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Encyclopedia > Culture of Pakistan
The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore
The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore

The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistan's provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. Pakistan is the home of many ancient civilizations, including the Indus Valley Civilization that influenced the cultures of the rest of South Asia. Many cultural practices and monuments have been inherited from the rule of many rulers of the region that have added their cultural traditions to the region. One of the most influenced cultures being the Mughals. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 344 KB) Image Info: Description: The Badshahi Masjid at night. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 344 KB) Image Info: Description: The Badshahi Masjid at night. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Pakistan has a wealthy cultural and ethnic background going back to Indus Valley Civilization, 2800 BC – 1800 BC. The region of Pakistan has been invaded in the past, occupied and settled by many different people, including Aryans (Iranic tribes), Greeks, White Huns, Arabs, Turks, Mongols and various Eurasian groups. And indeed the region has formed a distinct cultural unit within the main cultural complex of South Asia from earlier times.[1] There are differences in culture among the different ethnic groups in matters such as dress, food, and religion, especially where pre-Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. The cultural origins come from the civilizations of India and eastern Afghanistan, with significant influences from Persia, Turkestan and Hellenistic Greece. However, it was the first part of the subcontinent to receive the full impact of Islam. Hence it has developed an identity of its own.[1] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Frere Hall - a beautiful structure built during the British Raj
Diwan-e-Khas: The hall of special audience with the emperor
Diwan-e-Khas: The hall of special audience with the emperor
Bahauddin Zakariya
Bahauddin Zakariya

Ancient sites in Pakistan include Buddhist monuments, Hindu/Buddhist temples, Palaces and Monuments built by Emperors, tombs, pleasure grounds and Anglo-Mogul mansions - some in a state of dereliction which makes their former grandeur more emphatic. Sculpture is dominated by Graeco-Buddhist friezes, and crafts by ceramics, jewellery, silk goods and engraved woodwork and metalwork. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1982x1503, 608 KB) Summary This picture shows the Frere Hall, a beautiful colonial era building in Karachi, Pakistan This picture was taken by me and I release it to the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1982x1503, 608 KB) Summary This picture shows the Frere Hall, a beautiful colonial era building in Karachi, Pakistan This picture was taken by me and I release it to the public domain. ... Frere Hall - a beautiful structure built during the days of the British Raj Frere Hall is one of the few well-preserved buildings from the days of the British Raj that still exists in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 345 KB) Image Info: Description: The Lahore Fort:->Front center view of the Diwan-e-Khas, the hall of special audience with the emperor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 345 KB) Image Info: Description: The Lahore Fort:->Front center view of the Diwan-e-Khas, the hall of special audience with the emperor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ShahRukne_Alam_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ShahRukne_Alam_2. ...


Pakistani society is largely multilingual and multicultural. Though cultures within the country differ to some extenct, more similarities than differences can be found as most Pakistanis are of mainly Aryan heritage. However, over 50 years of integration, a distinctive "Pakistani" Culture has sprung up especially in the urban areas. Education is highly regarded by members of every socio-economic stratum. The traditional family values are highly respected and considered sacred, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system, owing to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


The past few decades have seen emergence of a middle class in cities such as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Quetta, Faisalabad, Sukkur, Peshawar, Abbottabad and Multan. The North-western part of Pakistan, bordering with Afghanistan, is highly conservative and dominated by regional tribal customs dating back hundreds of years.   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Hyderabad   or Haidarābād (Urdu/Sindhi: حيدر آباد) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan (formerly known as Neroon Kot نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh and known as the city of perfumes, it is now a regional headquarter of the district of Hyderabad. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Sukkur (Urdu:سکر, Sindhi: سکھر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...

Contents

Literature

Iqbal in deep thought; The picture earned him the Famous title of "The Thinker"
Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan is considered to be the most influential poet of the Urdu language

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Ghalib. ... Image File history File links Ghalib. ...

History

Main article: Pakistani literature

Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct lite gained its nationhood as a sovereign state in 1947. The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of the South Asia was inherited by the new state. Over a period of time, a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pushto and Sindhi. Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ...


