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Encyclopedia > Culture of New Zealand

The culture of New Zealand is a synthesis of home-grown and imported cultures. The country's earliest inhabitants brought with them customs and language from Polynesia and developed their own Māori and Moriori cultures. British colonists in the nineteenth century brought their culture and had a dramatic effect on the indigenous inhabitants, spreading their religious traditions and the English language. Māori culture also influenced the colonists and a distinctive Pākehā or New Zealand European culture has evolved. More recent immigration from the Pacific, East Asia and South Asia has also added to the cultural melting-pot. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pākehā. (Discuss) It has been suggested that Pākehā be merged into this article or section. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


There is debate about the characteristics of a Pākehā ethnic group as many of the cultural traits associated with New Zealand Europeans can also be found in the cultural traditions of other English-speaking Western nations, such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, Canada and the United States. Both Māori and Pākehā have adopted and adapted cultural forms from other countries creating recognisably New Zealand versions. New Zealand hip-hop, popular particularly in urban Māori and Pacific Island communities is a prominent example of this phenomenon. Occident redirects here. ...

Contents

Māori culture

Main article: Māori culture

Māori culture is a distinct subculture within New Zealand culture. With the growth of tourism and the notable exposure of the All Black haka to international audiences, Māori culture that was previously observed only in Māori society and social gatherings with a significant Māori aspect, is increasingly seen as fundamental to New Zealand culture as a whole. Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... The All Blacks are the national rugby union representative team of New Zealand. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ...


Pākehā culture

Pākehā culture derives mainly from that of the British settlers who colonised New Zealand in the nineteenth century. Although it is recognisably related to British culture, it has always had distinct differences, and these have increased as time has gone on. Things which distinguish Pākehā culture from British culture include higher levels of egalitarianism, anti-intellectualism, and the idea that most people can do most things if they put their minds to it. Within Pākehā culture are sub-cultures derived from Irish, Italian and other European groups, as well as various non-ethnic subcultures. Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ...


It has been claimed that Pākehā do not actually have a culture, or if they do it is not a distinct one. Part of the problem is that high culture is often mistaken for culture in general, and the lack of recognition historically given to New Zealand's artists, writers and composers is seen as evidence of a lack of culture. In contrast, Pākehā pop culture is generally highly visible and often valued. This is observable in the common belief that kiwiana, a category of kitsch 1950s-style artifacts, is a defining cultural touchstone.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... The culture of New Zealand is a fusion of Maori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists and later settlers, many of whom were of working class origin. ...


Others argue that belief in the 'absence' of culture in NZ is a symptom of white privilege, allowing members of a dominant group to see their culture as 'normal' or 'default', rather than as a specific position of relative advantage.[1] One of the goals of Pākehā anti-racist groups of the 1980s was to enable Pākehā to see their own culture as such, rather than thinking what they did was normal and what other people did was 'ethnic' and strange.[2] White Privilege is the concept that White people are inherently more deserving of consideration than non-white people. ...


Other cultures

People from many different countries have settled in New Zealand, and have developed distinct variations on the home countries' cultures. Many groups have become closer to each other than they are in their countries of origin; for example Pacific Island New Zealanders have generally put aside their historic antagonisms in order to work together in New Zealand.


Cultural borrowing and adaptation

Māori borrowing from Pākehā culture

Since the early stages of colonisation, Māori have been receptive adopters of aspects of Pākehā culture. From the 1830s many Māori converted to Christianity and in the process learnt to read and write, to the extent that it has been claimed that in mid nineteenth century New Zealand, Māori were more likely to be literate than Pākehā. A number of religions, such as Pai Marire and Ringatu, arose in the nineteenth century, blending Māori tradition and Christianity. From the 1860s, the adoption of Pākehā culture became less of a free choice as Pākehā began to outnumber Māori. A Pākehā-dominated parliament had free rein to pass legislation affecting Māori, such as the Native Schools Act (1867) which required English to be the dominant medium of instruction for Māori children. Thus Māori were forced to learn the English language and Pākehā ways of life in order to function economically and socially. From the early twentieth century and especially from the 1970s, Māori began to protest against this Eurocentrism and demanded equal recognition for their own culture. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Pai Marire / Hauhau The Pai Marire movement was the first independent, organised Maori church. ... The Ringatu church was founded in 1868 by Te Kooti Rikirangi and the symbol for the movement is an upraised hand, or Ringa Tu in Māori. ... In New Zealand, Native Schools were established to provide education for the Maori. ... Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European (and, more generally, of Western) culture. ...


Many Māori have become successful practitioners of European-derived art forms; indeed many of New Zealand's biggest arts success stories are Māori. These include opera singers Inia Te Waiata and Kiri Te Kanawa, novelists Keri Hulme (winner of the Booker Prize) and Alan Duff, poet Hone Tuwhare and painter Ralph Hotere, actors Temuera Morrison and Cliff Curtis and director Lee Tamahori. Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa IPA: , ONZ, AC, DBE, (born March 6, 1944) is an internationally famous New Zealand opera singer. ... Keri Hulme is a New Zealand writer, best known for her debut (and to this point, only) novel, The bone people. ... The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Man Booker Prize, or simply the Man Booker, is one of the worlds most important literary prizes, and awarded each year for the best original novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in... Alan Duff (b. ... Hone Tuwhare (born in Kaikohe, Northland in 1922) is a noted New Zealand poet of Maori ancestry. ... Hone Papita Raukura (Ralph) Hotere is a New Zealand artist of Maori descent (Aupouri iwi). ... Temuera Derek Morrison (born December 26, 1960) is a New Zealand actor. ... Italic text For other uses, see Cliff Curtis (disambiguation). ... Lee Tamahori, born 1950 in Wellington, New Zealand, is best known as a film director although he got his start as a commercial artist and photographer in the late 1970s. ...


