest Turkish pop star of the 20th century was probably Sezen Aksu, known for overseeing the Turkish contribution to the Eurovision Song Contest and was known for her light pop music. History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÃœ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival - Aspendos International Opera and Ballet... http://www. ... http://www. ... Tarkan TevetoÄŸlu popularly known as Tarkan, is one of the most successful pop music singers in Turkey. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ... This article is about the continent. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... The modern logo was introduced for the 2004 Contest to create a consistent visual identity. ...

Barış Manço (1943-1999), a renowned Turkish singer-songwriter

European classical composers in the 18th century were fascinated by Turkish music, particularly the strong role given to the brass and percussion instruments in Ottoman Janissary bands called Mehter who were the fist marching military band in History. Joseph Haydn wrote his Military Symphony to include Turkish instruments, as well as some of his operas. Turkish instruments were also included in Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony Number 9. Mozart wrote the "Ronda alla turca" in his Sonata in A major and also used Turkish themes in his operas. Although this Turkish influence was a fad, it introduced the cymbals, bass drum, and bells into the symphony orchestra, where they remain. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Barış Manço (also spelt Baris Mancho in some European album releases) (January 2, 1943 - February 1, 1999) was a Turkish singer, composer, television producer and celebrity. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Image of a trumpet. ... A percussion instrument is any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ... Chamberlain of Sultan Murad IV with janissaries. ... Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz[1] Joseph Haydn (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Ode to Joy ( file info) — String version from 1997. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... Sabian Paragon cymbals 10-Inch (25 cm) AA Splash Cymbals (Fr. ... It has been suggested that vruk be merged into this article or section. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ...


Jazz musician Dave Brubeck wrote his "Blue Rondo á la Turk" as a tribute to Mozart and Turkish music. Jazz is a style of music which originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States at around the start of the 20th century. ... Dave Brubeck in 1954 David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord, California[1]), better known as Dave Brubeck, is a U.S. jazz pianist. ...


Turkish pop music boasts numerous mainstream artists with wide followance since the 1960s like Ajda Pekkan and Sezen Aksu, and younger pop stars like Sertab Erener, Tarkan and Mustafa Sandal. Underground music and the genres of electronica, hip-hop, rap and dance music saw an increased demand and activity following the 1990s. For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Ayşe Ajda Pekkan (born February 12, 1946 in Istanbul) is a very popular Turkish actress and pop music singer. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ... Sertab Erener (born December 4, 1964) is a Turkish pop star. ... Tarkan Tevetoğlu popularly known as Tarkan, is one of the most successful pop music singers in Turkey. ... Mustafa Sandal is a famous Turkish pop star, born on January 11, 1970 in Istanbul. ... The term underground music has been applied to several artistic movements, notably to the early psychedelic movement of the mid 60s centred in Los Angeles. ... Electronica is a term that covers a wide range of electronic or electronic-influenced music. ... Hip Hop-themed graffiti emerged in New York in the 1970s Hip hop (also see hip-hop or hiphop) is both a music genre and a cultural movement developed in urban communities starting in the 1970s, predominantly by African Americans and Latinos. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Dance music is music composed or played specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from the start of 1990 to the end of 1999. ...


Turkish rock music, sometimes referred to as Anatolian rock, initiated during the 1960s by individuals like Cem Karaca, Barış Manço, and Erkin Koray, has seen wide-range success and has grown a considerable fan base. A few of the more mainstream Turkish rock bands include Mor ve Ötesi, Duman, and maNga. Individual rock performers like Şebnem Ferah, Özlem Tekin, and Teoman have substantial fan-bases. Turkey also boasts numerous large-scale rock festivals and events. Annually held rock festivals include Barışarock, H2000 Music Festival, Rock'n Coke, and RockIstanbul, during many of which internationally renowned bands / artists frequently take the stage together with Turkish artists. History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÃœ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival Media Bant magazine - Mix! - Adante - BlueJean... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Cem Karaca (March 19, 1945 - February 8, 2004) was a prominent Turkish rock musician and one of the important figures in the Anatolian rock movement. ... Barış Manço (also spelt Baris Mancho in some European album releases) (January 2, 1943 - February 1, 1999) was a Turkish singer, composer, television producer and celebrity. ... Erkin Koray, 2005 Erkin Koray has been in the Turkish rock music scene since the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mor ve Ötesi (literally meaning purple and beyond, making a pun with ultra-violet) is the name of a Turkish Alternative rock band hailing from the city of Istanbul. ... Duman is a Turkish rock band. ... Manga )   (pl. ... Åžebnem Ferah (born 12 April 1972 in Yalova) is a Turkish singer and song-writer. ... Özlem Tekin (born November 18, 1971) is a Turkish singer, TV show host and occasional actress, primarily known for her music. ... Teoman YakupoÄŸlu (born on November 20, 1967), using the stage name Teoman, is a popular Turkish rock singer and song-writer. ... Poster of Barışarock 2006. ... The H2000 Music Festival is the name of a large scale open air rock and alternative music festival series annually held in Turkey. ... The Rockn Coke logo. ... RockIstanbul is the name of a large scale open air rock festival series annually organized in Istanbul, Turkey. ...