Poetry

Main article: Pakistani poetry

The Urdu language has an old tradition of poetry and includes famous poets as Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal and Faiz Ahmad Faiz national Poet of Pakistan. Apart from Urdu poetry Pakistani poetry also has many blends of other languages. Balochi Poetry, Persian poetry, English poetry, Punjabi poetry and Kashmiri poetry have all incoroprated and have influenced the different kinds of poetry in the reg Pakistani poetry as a tradition partakes of Urdu poetry, which see. ... Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ خان ), pen-name Ghalib (Urdu/Persian: غالب, ġhālib) and Asad (former pen-name)(27 December 1796 — 15 February 1869), was an all time great classical Urdu and Persian poet of the subcontinent. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Faiz Ahmed Faiz (فيض ١حمد فيض), (1911 - 1984) is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet. ...


Performing arts

Music

Main article: Music of Pakistan

Pakistani music is represented by a wide variety of forms. It ranges from traditional styles (such as Qawwali) to more modern forms that try to fuse traditional Pakistani music with western music. A famous Pakistani musician, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was internationally renowned for creating a form of music which synchronized Qawwali with western music. Popular forms of music also prevail, the most notable being Film music and Urdu and Punjabi Pop music. In addition to this are the diverse traditions of folk music, as well as modern styles such as Rock with bands such as Junoon becoming recognized internationally. The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... This article is about the Pakistani musician. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled rock n roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Junoon (Urdu: جنون) (meaning obsession in Urdu and craziness in Arabic) is one of Pakistan and South Asias most popular Rock bands, based out of Lahore, Pakistan, and formed in 1990 by guitarist/songwriter/medical doctor Salman Ahmad. ...


Drama and theatre

Main article: Theatre in Pakistan

These are very similar to stage plays in theatres. They are performed by many well-known actors and actresses in the Lollywood industry. The are many types of themes that are brought across with lots of humour. The themes that are bought across ranges from a huge range of events that taken place in ones life. // Studying theatre and the performing arts develops aesthetics. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ...


Recreation and sports

Main article: Sports In Pakistan
Polo is regared as a traditional sport and played widely in the northern areas
Polo is regared as a traditional sport and played widely in the northern areas
Field hockey match between Pakistan and Inda
Field hockey match between Pakistan and Inda

The official and national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, although squash and cricket are also very popular. The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992), were runners-up once (in 1999) and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996). The team has also won the Australasia Cup in 1986, 1990, and 1994. The country will also be hosting the 2011 Cricket World Cup with India and Bangladesh. Sports in Pakistan are played with great passion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Polo_pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Polo_pakistan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... This article is about the sport. ... The Pakistani cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One-Day International (ODI) cricket. ... The Cricket World Cup in 1992 (aka Benson & Hedges World Cup) was the fifth edition of the tournament and was won by Pakistan. ... The 1999 Cricket World Cup was hosted primarily by England, but Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands also hosted some games. ... The Cricket World Cup in 1987 (aka Reliance Cup) was the fourth edition of the tournament. ... The 1996 Cricket World Cup was won by Sri Lanka who beat Australia by 7 wickets at the final in Lahore. ... The Australasia Cup is a cricket tournament held every four years in Sharjah, UAE. It began in 1986, with Pakistan defeating India for the championship[1]. References ^ [1] URL accessed March 16, 2006 Pakistan won the 1986 Australasia Cup against India in style with Javed Miandad emerging as the National... The 2011 Cricket World Cup will be the tenth time this tournament has been held, and will be held in the four Asian Test cricket playing countries Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ...


At an international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Hockey is the sport that Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, with three gold medals (1960, 1968, 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994).[2] Pakistan has hosted several international competitions, including the SAFG in 1989 and 2004. Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1960 Summer Olympics: Only mens competitions occurred during this year. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1968 Summer Olympics: Only a mens competition occurred that year. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1984 Summer Olympics: Mens Tournament Womens Tournament Categories: Field hockey | 1984 Summer Olympics ... The Semi-Final of World Cup 2006 between Germany and Spain The Hockey World Cup, sometimes called the Hockey World Championships, is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH). ... The South Asian Games (previously known as the South Asian Federation Games) is a multi-sport event for countries in South Asia. ...