Pākehā borrowing from Māori culture

A multi-ethnic All Black squad perform a haka.
A multi-ethnic All Black squad perform a haka.

Since the late nineteenth century, Pākehā have used many of its forms in art and tourism when they required something distinctively New Zealand. The most famous example of this is the haka of the All Blacks, a Māori posture dance which is performed before international rugby matches (there are many non-Māori Polynesian All Blacks, thus making this a multi-ethnic borrowing). However Pākehā artists such as Colin McCahon and Gordon Walters have also incorporated Māori motifs into their art, and a number of early Pākehā writers used Māori themes and topics in an effort to create an authentically New Zealand literature.[3] The tourist industry has also made heavy use of Māori culture in an effort to present tourists with distinctly New Zealand experiences and items. This may show that Pākehā are not entirely confident that they have a culture of their own, or if they do, that it is interesting or distinct. Many Pākehā in other countries use Māori culture in order to express their New Zealandness, even if they take little interest in Māori while in New Zealand. An example of this is the mass haka which takes place in Parliament Square in London every Waitangi Day. Although Māori are generally involved, most participants are Pākehā.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ... The All Blacks are the national rugby union representative team of New Zealand. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... The All Blacks, the international rugby union team of New Zealand, perform a haka (Māori traditional dance) immediately prior to international matches. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Colin McCahons painting Victory over death 2 (1970) Colin John McCahon (1919 - 1987) was a prominent New Zealand artist. ... Gordon Walters (1919-1995) was a pioneer of modernist abstract painting in New Zealand. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... For other uses, see Parliament Square (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Waitangi Day is the national day of New Zealand. ...


For many years Pākehā did not consult Māori over the use of their culture, and Māori generally did not protest loudly unless a symbol was being used in a particularly inappropriate way. From the 1970s, Māori began increasingly to object to Pākehā use of their culture, especially when this use was disrespectful or ignorant. One example of this is the 'haka party incident' of 1979. University of Auckland engineering students had a tradition of performing an obscene mock haka at graduation. After pleas from Māori students to discontinue the practice were ignored, a group assaulted the engineering students. They were later charged with assault but defended by Māori elders who testified that the engineers' haka was deeply offensive.[5] Most Pākehā are now more respectful of Māori culture and often consult Māori before using Māori cultural forms. However despite some attempts to copyright cultural intellectual property[6] this does not always occur and forms are still sometimes used in inappropriate ways. The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealands largest research-based university. ...


Nonetheless, some Pākehā have been deeply involved in the revival of otherwise lost Māori arts. In the performance of traditional Māori musical instruments Richard Nunns has earned wide respect; as have the contributions made by many academics, for example, Dame Anne Salmond in the area of traditional rituals of encounter, or Mervyn McLean in the analysis of traditional song. Dame Anne Salmond, DBE, Fellow RSNZ is a noted New Zealand historian, anthropologist and writer. ...


Borrowing from overseas

Both Māori and Pākehā have borrowed cultural forms and styles from other countries, particularly the United States. Most popular New Zealand music derives from American styles, particularly rock music, hip-hop and various forms of electronic dance music. Although there is little evidence of a 'New Zealand style', many groups incorporate New Zealand themes into their work. The visual arts have also shown the influence of international movements, for example cubism in the early work of Colin McCahon. In general, the development of international mass media and mass communication has meant New Zealanders have always been aware of developments in other countries; this lends itself to the adoption of new forms and styles from overseas. New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... This article is about the genre. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... Colin McCahons painting Victory over death 2 (1970) Colin John McCahon (1919 - 1987) was a prominent New Zealand artist. ...


Languages

New Zealand has three official languages: New Zealand English, Te Reo Māori (the Māori language), and New Zealand Sign Language. In practice only English is widely used although major efforts have been made in recent years to nurture Te Reo. Numerous other languages are spoken in New Zealand. An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Māori (or Maori or Te Reo) is the Polynesian language spoken in New Zealand, where it has official status. ... New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ...


New Zealand English

New Zealand English is close to Australian English in pronunciation, but has several subtle differences often overlooked by people from outside these countries. Some of these differences show New Zealand English to have more affinity with the English of southern England than Australian English does. Several of the differences also show the influence of Māori speech. The most striking difference from Australian and other forms of English (although shared partly with South African English) is the flattened i of New Zealand English. The New Zealand accent also has some Scottish and Irish influences from the large number of settlers from those places during the 19th century. According to the 2006 census, English is spoken by 3,673,623 people in New Zealand.[7] New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ...


Te Reo Māori

An Eastern Polynesian language, Te Reo Māori is closely related to Tahitian and Cook Islands Māori; slightly less closely to Hawaiian and Marquesan; and more distantly to the languages of Western Polynesia, including Samoan, Niuean and Tongan. The language went into decline in terms of use following colonisation, but since the 1970s mildly successful efforts have been made to reverse this trend. These include the granting of official language status through the Māori Language Act 1987, a Māori language week and a Māori Television channel. The 2006 census found Te Reo to be spoken by 157,110 people, making it the most common language in New Zealand after English. Māori (or Maori or Te Reo) is the Polynesian language spoken in New Zealand, where it has official status. ... The Māori Language Act 1987 was a piece of legislation passed by the New Zealand Parliament. ... Māori Language Week, te wiki o te reo Māori, is a government-sponsored initiative intended to encourage New Zealanders to learn or at least support the minority official language, Māori. ... Māori television is a New Zealand TV station broadcasting programmes that make a significant contribution to the revitalisation of te reo and tikanga Māori. ...