In 2003, a Turkish singer Sertab Erener won the Eurovision Song Contest with her song Everyway That I Can. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sertab Erener (born December 4, 1964) is a Turkish pop star. ... The modern logo was introduced for the 2004 Contest to create a consistent visual identity. ... Everyway That I Can is the winning song of the 2003 Eurovision Song Contest, by Sertab Erener. ...


Literature

Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), a prominent poet of the late Ottoman era.
Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), a prominent poet of the late Ottoman era.
Main article: Turkish literature

The history of Turkish literature is traced back to Orkhon inscriptions. Most of the Turkish literature before the adaptation of Islam was verbal literature. With the adaptation of Islam, Turks were influenced with Persian culture and they developed literature using the Persian structures, such as mesnevi, gazel etc. With the 19th century and tanzimat period, artists began to use western structures. The republican period is dominated with western forms of literature. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Graphical timeline Caricature; changes in the form, not in the mind The Tanzimat was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1839 to 1876. ...


Poetry

Main article: Turkish poetry

Poetry is the most dominant form of literature in modern Turkey. // [edit] National Literature (1911-1923) Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944) Ziya Gökalp (1876-1924) [edit] Garip Movement For more details on this topic, see Garip. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


The folk poetry tradition in Turkish literature, as indicated above, was strongly influenced by the Islamic Sufi and Shi'a traditions. Furthermore, as partly evidenced by the prevalence of the still existent aşık/ozan tradition, the dominant element in Turkish folk poetry has always been song. The development of folk poetry in Turkish—which began to emerge in the 13th century with such important writers as Yunus Emre, Sultan Veled, and Şeyyâd Hamza—was given a great boost when, on 13 May 1277, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey declared Turkish the official state language of Anatolia's powerful Karamanid state;[4] subsequently, many of the tradition's greatest poets would continue to emerge from this region.


There are, broadly speaking, two traditions of Turkish folk poetry:


the aşık/ozan tradition, which—although much influenced by religion, as mentioned above—was for the most part a secular tradition; the explicitly religious tradition, which emerged from the gathering places (tekkes) of the Sufi religious orders and Shi'a groups. Much of the poetry and song of the aşık/ozan tradition, being almost exclusively oral until the 19th century, remains anonymous. There are, however, a few well-known aşıks from before that time whose names have survived together with their works: the aforementioned Köroğlu (16th century); Karacaoğlan (1606?–1689?), who may be the best-known of the pre-19th century aşıks; Dadaloğlu (1785?–1868?), who was one of the last of the great aşıks before the tradition began to dwindle somewhat in the late 19th century; and several others. The aşıks were essentially minstrels who travelled through Anatolia performing their songs on the bağlama, a mandolin-like instrument whose paired strings are considered to have a symbolic religious significance in Alevi/Bektashi culture. Despite the decline of the aşık/ozan tradition in the 19th century, it experienced a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973), Aşık Mahzuni Şerif (1938–2002), Neşet Ertaş (1943– ), and many others.


Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualized and symbolic art form. From the Persian poetry that largely inspired it, it inherited a wealth of symbols whose meanings and interrelationships—both of similitude (مراعات نظير mura'ât-i nazîr / تناسب tenâsüb) and opposition (تضاد tezâd)—were more or less prescribed. Examples of prevalent symbols that, to some extent, oppose one another include, among others:


the nightingale (بلبل bülbül) — the rose (ﮔل gül) the world (جهان cihan; عالم ‘âlem) — the rosegarden (ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎن gülistan; ﮔﻠﺸﻦ gülşen) the ascetic (زاهد zâhid) — the dervish (درويش derviş)


In the early years of the Republic of Turkey, there were a number of poetic trends. Authors such as Ahmed Hâşim and Yahyâ Kemâl Beyatlı (1884–1958) continued to write important formal verse whose language was, to a great extent, a continuation of the late Ottoman tradition. By far the majority of the poetry of the time, however, was in the tradition of the folk-inspired "syllabist" movement (Beş Hececiler), which had emerged from the National Literature movement and which tended to express patriotic themes couched in the syllabic meter associated with Turkish folk poetry.


The first radical step away from this trend was taken by Nâzım Hikmet Ran, who—during his time as a student in the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1924—was exposed to the modernist poetry of Vladimir Mayakovsky and others, which inspired him to start writing verse in a less formal style. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the publication of a small volume of verse preceded by an essay and entitled Garip ("Strange"). The authors were Orhan Veli Kanık (1914–1950), Melih Cevdet Anday (1915–2002), and Oktay Rifat (1914–1988). Explicitly opposing themselves to everything that had gone in poetry before, they sought instead to create a popular art, "to explore the people's tastes, to determine them, and to make them reign supreme over art".[21] To this end, and inspired in part by contemporary French poets like Jacques Prévert, they employed not only a variant of the free verse introduced by Nâzım Hikmet, but also highly colloquial language, and wrote primarily about mundane daily subjects and the ordinary man on the street. The reaction was immediate and polarized: most of the academic establishment and older poets vilified them, while much of the Turkish population embraced them wholeheartedly. Just as the Garip movement was a reaction against earlier poetry, so—in the 1950s and afterwards—was there a reaction against the Garip movement. The poets of this movement, soon known as İkinci Yeni ("Second New"[22]), opposed themselves to the social aspects prevalent in the poetry of Nâzım Hikmet and the Garip poets, and instead—partly inspired by the disruption of language in such Western movements as Dada and Surrealism—sought to create a more abstract poetry through the use of jarring and unexpected language, complex images, and the association of ideas. To some extent, the movement can be seen as bearing some of the characteristics of postmodern literature. The most well-known poets writing in the "Second New" vein were Turgut Uyar (1927–1985), Edip Cansever (1928–1986), Cemal Süreya (1931–1990), Ece Ayhan (1931–2002), and İlhan Berk (1918– ).


Outside of the Garip and "Second New" movements also, a number of significant poets have flourished, such as Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca (1914– ), who wrote poems dealing with fundamental concepts like life, death, God, time, and the cosmos; Behçet Necatigil (1916–1979), whose somewhat allegorical poems explore the significance of middle-class daily life; Can Yücel (1926–1999), who—in addition to his own highly colloquial and varied poetry—was also a translator into Turkish of a variety of world literature; and İsmet Özel (1944– ), whose early poetry was highly leftist but whose poetry since the 1970s has shown a strong mystical and even Islamist influence.

A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nazmi Ziya Güran (1881 – 1937) was a Turkish impressionist painter. ...

Prose

The backgrounds of current novelists can be traced back to "Young Pens" (Genç Kalemler) journal in Ottoman period. Young Pens was published in Selanik under the Ömer Seyfettin, Ziya Gökalp ve Ali Canip Yontem. They covered the social and political concepts of their time with the nationalistic perspective. They became the core of a movement which will be called national literature. // National Literature (1911-1923) Ömer Seyfettin, short story author (1884-1920) Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist (1884-1964) ReÅŸat Nuri Güntekin, novelist (1889-1956) Yakup Kadri KaraosmanoÄŸlu, short story author (1889-1974) Fuat Köprülü, writer (1890-1966) Republican Period Literature (1923- ) novel Cevat Åžakir Kabaa...


With the declaration of republic, Turkish literature becomes interested in folkloric styles. This was also the first time the literature was escaping from the western influence and begin to mix western forms with other forms. During the 1930s Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu ve Vedat Nedim Tor begin to publish KADRO. KADRO was revolutionary in its look at the life.