A1 Grand Prix racing is also becoming popular with the entry of a Pakistani team in the 2005 season. The Tour de Pakistan, modelled on the Tour de France, is an annual cycling competition that covers the length and breadth of Pakistan. Recently, football has grown in popularity across the country, where traditionally it had been played almost exclusively in the western province of Balochistan. Fifa has recently teamed up with the government to bring football more closer to the northern areas too. Also, it is hoped that Pakistan will fare better in the Football World Cup qualifiers for 2010. A1GP (formerly A1 Grand Prix) is an open-wheel auto racing series. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... The Tour de Pakistan is an annual cycling race held in Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about an international football organization. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Cuisine of Pakistan

The culinary art in Pakistan comprises a mix of Middle Eastern, Indian, Persian, and Turkish cuisine that reflects the country's history as well as the variation of cooking practices from across the surrounding regions. Urban centres of the country offer an amalgamation of recipes from all parts of the country whereas food with specific local ingredients and tastes is available in rural areas and villages. Besides the main dishes of curry with or without meat cooked in vegetables or lentils, there are a number of provincial specialties such as karahi, shab degh, sajji etc. served in various forms, flavours and tastes and are eaten alongside Basmati rice or a variety of breads. Breads such as naan, chappatti, roti and etc. There are also local forms of grilled meat or Kebabs, desserts as well as hot and cold drinks. Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various cuisines of the Middle East. ... The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the dish. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... Sajji is a native dish of the desert province of Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Brown basmati rice Basmati (Hindi: , IAST: , Urdu: ‎) is a variety of long grain rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ...


Festivals

Chand Raat

After an Islamic month of fasting, Ramadan, just the night before Eid comes, everyone gets ready for Eid. In the night known as Chand Raat, girls put henna on their hands. Most people have parties at their house. People go out for the last minute shopping for gifts and sweets that will be given to friends and families. Even outside at the malls and the plazas, there are many colourful lights. There are large crowds in the city center to celebrate the beginning of Eid. This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... In Islamic Pakistani culture Chand Raat or night of the moon as it translates marks the end of Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان ) and the start of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر). Since the Islamic Calendar is lunar the advent of... Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Eid celebrations

The two Eids, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha commemorate the passing of the month of fasting, Ramadan, and the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God. During these days there are national holidays and many festivals and events take place to celebrate Eid. As Pakistan is a Muslim state, there are three days off for all businesses and Government offices. Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


On the night before Eid, people search for the new moon to mark the end of ramadan and arrival of Eid ul-Fitr. The day starts with morning prayers, then returning home for a large breakfast with family members. The day is spent visiting relatives and friends and sharing gifts and sweets with everyone. During the evening people hit the town for some partying, going to restaurants or relaxing in city parks. The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ...


On Eid ul-Fitr poor people are given some money as a form of charity and as gifts to young children. In modern usage, the practice of charity means the giving of help to those in need. ...


Milaad un Nabi

Milaad un Nabi is a known religious festival which is celebrated in many parts of Pakistan. Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ...


The Milaad is the celebration for the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Moharram (Ashura)

In Pakistan 10 Days of Moharram from 1st to 10th Moharram observed officially.


Jashn-e-Baharan

Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore
Main article: Basant

Jashn-e-Baharan also referred to as Basant is a pre-Islamic Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring. Celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore and people from all over the country and abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite flying competitions take place all over the city's rooftops during Basant. The fertile province of Panjab was intimately tied via its agriculture to the different seasons of the year. The arrival of Spring was an important event for all farmers and was welcomed with a celebration, hence the origins of Jashn (celebration) Baharan (spring). Image File history File links Lahore_Basant_Festival. ... Image File history File links Lahore_Basant_Festival. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spring. ...


Norouz

This festival is like Norouz of Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia. In Northern Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit and Baltistan) Norouz is celebrated as a socio-religious festival. It is also celebrated with much fervour in Balochistan and in the urban centres of Karachi and Lahore. The day coincides with the Spring Equinox on March 21, but the celeberation continues for weeks. In Baltistan, the main feature of Norouz is gifting of coloured eggs to friends and polo matches. While in Balochistan, the festival is marked with outdoor feasts, and the traditional jumping over a fire to wash away sins and usher in a fresh start. The origins of this festival are pre-Islamic and date back to when Pakistan was part of the Achaemenid/Persian empire for several thousand years. Persepolis all nations stair case. ... This article is about the town of Chitral. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as بلتیول (Baltiyul) in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


Independence Day

On August 14, every year all over Pakistan, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj for an independent state for Muslims. There are lots of celebrations all over the country, the streets are full of joyful people singing and dancing. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers. Parades are held in the capital city (Islamabad). All over the country people decorate their house with colourful decorations. Flags fly on top of each house. At night, fireworks are done in many cities. On this day people pray for the country and think how proud they are to be Pakistanis. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