New Zealand Sign Language

New Zealand Sign Language has its roots in British Sign Language (BSL), and may be technically considered a dialect of British, Australian and New Zealand Sign Language (BANZSL). There are 62.5% similarities found in British Sign Language and NZSL, compared with 33% of NZSL signs found in American Sign Language. Like other natural sign languages, it was devised by and for Deaf people, with no linguistic connection to a spoken or written language, and it is fully capable of expressing anything a fluent signer wants to say. It uses more lip-patterns in conjunction with hand and facial movement to cue signs than BSL, reflecting New Zealand's history of oralist education of Deaf people. Its vocabulary includes Māori concepts such as marae and tangi, and signs for New Zealand placenames. New Zealand Sign Language became an official language of New Zealand in April 2006. A total of 24,090 people in New Zealand use New Zealand sign language. New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ...


Other languages

According to the 2006 census, 174 different languages are used in New Zealand (including sign languages). After English and Māori, the most common are Samoan (85,428 speakers), French (53,757), Hindi (44,589) and Yue (better known as Cantonese, spoken by 44,154 people). The number of French speakers is probably due to the popularity of French as a subject in schools rather than evidence of large scale Francophone immigration.-1... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Arts

New Zealand has two 'high cultural' traditions: Māori and Western. However most cultural material consumed in New Zealand is imported from overseas, particularly from Britain and the United States. Because of this and New Zealand's small population, most New Zealand artists, performers and writers struggle to make a living from their art. Some funding for the arts is provided through a specific arts based government department, Creative New Zealand. The New Zealand Historic Places Trust and the Ministry of Culture and Heritage are national bodies that assist with heritage preservation. Most towns and cities have museums and often art galleries, and the national museum and art gallery is Te Papa ('Our Place'), in Wellington. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Creative New Zealand is the arts funding department of the New Zealand Government. ... The Historic Places Trust is a non-profit trust which advocates for the protection of heritage buildings in New Zealand. ... Te Papa (Our Place), The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is the national museum of New Zealand. ... Alternative meanings at Wellington (disambiguation) A view of Wellington from the top of Mount Victoria. ...


Visual arts

Main article: New Zealand art

Pre-European Māori visual art had two main forms: carving and weaving. Both recorded stories and legends and also had religious roles. When Europeans arrived they brought with them Western artistic traditions. Early Pākehā art focussed mainly on landscape painting, although some of the best known Pākehā artists of the nineteenth century (Charles Goldie and Gottfried Lindauer) specialised in Māori portraiture. Some Māori adopted Western styles and a number of nineteenth century meeting houses feature walls painted with portraits and plant designs. From the early twentieth century Apirana Ngata and others began a programme of reviving traditional Māori arts, and many new meeting houses were built with traditional carving and tukutuku (woven wall panels) were built. A longstanding concern of Pākehā artists has been the creation of a distinctly New Zealand artistic style. Rita Angus and others used the landscape to try and achieve this while painters such as Gordon Walters used Māori motifs. A number of Māori artists, including Paratene Matchitt and Shane Cotton have combined Western modernism with traditional Māori art. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charles Frederick Goldie (October 20, 1870 – July 11, 1947) was a New Zealand artist. ... Born in 1839 at Pilsen, the second town of Bohemia, a province of the Austrian Empire,Gottfried Lindauer became one of New Zealands prized artists. ... Sir Apirana Turupa Ngata (3 July 1874 - 14 July 1950) was a prominent New Zealand politician and lawyer. ... Rita Angus (12 March 1908 - 27 January 1970) is a New Zealand painter. ... Gordon Walters (1919-1995) was a pioneer of modernist abstract painting in New Zealand. ... Whiti te Ra by Paratene Matchitt. ... Shane Cotton, Needlework. ...


Performing arts

Kapa haka

Kapa haka are the traditional Māori performing arts, and have undergone a renaissance, with national competitions held yearly and kapa haka used in many state occasions. The haka (often mistaken as always being a war dance or ritual challenge) has become part of wider New Zealand culture, being performed by the All Blacks as a group ritual before international games and by homesick New Zealanders of all races who want to express their New Zealandness. A Kapa haka is a group gathered to practise and perform the songs and dances of the Māori people of New Zealand. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... First international Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand (15 August 1903) Largest win New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan (4 June 1995) Worst defeat Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 All Black redirects here. ...


Drama

New Zealand drama, both on stage and screen, has been plagued during much of its history by cost and lack of popular interest in New Zealand culture. Despite this Roger Hall and, more recently, Jacob Rajan are two playwrights to achieve considerable popular success. In recent decades New Zealand film has grown dramatically, with the films Once Were Warriors, The Piano and Heavenly Creatures doing well both locally and internationally, and Lord of the Rings trilogy director Peter Jackson becoming one of film's most successful directors. New Zealand's most popular comedian was the late Billy T. James. Roger Hall (b. ... Jacob Rajan is a New Zealand playwright and actor. ... New Zealand cinema refers to films made by New Zealand-based production companies in New Zealand. ... Once Were Warriors is 1994 film based New Zealand author Alan Duffs bestselling 1990 first novel of the same name. ... This article is about the film. ... Heavenly Creatures is a 1994 fantasy thriller film directed by Peter Jackson and written with his partner Fran Walsh. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Billy T. James, MBE (born William James Taitoko, 1948; died August 7, 1991) was a well known and much loved entertainer and comedian from New Zealand. ...


Music

New Zealand music takes most of the same forms as that of other 'Western' countries, with hip-hop being particularly popular amongst young Māori and Pacific Islanders. New Zealand hip-hop tends to be more humorous (see: Flight of the Conchords) and much less violent and sexist than in other countries. There are small but thriving live music and dance party scenes. Classical music has less popular support, but New Zealand has produced several successful composers and an international famous opera singer (Kiri Te Kanawa). New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa IPA: , ONZ, AC, DBE, (born March 6, 1944) is an internationally famous New Zealand opera singer. ...