Orhan Pamuk is a leading Turkish novelist of post-modern literature. He is hugely popular in his homeland, but also with a growing readership around the globe. As one of Europe's most prominent novelists, his work has been translated into more than twenty languages. He is the recipient of major Turkish and international literary awards. The most recent of his novels is "Snow." Pamuk is the winner of Nobel Prize for Literature in 2006, with his melancholic point of view to various cultures in Istanbul. However, a big debate is goning on in Turkey about Pamuk's winning; many Turks think that he won the prize by his political ideas. Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Postmodernist architecture of the Stata Center by Frank Gehry Sydney Opera House The term Postmodernism (sometimes referred to as Pomo, Po-Mo, or PoMo [1], [2], [3]) was coined in the early 1960s to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, founding the postmodern architecture. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

Interior of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, dating from early 17th century

Image File history File linksMetadata Blue_Mosque88. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Blue_Mosque88. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Architecture

Main article: Turkish architecture

Classical Turkish architecture is best shown in its mosques. The Blue Mosque and Suleiman Mosque, for example are two of the most popular and beautiful structures in Turkey. See these examples of Ottoman Architecture: The Topkapi Palace The Dolmabahçe Palace The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Sultanahmet Camii; also known as the Blue Mosque) The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniyye Camii) The Ottoman residential buildings, Yalıs See also: Islamic architecture Mosques. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ...


The various other non-Turk population also follow their own different customs aside from the regional.


Cuisine

Main article: Turkish cuisine

Turkish cuisine blends ingredients and recipes inherited from the territories covered by the Ottoman Empire with the Turkic and Central Asian cuisine. Turkish Cuisine generally consists of sauced dishes prepared with cereals, various vegetables and some meat (usually Lamb), soups, cold dishes cooked with olive oil and pastry dishes. Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek and Persian cuisines. ... See also lamb (disambiguation) An unweaned lamb The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are used to describe the meat of a domestic sheep. ... A bottle of olive oil. ...


See also

Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... Education in Turkey. ... This is a list of Turkey-related articles. ... This is a list of notable Turkish people, both historic and contemporary, either by occupation or achievement. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Languages Turkish Religions Muslim or nominally Muslim, predominantly Sunni Islam, followed by Alevis. ... The People of Turkey covers the changes to Turkish people during the 20th century. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... // Balkan Wars The Ottoman army in the balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. ... History of Turkey redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... // Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey // The wearing of the turban and the fez, a traditional Ottoman hat, is outlawed. ... Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Because of geopolitical reasons, foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neighboring countries. ... // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... Combination of nature and history in Kekova bay near Antalya View of KuÅŸadası from bird island. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal This is a list of companies from Turkey. ... // Bayındırbank A.Åž. Albaraka Turk Arap Türk Bankası A.Åž. BankEuropa Bankası A.Åž. Kuveyt Türk Bankası A.Åž. Citibank A.Åž. Deutsche Bank A.Åž. Fortis Bank A.Åž. HSBC Bank A.Åž. ABN AMRO Bank N.V. Banca di Roma S.P.A. Bank Mellat Habib Bank Limited J P Morgan Chase... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people [1] living in a region. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Turkish () is a Turkic language, spoken mainly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Bulgaria,[3] the Republic of Macedonia,[4] Uzbekistan,[5] Cyprus,[6] Greece,[7] as well as by several million emigrants in Western Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÃœ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival - Aspendos International Opera and Ballet... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ... This is a list of radio stations in Turkey. ... Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The Ä°stiklâl Marşı (i. ...

Notes and references

    External links

    • Art and Culture of Turkey
    • Turkish Oral Narrative at Texas Tech University
    • Turkey:a cultural profile
    • Cute dolls with traditional Turkish costume
    • The word marbling is in Turkish EBRU (cloud, cloudy) or abru (Water face) (En Français. It is derived from the word ebre which belongs to one of the older Central Asian languages and it means the "moiré, veined fabric, paper etc..." used for covering some manuscripts and other holy books. Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. Through the Silk Road this art came first to Iran and picked up the name Ebru. Subsequently this art moved towards Anatolia. Specimens of marbled paper in the Turkish museum and private collections date back as far as the 15th century but unfortunately there is no evidence to show at what date the art of marbling paper first appeared in Anatolia.

     
     

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