Defense Day Parade

Main article: Pakistan Defence Day

September 6 is another patriotic day, when the Army of Pakistan is put on display for the general public to show Pakistan arms. All Government officials attend the ceremony and medals and recognitions are awarded to special people for their work. In 2007, Pakistan Air Force (PAF) will put on display the new joint manufactured Chinese-Pakistan aircraft called the JF-17 Thunder. The aircraft will also take part in the fly past during the parade. is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Pakistan Air Force (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ... The Joint Fighter-17 (JF-17) Thunder, also known as the Fighter China-1 (FC-1) Fierce Dragon [1] in China, is a single-seat multirole fighter aircraft developed by China and Pakistan. ...


Popular media

Television

Traditionally, the government-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) has been the dominant media player in Pakistan. The PTV channels are controlled by the government and oppositional views are not given much time. However, past decade has seen emergence of several private TV channels (news , entertainment) such as the GEO TV, AAJ TV, ARY Digital, Indus Vision, HUM, MTV Pakistan and a dozen or so more channels. Traditionally the bulk of TV shows have been plays or soap operas---some of them critically acclaimed. Various American, European, Asian TV channels and movies are available to a majority of the population via Cable TV. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Pakistani television stations. ... The Pakistan Television Corporation (abbreviated as PTV) (Urdu: پاکستان ٹیلیوژن کارپوریشن) is the state-run television service in Pakistan, and has been on the air since 1964. ... Geo TV or GEO Television is an Urdu Pakistani television network that was established in May 2002 and officially began transmission in October 2002. ... AAJ TV is 24 hour Pakistani entertainment Television Channel. ... ARY Digital is a popular Pakistani television network available in Pakistan, the Middle East and Europe. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A hum is a sound with a particular timbre (or sound quality), usually a monotone or with slightly varying tones, often produced by machinery in operation or by insects in flight. ... MTVs official logo MTV (Music Television) Pakistan or IM-MTV Asia is the Pakistani subsidiary of MTV, a cable television network headquartered in New York. ... Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (and often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio waves transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in...


Radio

After independence, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was the sole radio channel in Pakistan during 1947. The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation was formed on 14th August 1947 when Pakistan became independent. It was a direct descendant of the Indian Broadcasting Company which later became All India Radio. At independence Pakistan possessed three radio stations at Dhaka, Lahore and Peshawar. A major programme of expansion saw new stations opened at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948, and a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950. This was followed by new radio stations at Hyderabad (1951), Quetta (1956), a second station at Rawalpindi (1960) and a receiving centre at Peshawar (1960). During the 1980s and 1990s the corporation expanded its network to many cities and towns of Pakistan to provide more to the local people. Today, there are over a hundred radio stations due to more liberal media regulations. Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) is the state-run radio service of Pakistan. ... For the electronica band, see All India Radio (band). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Hyderabad   or Haidarābād (Urdu/Sindhi: حيدر آباد) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan (formerly known as Neroon Kot نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh and known as the city of perfumes, it is now a regional headquarter of the district of Hyderabad. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...


Cinema

Zibahkhana, also known as Hell's Ground, is a Pakistani Horror Film
Zibahkhana, also known as Hell's Ground, is a Pakistani Horror Film

An indigenous movie industry exists in Pakistan, and is known as "Lollywood" as it is based in Lahore, producing over forty feature-length films a year. In contrast, Indian movies are popular in Pakistan despite a ban since the Pakistan-India War in 1965, however due to the massive film piracy industry in Pakistan, bollywood films (and American hollywood films) have made it to Pakistani movie shelves and home videos for over thirty years. The Lollywood industry used to produce many Urdu films however as Lahore became the headquarters of the film industry, slowly the number of Urdu films decreased with the same rate of Punjabi language rising. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Lollywood (Urdu: لالیوڈ) refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kara Film Festival is the only internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan, to represent Lollywood annually held in Karachi. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... ...


Pakistan also has another film industry based in Peshawar, North West Frontier Province that produced Pashto language films. As demand for films has increased, Karachi has its own version of film festivals, which includes the Kara Film Festivals where many film producers, actors and film staff get together to celebrate achievements in the industry. ugg;ku;ggb   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...