Writing

New Zealand's most successful early writers were expatriates such as Katherine Mansfield. From the 1950s, Frank Sargeson, Janet Frame and others had (non lucrative) writing careers while still living in New Zealand. Until about the 1980s, the main New Zealand literary form was the short story, but in recent decades novels such as Alan Duff's Once Were Warriors, Elizabeth Knox's The Vintner's Luck and others have achieved critical and popular success. Māori culture is traditionally oral rather than literate, but in recent years Māori novelists such as Duff, Witi Ihimaera and Keri Hulme and poets such as Hone Tuwhare have shown their mastery of European-originated forms. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... Katherine Mansfield (14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist writer of short fiction. ... Frank Sargeson (21 March 1903 – 1 March 1982) was born Norris Frank Davey in Hamilton, New Zealand, and educated at Hamilton Boys High School. ... Janet Paterson Frame, ONZ, CBE (August 28, 1924 - January 29, 2004), was a New Zealand author who published eleven novels in her lifetime, together with three collections of short stories, a book of poetry, an edition of juvenile fiction, and three volumes of autobiography. ... Once Were Warriors, published in 1990, was New Zealand author Alan Duffs bestselling first novel. ... Elizabeth Knox was born in 1959 in Wellington, New Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Keri Hulme is a New Zealand writer, best known for her debut (and to this point, only) novel, The bone people. ... Hone Tuwhare (born in Kaikohe, Northland in 1922) is a noted New Zealand poet of Maori ancestry. ...


Religion

Pre-European Māori religion was polytheistic. One of its major features was tapu (sacred and/or forbidden), which was used to maintain the status of chiefs and tohunga (priests) and also for purposes such as conserving resources. Some of the earliest European settlers in New Zealand were Christian missionaries, mostly from the Anglican Church but also from other Protestant denominations and the Catholic Church. From the 1830s onwards, large numbers of Māori converted. Throughout the nineteenth century a number of movements emerged which blended traditional Māori beliefs with Christianity. These included Pai Marire, Ringatu, and in the early twentieth century, Ratana. They typically centred on a prophet-leader. These churches continue to attract many followers; according to the 2006 census, 50,565 people are Ratana believers, and another 16,419 are Ringatu. 1,689 people stated that they followed Māori religion.[8] Many Māori members of mainstream churches, and those with no particular religion, continue to believe in tapu, particularly where the dead are concerned, although not to the same extent as their ancestors. Māori religion is the religious beliefs and practice of the Māori, the Polynesian indigenous people of New Zealand. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Tapu (or tabu) is a concept existing in many Polynesian societies, including traditional Hawaiian, Tongan, and Maori cultures. ... Detail from the carved ridgepole of a house, Ngāti Awa, circa 1840. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Pai Marire / Hauhau The Pai Marire movement was the first independent, organised Maori church. ... The Ringatu church was founded in 1868 by Te Kooti Rikirangi and the symbol for the movement is an upraised hand, or Ringa Tu in Māori. ... Both a religion and a pan-tribal political force, the Ratana movement was founded by Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana (1873 - 1939) in early 20th century New Zealand. ...


Pākehā have become steadily less religious over the course of the twentieth century. In the 1920s there was still a reasonably high level of sectarianism and anti-Catholic prejudice, but this has since died down and the major churches generally co-operate with each other. The churches and religious lobby groups have little political influence where Pākehā are concerned. The vast majority of religious Pākehā are Christian, but a small number follow non-Christian religions, particularly Buddhism, and a larger number have a vague belief in new age ideas such as the healing power of crystals. Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or religious denomination. ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ...


Pacific Islanders in New Zealand have significantly higher rates of both nominal Christianity and church-going than other New Zealanders. There are a number of Pacific Island Christian churches in New Zealand, Other non-Pākehā migrants have brought with them a range of religions including Islam and Hinduism, although many are Christian or have no religion. A nominal is a word or a group of words that functions as a noun, i. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


The 2006 census found that 2,136,258 New Zealanders identify as Christian. The most followed denomination is Anglican (554,925), followed by Catholic (507,771) and Presbyterian (385,350). The most commonly practiced non-Christian religion was Hinduism, with 63,540 followers, followed by Buddhism (52,158) and Islam (35,858). A total of 1,297,104 New Zealanders have no religion.


Class in New Zealand

Main article: Class in New Zealand

Class in New Zealand is a product of both Māori and Western social structures. ...

Māori hierarchies

Māori society has traditionally been one based on rank, which derived from ancestry (whakapapa). Present-day Māori society is far less hierarchical than it traditionally was, although it is still stratified by Pākehā standards. A disproportionate number of Māori MPs come from chiefly families, for example. However, a number of Māori not born into the chiefly families have achieved positions of considerable mana within their communities by virtue of their achievements or learning. Whakapapa or genealogy is a fundamental principle that permeates the whole of Maori culture. ... Māori Seats giving positions for Māori in the New Zealand Parliament were not created until 1867 even though Westminster-style Parliamentary Government was established in New Zealand in 1852. ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ...


The 'classless society'

Until about the 1980s it was often claimed that New Zealand was a 'classless society'.[9] The evidence for this was the relatively small range of wealth (that is, the wealthiest did not earn hugely more than the poorest earners), lack of deference to authority figures, high levels of class mobility, a high standard of working class living compared to Britain, progressive labour laws which protected workers and encouraged unionism, and a welfare state which was developed in New Zealand before most other countries. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ...


New Zealanders' egalitarianism has been criticised as discouraging and denigrating ambition and individual achievement and success. New Zealanders tend to value modesty and distrust those who talk about their own merits. They especially dislike anyone who seems to consider themselves better than others even if the person in question is demonstrably more talented or successful than others. This attitude can manifest itself in the tall poppy syndrome, which describes the 'cutting down' of anyone thought to have risen above the general mass of people. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Tall Poppy Syndrome (TPS) is a pejorative term used in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand to describe what is seen as a levelling social attitude. ...