National Dress

One of the most familiar sights in Pakistan, is that traditionally Pakistani men wear Shalwar Kameez. They come in many different styles, fabrics, colours and patterns that may make them look really stylish. Pakistani women also wear Shalwar kameez no matter what province they are from. However, many women from the Sindh province wear ghagra varying from different styles and colours. Pakistani women wear an elaborate and heavily embroidered dress known as gharara on their wedding days. Salwar kameez is the traditional dress worn by various peoples of south-central Asia. ... Women from Jaipur wearing Salwar kameez and dupatta Dupatta (Hindi: दुपट्टा, Urdu: دوپٹا) is a long scarf that is essential to many South Asian womens suits. ... An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Achkan (Urdu: اچکن) is a long jacket worn in South Asia, and together with the Sherwani, is traditionally associated with the Northern Indian, frequently Muslim, aristocracy. ... Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and his Qawwali group wearing Karakul hat Karakul (Persian: قراقلی ) hat is made from wool of Karakul sheep. ... Salwar kameez is the traditional dress worn by various peoples of south-central Asia. ...


The Sherwani or Achkan with Karakuli hat is the national dress of Pakistan for men, as it is not specifically associated with any of the provinces. Most government officials wear the formal black Sherwani on state occasions. An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Achkan (Urdu: اچکن) is a long jacket worn in South Asia, and together with the Sherwani, is traditionally associated with the Northern Indian, frequently Muslim, aristocracy. ... Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and his Qawwali group wearing Karakul hat Karakul (Persian: قراقلی ) hat is made from wool of Karakul sheep. ...


Globalization

Increasing globalization has amplified the influence of "Western culture" in Pakistan. Pakistan ranks 46th in the world on the Kearney/FP Globalization index.[3] Many Western restaurant chains have established their franchises in Pakistan, and are found in the major cities and towns. The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ...


A large Pakistani diaspora exists in the West. Whereas Pakistanis in the United States, Canada and Australia tend to be professionals, the majority of them in the United Kingdom, Germany and the Scandinavia originally came from a rural background belonging to the working class. A large number of Pakistani expatriates are also living in the Middle East. These emigrants and their children influence Pakistan culturally and economically, keeping close ties with their roots by travelling to Pakistan and especially by returning or investing there. Language(s) UrduLanguages of PakistanArabicEnglish Religion(s) IslamChristianityZoroastrianism An overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Mercantile culture

See also: Economy of Pakistan and Economy of Karachi

Pakistan's service sector accounts for 53% of the country's GDP. Wholesale and retail trade is 30% of this sector. Shopping is a popular pastime for many Pakistanis, especially among the well-to-do and the thirty-million strong middle class. The cities of Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Islamabad, Faisalabad and Quetta are especially known for the great contrast in shopping experiences - from burgeoning bazaars to modern multi-story shopping malls. In particular, Lahore and Karachi are peppered with colourful shopping plazas. The economy of Pakistan is the 2nd largest economy in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... View of the I.I.Chundrigar Rd skyline, heart of the financial district of Karachi Karachi is the financial capital of Pakistan. ... Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ...


Over 1,081 patent applications were filed by non-resident Pakistanis in 2004 revealing a new found confidence.[4]


Sexual conservatism & cultural taboos

The direct translation of Pakistan's name means land of the pure, implying spiritual purity. The roots of this spirituality would be based on the Islamic faith, which prescribes strict sexual conservatism, especially when compared to the west. Therefore, the following norms of a western society are usually strict cultural taboos in Pakistan: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

  • Public displays of affection, even by married couples. This however varies from place to place.
  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages. (Having alcohol in public is illegal. But wine shops, especially in Karachi in the Sindh province and Islamabad operate. However, there are not many bars. Pakistan does have a few notable companies making local alcohol beverages out of which beer made by Murree Brewery, is the most popular).