It has been argued that in New Zealand ethnicity takes the place of class, with Māori and other Polynesians earning less, having a lower standard of living and less education, and working in lower status jobs than Pākehā.[10] They also face prejudice akin to that facing working class people in many European countries. Many have pointed out that New Zealand only became a (white) 'workingman's paradise' because of the marginalisation of Māori and in particular the appropriation of Māori land.[citation needed]


New Zealand's claims to be a classless society were dealt a fatal blow in the 1980s and 1990s by the economic reforms of the fourth Labour government and its successor, the fourth National government. These reforms led to a dramatic increase in the gap between the richest and poorest New Zealanders, and an increase in the numbers living in poverty.[11] But although wealth is much more unevenly distributed than previously, New Zealand still lacks most of the overt signals of class which mark countries such as Britain.[citation needed] David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power. ... The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. ...


Travel

Main article: Overseas experience

It is very common for New Zealanders to travel or live overseas for extended periods of time, often on working holidays. These are usually referred to as the 'OE' or 'overseas experience', and are most commonly taken by people in their 20s. The three most common destinations are Australia, the United Kingdom and Europe, although recently trips to Asian countries such as South Korea and Japan to teach English have become increasingly popular. The east coast of Australia and London both have sizeable expatriate New Zealand communities. Overseas experience (OE) is a term commonly used to describe an extended working holiday taken by travellers in a country other than their country of origin. ... A Working Holiday is facilitated by a special visa which permits a traveller to engage in gainful employment during the course of a holiday in a foreign country. ... For the band, see Expatriate (band). ...


Unlike the British gap year, the OE to Europe is usually self-funded, and tends to occur a few years after university graduation, when the traveller has saved up enough for airfares and living expenses. The length of the visit can range from a few months to the remainder of the visitor's life; since many New Zealanders have British ancestry or dual citizenship (sometimes as a result of their parents' OE), the restrictions on working in Britain do not apply to a substational percentage of them. A gap year (also known as a year out, year off, deferred year, bridging year, overseas experience, time off, or time out) is a term that refers to a prolonged period (often, but not always, a year) between two major life stages. ...


Working holidays in Asia are more likely to occur shortly after graduation, and many agencies specifically target graduates for these trips. Because Australia is relatively close to New Zealand and has no restrictions on New Zealanders working there, the New Zealanders working in Australia are more diverse than those in other countries, with a significantly higher proportion of Māori and working class people.


Since the signing of the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement in 1973, New Zealanders have had the right to live and work in Australia on equal terms with Australian citizens. Until the 1970s New Zealanders had similar rights in relation to Britain. Changes to British immigration law in this period required New Zealanders to obtain visas in order to work in Britain or live there for extended periods, unless they had recent British ancestry. New Zealand has reciprocal working holiday agreements with the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom and Uruguay.[12] These allow people in their 20s to live and work in these countries, usually for up to a year. The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an informal agreement between Australia and New Zealand to allow for the free movement of citizens of one nation to the other. ...


National stereotypes

Most countries are informally thought to have a national 'type'; this can be seen in negative or positive terms. Most have some basis in reality, but are often outdated and applicable to only a small section of society. They typically exclude women, although there may also be a national female type. A number of famous New Zealanders seem to fit the national stereotype. This is probably due to three factors: the stereotypically 'Kiwi' qualities of famous people being emphasised; people who seem to embody the type becoming famous due to this (for example Barry Crump), or famous people acting as people expect them to. It should not be assumed that a famous person who seems to fit the stereotype provides evidence of the widespread truth of that stereotype. Barry Crump (1935 - 1996) was a New Zealand author of semi-autobiographical comic novels based on his image as a rugged outdoors man. ...


The kiwi male

The stereotypical New Zealand male is essentially a pioneer type: he is rural, unintellectual, strong, unemotional, democratic, has little time for high culture, good with animals (particularly horses) and machines, and is able to turn his hand to nearly anything. This type of man is often assumed to be a unique product of New Zealand's colonial period but he shares many similarities with the stereotypical American frontiersman and Australian bushman. New Zealand men are supposed to still have many of these qualities, even though most New Zealanders have lived in urban areas since the late nineteenth century. This has not prevented New Zealanders seeing themselves (and being seen) as essentially country people and good at the tasks which country life requires.[13] The stereotypical Kiwi male is assumed to be a heterosexual of Anglo-Celtic origin, although Māori men are often seen as embodying many of the characteristics described above. Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term[1] used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles, and the significant diasporas located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. ...


The kiwi male is said to have unique qualities which have become national stereotypes in their own right:

Kiwi ingenuity: This is the idea that New Zealanders display a MacGyver-like ability to solve any problem, often using unconventional means or whatever happens to be lying around. This is also described as the Number 8 wire mentality, which holds that anything can be made or fixed with basic or everyday materials, such as number 8 fencing wire. New Zealanders seen as embodying this quality include Burt Munro (subject of The World's Fastest Indian) and Richard Pearse, who some believe achieved flight before the Wright Brothers. Kiwi ingenuity is also linked to the phrase "she'll be right, mate" (shared with Australia), which expresses the belief that the situation, repairs, or whatever has been done is adequate or sufficient for what is needed. It is seen less positively than Kiwi ingenuity, especially if something goes wrong. Kiwi ingenuity is not strictly a male preserve, although it is generally spoken of in relation to men.
The hard man: New Zealand men have often been stereotyped as strong, unemotional and prone to violence.[14] For many years this was seen as a good thing, and was best embodied by All Black Colin Meads. Voted 'New Zealand player of the century' by New Zealand Rugby Monthly magazine, Meads was the second All Black to be sent off the field, and once played a match with a broken arm. Although he was known to assault other players during games, this was generally approved of as 'enforcement' of the 'spirit of the game'.[15] He was also a supporter of sporting contact with apartheid South Africa. In recent decades the macho attitude has been criticised as dangerous both to men who embody it and those around them. It has been blamed for New Zealand's culture of heavy drinking and its high male suicide rate.[16] However it still has its supporters, with some commentators claiming that the All Blacks do not have enough 'mongrel'.
Rugby, Racing and Beer: New Zealand male culture was traditionally said to centre on the 'three Rs': Rugby (union), (Horse) Racing and beeR. Rugby union has long been popular as both a spectator and a participant sport, with the national rugby team (the All Blacks) considered national heroes. Horse racing has always been more popular as a focus of gambling than for any other reason; as in most countries, horse racing in New Zealand is too expensive for anyone other than the wealthy and their employees (such as professional jockeys and support staff) to fully participate in. In addition, for many years horse racing was one of the few things which could be legally bet on. Beer is New Zealand's most popular alcoholic drink.
Few people consider the Three Rs to dominate New Zealand culture today, although rugby and beer are still very popular. Race betting has declined in popularity, partly due to the legalisation of other forms of sports betting in the 1990s, although cup races still attract considerable attention. National level rugby continues to be very popular as a spectator sport, although not to the same extent as in the mid twentieth century. Spectatorship at club and some regional levels has also dropped since that time, mostly due to television and the increasing number of international and semi-international (ie the Super 14) matches. There has been some concern in recent years that parents are reluctant to let their sons play rugby for fear of injury, however it has been estimated that 14% of 5 to 17 year olds regularly play. Beer continues to be a popular drink, although it is losing ground to wine and 'RTDs' (ready to drink spirit and mixers).

MacGyver is an American adventure television series, produced in the United States and Canada, about the laid-back, extremely resourceful secret agent MacGyver, played by Richard Dean Anderson. ... Image:1967 burt munro small The 1920 Indian (with half the exterior removed to show detail) that Burt Munro used to set his record in 1967 Herbert James Munro (25 March 1899 Invercargill, New Zealand–6 January 1978 in Invercargill) set the under-1000 cc world motorcycle land speed record... The Worlds Fastest Indian (2005), is a film based on the legendary speed bike racer from New Zealand named Burt Munro. ... Richard Pearse Richard William Pearse (3 December 1877 — 29 July 1953), a New Zealand farmer and inventor, performed pioneering experiments in aviation. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human... The All Blacks are the national rugby union representative team of New Zealand. ... Colin Earl Meads (born June 3, 1936 in Cambridge, New Zealand) nicknamed Pinetree, is a former New Zealand rugby union footballer who played 133 times (55 of these were test matches) as an All Black from 1957 until 1971. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the speed competition. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... First international Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand (15 August 1903) Largest win New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan (4 June 1995) Worst defeat Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 All Black redirects here. ... The Super 14 is the largest rugby union football club championship in the southern hemisphere, consisting of four state teams from Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, ACT, and Western Australia), five New Zealand franchises, each of which is comprised by a number of provinces (the resulting teams are based in... Two Bacardi Breezers Alcopop is a term often used to describe flavored alcoholic beverages including: malt beverages to which various fruit juices or other flavorings have been added, beverages containing wine to which ingredients such as fruit juice or other flavorings have been added, or beverages containing distilled alcohol and...

The kiwi female

There are few stereotypes surrounding New Zealand women, and these stereotypes are not as strong as those involving men. The two strongest stereotypes are:

  • Independence: New Zealand women are sometimes thought to be more independent than women elsewhere. New Zealand being the first country in the world to give women the vote and the only to have all its most important positions of state power simultaneously filled by women is seen as evidence of this. This ignores the century in between these two events in which New Zealand was far from progressive on women's rights: for example rape within marriage was only criminalised in the mid 1980s.
  • Lack of femininity: Women in New Zealand are supposedly unfeminine, for example wearing masculine clothing and spending little time on makeup and other forms of personal grooming. This can also be seen in a positive light; Kiwi women are portrayed as not being held back by ideas about being 'ladylike' and are therefore willing to take on 'masculine' tasks such as car maintenance and playing rugby. Prime Minister Helen Clark is often seen as an embodiment of this stereotype, for good and bad: critics point at her lack of children and her choice on one occasion to meet the Queen while wearing trousers; supporters like her passion for mountain climbing and ability to hold her own in parliamentary debates.[17]

A domestic cat grooming itself by licking its fur clean Personal grooming, sometimes called preening, or simply grooming, is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ...

Attitudes

Anti-intellectualism

Unlike many European countries, but in common with other 'Anglo' countries such as Britain, the United States and Australia, New Zealanders do not have a particularly high regard for intellectual activity, particularly if it is more theoretical than practical. This is linked with the idea of 'kiwi ingenuity' (see above), which supposes that all problems are better solved by seeing what works than by applying a theory.[18] This distrust of theory manifested itself in social policy of the early and mid twentieth century, which historian Michael Bassett described as 'socialism without doctrines': although the policies of the first Labour and other governments pursued traditionally socialist goals, they were not based on any coherent theory.[19] A major break with this tradition came in the 1980s when the fourth Labour and fourth National governments enacted a series of reforms based on free market ideology. This reinforced many New Zealanders' distrust of intellectual theory, as many consider that the reforms increased poverty and inequality in New Zealand. Despite the prevailing mood of anti-intellectualism, New Zealand has reasonably high rates of participation in tertiary education and has produced a number of internationally renowned scholars and scientists, including Ernest Rutherford, J.G.A. Pocock and Alan MacDiarmid. It should be noted that both Rutherford and Pocock spent most of their professional lives in Britain. For many years this was a common occurrence, and a consequence both of New Zealanders' attitudes and the low population which made it hard to support major research. Michael Bassett was a Labour Party member of the New Zealand House of Representatives and cabinet minister in the reformist fourth Labour government. ... The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power. ... The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a chemist (B.Sc. ... John G.A. Pocock is a British historian, noted for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period, for his contributions to the intellectual history of political thought in general, and his studies of historiography in relation to Edward Gibbon and his contemporiaries. ... Alan Graham MacDiarmid ONZ, (born April 24, 1927) is a chemist. ...