  (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Makers of Pakistans Premier beer brand, Murree Beer. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Basham, A.L. (1968), Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia, 641-643
  2. ^ World Hockey, International Hockey Federation
  3. ^ Measuring Globalization: Economic Reversals, Forward Momentum, A.T. Kearney, Foreigh Policy Magazine, 2004
  4. ^ Worldwide Patent Filings, WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity (2006 Edition)

See also

For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Sukkur (Urdu:سکر, Sindhi: سکھر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Filmi pop is a term first coined by Pakistani music journalist, M Ali Tim in 1990 but made famous by the countrys most influential pop critic, Nadeem F. Paracha to define the common practice among Pakistani and Indian pop artisits to fuse traditional subcontinental film music with the more... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Pakistan’s human rights record is generally regarded as poor by domestic and international observers, although there have been some improvements since 2000. ... Marriage in Pakistan is seen as the most standard and stable living form for adults. ... A Pakistani wedding typically consist of three ceremonies on three separate days. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... The Pakistan Television Corporation (abbreviated as PTV) (Urdu: پاکستان ٹیلیوژن کارپوریشن) is the state-run television service in Pakistan, and has been on the air since 1964. ... PTV National broadcasts regional language programs. ... PTV World News is 24 hour news channel. ... ARY Digital is a popular Pakistani television network available in Pakistan, the Middle East and Europe. ... AAJ TV is 24 hour Pakistani entertainment Television Channel. ... Geo TV or GEO Television is an Urdu Pakistani television network that was established in May 2002 and officially began transmission in October 2002. ... CNBC Pakistan is the first international business channel in the country to report the entire gamut of markets and financial activities at the international and national level on a minute-to-minute basis throughout the day to the discerning viewers of the country. ... Hum TV is an entertainment television channel. ... Ismail Gulgee (born 1926) is an award winning globally famous Pakistani artist. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Akbars Fort at Attock Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... This article is about the town of Chitral. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about Hyderabad, Pakistan. ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Khanewal (Urdu: خانیوال) is a district in the province of Punjab Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Structure dubbed the great bath in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... View of Mountain Valley from the Top Murree city (Urdu: مری) is a popular hill station and a summer resort, especially for the residents of Islamabad, and for the cities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Nawabshah Mudjamrao Road Nawabshah (Urdu: نوابشاہ) city (established in 1912) is located in the centre of Sindh,Along With Left Bank Of River Indus Near Sakrand Tehsel, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Sukkur (Urdu:سکر, Sindhi: سکھر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Thatta or Thatto (Urdu: ٹھٹہ, Sindhi:ٺٽو) is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A series of three wars between Britain and the Afghans in the 19th century and early 20th century was formerly called the Afghan Wars but is now referred to as the Anglo-Afghan wars perhaps to distinguish them from the civil strife in the 1980s. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ... Pakistani Baluchistan was conquered by the British Empire on October 1, 1887. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Combatants  India  Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357-4000 killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... This article is under construction. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... This article is about the honorific. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured), Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 700[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000... In recent history, the Pakistani political processess have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... The Chief Justice of Pakistan heads the Supreme Court of Pakistan. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Government of Sindh is based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwai based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (behind Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. ... A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... Pakistan had a parliamentary system of government that has been modified several times since its inception. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... List of Mayors (Nazims) during 20th Century Karachi City Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Parliament of Pakistan is known as the Majlis-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors). ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... Terrorism in Pakistan has been prevalent since the 1980s following the breakup of the nation into modern Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) is the national governing body for field hockey in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) is responsible for all major cricket including Test cricket played in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... This is a list of those people who have umpired at least one Test match in Pakistan between Pakistan and other Test cricket nations. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... The Pakistan Premier League (PPL) is the first division of Pakistani football. ... The Pakistan National Football Challenge Cup is the national knockout cup competition in Pakistani football, run by Pakistan Football Federation. ... Gilli िगल्ली -danda डन्डा is a game popular across the length and breadth of India and Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Pakistan Open golf tournament was first played in 1967. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... K2 from Concordia The Baltoro Glacier, at over 70 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. ... Broghol, also spelled Boroghil and several other ways, is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... Broghol is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Clifton beach seafront, Karachi Clifton Beach, on the Arabian Sea, is a beach in Clifton, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, one of the neighborhoods of Saddar Town, Karachi. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Dorah Pass, also spelled and pronounced Durah Pass, connects Badakshan in Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... Afghanistan before the Durand agreement of 1893. ... Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkur in Pakistan. ... Gumal Pass is a pass on the border of Afganistan and the southeastern portion of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Hawkes Bay or Hawkesbay is a popular beach and a neighborhood located in Kiamari Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan is planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the worlds largest rivers. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Lowarai Pass is located between the Panjkora and Chitral valleys in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Lowari Top is a pass that connects Chitral with Dir in Pakistan. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... K2, the 2nd highest of the world Broad Peak, the 12th highest of the world Pakistan contains five of the highest fourteen independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) and many other high peaks, in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Hindu Raj ranges. ... Mazar-e-Quaid - the icon of Karachi Mazar-e-Quaid is referred to mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. ... National Parks of Pakistan There are 14 National Parks in Pakistan. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab region of India, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock-salt. ... Sandspit Beach is situated north west of Karachi. ... The Sarpo Laggo Glacier (Sarpo Laggo: young husband) is a glacier in Pakistan, in the Karakoram mountain range of the Himalayas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shandur Top is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral to Gilgit. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Airblue is a private airline based in Karachi, Pakistan. ... The Pakistan aviation industry was started up when Orient Airways merged with Pakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIAC) to become the national flag carrier of Pakistan called Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Islamabad Stock Exchange is the three largest stock exchange of Pakistan located in the capital, Islamabad. ... The Karachi Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited (colloquially known as the Karachi Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan. ... This organization, company, or building article needs to be wikified. ... This is a list of companies from Pakistan. ... History (First Project, Al Azam Square, Site Office, Karachi-1966). ... Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: Ù¾ÛŒ آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ... PKR redirects here. ... The logo of the Karachi Port Trust. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ... A slum in Karachi, Pakistan with an open sewer running along the lane Poverty in Pakistan, is a major economic issue. ... // Saudi-Pak Tower, Islamabad GIK Institute Clock Tower, Topi With many towers currently under construction, there are many towers still awaiting to be approved by the city government. ... A1GP (formerly A1 Grand Prix) is an open-wheel auto racing series. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... In Islamic Pakistani culture Chand Raat or night of the moon as it translates marks the end of Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان ) and the start of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر). Since the Islamic Calendar is lunar the advent of... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... After the Partition of India, Hinduism became one of the smallest religions in the newly created state of Pakistan, but has nonetheless played a major role in its culture and politics as well as the history of its regions. ... Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... The Kara Film Festival is the only internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan, to represent Lollywood annually held in Karachi. ... This is a list of musicians from Pakistan listed in alphabetical order. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... This is a list of mosques in Pakistan. ... Murree Beer is Pakistans leading beer brand made by Murree Brewery. ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Flag of Pakistan. ... Pakistan Idol is an upcoming reality television show on GEO television, based on the popular British show Pop Idol and its American counterpart American Idol. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Sikhism is a very small minority religion in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but has many cultural, historical and political ties to the country, and to the historical region of Punjab. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... The following is a list of major universities in Pakistan, organized by subnational entities. ... The National library was established after almost 46 years of independence. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Pakistani poetry as a tradition partakes of Urdu poetry, which see. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Pakistan is the sixth most populous nation in the world. ... Pakistan Air Force (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ... The Pakistan Boy Scouts Association (PBSA) (Urdu:پاکستان بوائے اسکا وٹ ایسوسی ایشن) is the national Scouting organization of Pakistan and has 516,891 members (as of 2002). ... This page lists articles on Wikipedia that are related to Pakistan. ... Language(s) UrduLanguages of PakistanArabicEnglish Religion(s) IslamChristianityZoroastrianism An overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pakistan Culture, Environment, Getting Around Pakistan. (822 words)
Though Pakistan is officially 'dry', it does brew its own beer and spirits which can be bought (as well as imported alcohol) from specially designated bars and top-end hotels.
Pakistan's neighbours are an eclectic and ornery bunch: Iran to the south-west; Afghanistan to the west and north; China to the north-east; and India stretching down its eastern side.
The country is composed of towering peaks in the north (including K2, at 8611m/28,245ft the second-highest mountain in the world), dry and scrubby mountains in the west, an inhospitable plateau in the south-west, barren deserts in the south-east and alluvial plains everywhere else.
Pakistan's Jihad Culture (3825 words)
Pakistan now faces a typical principal-agent problem: the interests of Pakistan (the principal) and those of the militant groups (the agent) are not fully aligned.
When Pakistan was formally created in 1947, the rulers of Muslim-majority states that had existed within British India were given the option of joining India or Pakistan.
Pakistan's continued support of religious militant groups suggests that it does not recognize its own susceptibility to the culture of violence it has helped create.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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