Attribution

Because New Zealanders often have to relocate to achieve worldwide fame and fortune, New Zealanders are keen to claim famous people as being New Zealanders, however short their residency in New Zealand might have been. While people born in New Zealand are certainly identified as New Zealanders, those who attended a New Zealand school or resided in New Zealand also qualify, irrespective of national origin. For example, Rocky Horror Show creator Richard O'Brien is often claimed as a New Zealander even though his time in New Zealand was fairly brief.[20] This sometimes leads to famous people and innovations being identified as coming from both New Zealand and another country — such as the pop groups Crowded House and Split Enz, the Pavlova dessert, the race horse Phar Lap and the actors Sam Neill and Russell Crowe, all of whom have been claimed both by Aussies and by Kiwis as theirs. However, New Zealanders are generally quick to disown controversial or unpopular figures such as Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen. The Rocky Horror Show was a long running stage musical (in London initially, on June 16, 1973) which inspired the movie The Rocky Horror Picture Show. ... Richard OBrien (born Richard Timothy Smith on March 25, 1942 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England) is an English writer, actor, television presenter and theatre performer. ... Crowded House is a rock group formed in Melbourne, Australia, and led by New Zealand musician and singer-songwriter Neil Finn. ... Split Enz was a successful New Zealand band during the late 1970s and the early 1980s featuring brothers Tim Finn and Neil Finn. ... Pavlova is a light and fluffy meringue dessert named after the ballet dancer, Anna Pavlova. ... For the computer software, see: Phar Lap (company). ... Sam Neill, DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand film and television actor. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born April 7, 1964) is a New Zealand-Australian[1] actor. ... Sir Johannes Joh Bjelke-Petersen, KCMG (13 January 1911 – 23 April 2005), New Zealand-born Australian politician, was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of the state of Queensland. ...


Because the measure of New Zealand success was often how well a person did internationally, anything from 'Overseas' is seen as holding more cultural capital than the local equivalent, regardless of its quality. This means that New Zealanders are often lured to the performances of "international acts". This is exacerbated by New Zealand's isolation and small population causing it to be skipped by the international tours of all but the most commercially successful musicians and performers. The flipside to this phenomenon is that famous people from overseas can be quickly embraced by New Zealanders if they visit regularly or for an extended period or claim an affinity with the country.


Social conservatism and progressiveness

New Zealand social policy has tended to oscillate between high levels of innovation and progressiveness and equally high levels of conservatism. Social reforms pioneered by New Zealand include women's suffrage, the welfare state, and respect for indigenous peoples (through the Treaty of Waitangi and the Waitangi Tribunal). Having led the (non-communist) world in economic regulation from the 1930s, in the 1980s and 1990s New Zealand led the world in economic de-regulation. Womens suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British Crown, and various Māori chiefs from the northern North Island of New Zealand. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ...


In contrast to this, New Zealand has also had some very conservative social policies. Most notably, from World War One until the 1960s pubs were required by law to close at 6pm. Until the 1980s most shops were banned from opening on weekends, and until 1999 alcohol could not be sold on Sundays.


This tendency towards inconsistent extremes may be due to New Zealanders' anti-intellectual tendencies noted above. Where governments in many other countries might make a decision, and be supported or opposed by voters, based on ideology, New Zealand governments have been more likely to make decisions based on what seems like it would work or what would be popular. Voters have similarly tended to react to policies according to how they initially appear to work rather than any coherent ideas about how the world works. Major policy changes have generally been made by the Labour Party and kept in place by the National Party. This has been the case for most of the past century even though in that time the Labour Party has evolved from a party dominated by trade unionists with little formal education to one dominated by middle-class academics and lawyers. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... Current National Party logo The New Zealand National Party is the second largest political party in the New Zealand Parliament, and forms the core of the Opposition. ...


Regionalism and parochialism

While small in comparison to Australia or the US, there are regional differences in New Zealand, either between the North Island and South Island, or increasingly, between Auckland and the rest of the country. Auckland is the largest city, and dominates New Zealand economically. There is a perception that Aucklanders (sometimes known as Jafas - Just Another F***ing Aucklander) dismiss anywhere 'south of the Bombay Hills', as unimportant, in much the same way as Londoners are supposed dismiss anywhere 'North of Watford', while people from the rest of New Zealand are said to regard Aucklanders as self-centred, brash and crass, sharing many of the characteristics of Sydneysiders in Australia (Auckland, with its harbours, has been described as a 'Clayton's Sydney'). Jafa is a slang term (usually offensive) for a resident of Auckland, New Zealand. ... The Bombay Hills are a spur of the Hunua Ranges to the south of Auckland in New Zealands North Island. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Claytons was a brand of non-alcoholic spirit sold in Australia and New Zealand during the 1980s. ...


The popular saying "New Zealand stops at the Bombay Hills" is thus said to be used equally no matter which side of the hills the speaker happens to live on or be referring to. An alternative view of this supposed rivalry is that Auckland and its inhabitants are the subject of a slight anti-Auckland bias, and that the media cynically takes any opportunity to exploit this to increase sales, as in the recent case where a minor earthquake was reported as having caused panic in Auckland. The most identifiable form of provincial rivalry is rugby's Air New Zealand Cup (ANZC, formerly the NPC, National Provincial Championship), where the chief provincial rivalries are that of Otago and Canterbury, Waikato, Auckland and Wellington.


Attitudes to government

As in most countries, many in New Zealand distrust politicians. This was particularly the case from the 1970s to the 1990s. During this period governments were seen as being autocratic and unresponsive to the will of the people. Prime Minister Robert Muldoon (1975-84), Finance Minister Ruth Richardson (1990-93) and many members of the Fourth Labour Government (1984-1990) were particularly disliked. This, and two elections in which one party lost the popular vote but still won the election, led New Zealanders to reform the electoral system, changing from First Past the Post to Mixed Member Proportional (MMP), a form of proportional representation. The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... The Minister of Finance is a senior figure within the government of New Zealand. ... Ruth Richardson (born December 13, 1950) served as New Zealands Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993, and is known for her strong pursuit of radical economic reforms (sometimes known as Ruthanasia). Early life Richardson was born in southern Taranaki on 13 December 1950. ... David Lange led the Fourth Labour government for most of its time in power. ... Electoral Reform in New Zealand has, in recent years, become a political issue as major changes have been made to both Parliamentary and local government elections. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Despite this, most New Zealanders display a justifiable faith in their democracy. New Zealand is rated the second least corrupt nation in the world. [21] Turnout for parliamentary elections is typically above 80%, which is very high by international standards and occurs despite the absence of any law requiring citizens to vote. In contrast, local government elections suffer from very low turnout.


Food

Characteristics & influences New Zealand cuisine is characterised by its freshness and diversity. ... A selection of New Zealand wines New Zealand wine is largely produced in ten major wine growing regions spanning latitudes 36° to 45° South and extending 1,600 km (1,000 miles). ...

Māori cuisine

Pre-European Māori cuisine was derived from that of tropical Polynesia, adapted for New Zealand's colder climate. Key ingredients included kūmara (sweet potato), fernroot, taro, birds and fish. Food was cooked in hāngi (earth ovens), roasted and, in geothermal areas, boiled or steamed using natural hot springs and pools. Various means of preserving birds and other foods were also employed. Māori were one of the few peoples to have no form of alcoholic beverage. Following the arrival of British settlers, Māori adopted many of their foods, especially pork and potatoes, the latter of which transformed the Māori agricultural economy. Many traditional food sources became scarce as introduced predators dramatically reduced bird populations, and forests were cleared for farming and timber. Traditional seafoods such as toheroa and whitebait were over-harvested. Present day Māori cuisine is a mixture of Māori tradition, old fashioned English cookery, and contemporary dishes. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Kumara may refer to: Kumara, the Sanskrit word for son The Four Kumaras, sages from the Hindu tradition Kumara, New Zealand, a town KÅ«mara, the New Zealand word for the sweet potato (from Māori) Murugan, a Hindu deity also known as Kumara Category: ... This article is about the plant. ... Hāngi (pronounced ) is an ancient New Zealand Māori method of cooking food using super heated rocks buried in the ground in a pit oven. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Booze redirects here. ... Binomial name Paphies australis (Gmelin, 1790) Paphies ventricosa, or toheroa in the Māori language, is a large bivalve mollusc of the family Mesodesmatidae, endemic to New Zealand. ... Whitebait are young fish; in Europe the term applies to young herring, but in other parts of the world it is used for similar fish of other species. ...


Pākehā cuisine

The majority of Pākehā are of British descent, and so it is not surprising that Pākehā cuisine owes much (good and bad) to British cuisine. Nineteenth century British settlers in New Zealand tried as much as possible to reproduce the foods of their homeland. A major difference between British and Pākehā food was that meat was much more readily available to all social classes in New Zealand. A highly carnivorous diet remains a part of Pākehā culture, although red meat consumption has dropped in the last few decades. Like the British, Pākehā have traditionally been very fond of sweet foods, and the best of traditional Pākehā cooking consists of cakes, scones, muffins and desserts. In recent decades Pākehā have discovered 'ethnic' food, and a 'foodie' culture has emerged. Most Pākehā food is not significantly different from modern British cuisine, although New Zealand chefs such as Peter Gordon played a major part in the creation of fusion cuisine. British cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Foodie is an informal term for a particular class of aficionado of food and drink. ... Peter Gordon is a chef who was born in the coastal town of Wanganui, New Zealand. ... Fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions whilst not fitting specifically into any. ...


Other cuisines

New Zealanders increasingly come from many ethnic backgrounds, and most immigrants to New Zealand have tried to reproduce their native cuisines or national dishes in New Zealand. Ethnic restaurants have served as community meeting places and have also given other New Zealanders a chance to try different cuisines.


Naming of New Zealand

New Zealand place names reveal much about the cultures of New Zealand. In particular, both Māori and Pākehā have used names to assert real or symbolic ownership of places, and the penchant for coining ironic nicknames for towns ('Roto-vegas', 'Hamiltron: City of the Future') shows a widespread enjoyment of self-mockery. New Zealand place names derive mostly from Māori and British sources. ...


See also

The culture of New Zealand is a fusion of Maori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists and later settlers, many of whom were of working class origin. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... New Zealand claims as its own many writers, even those immigrants born overseas or those emigrants who have gone into exile. ... // Albanian vegetable pie: article, recipe Baked lamb and yogurt: recipe Baked leeks: recipe Bean Jahni soup: recipe Ellis veal or chicken with walnuts recipe Fërgesë of Tirana with peppers: recipe Fërgesë of Tirana with veal: recipe Fried meatballs: recipe Garlic dressings: recipe Mixed vegetables: recipe Potato and... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Tim McCreanor (2005), '"Sticks and Stones may break my bones. ..": Talking Pakeha Identities', in James H. Liu, Tim McCreanor, Tracey McIntosh and Teresia Teaiwa, eds, New Zealand Identities: Departures and Destinations, p.53.
  2. ^ Miranda Johnson (2005), '"The Land of the Wrong White Cloud": Anti-Racist Organizations and Pakeha Identity Politics in the 1970s', New Zealand Journal of History, 39, 2, pp.137-57.
  3. ^ Jones, Lawrence (1998), 'The Novel' in Terry Sturm, ed., The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature in English, pp.123-4; Lydia Wevers, 'The Short Story', in Sturm, pp.250-2.
  4. ^ See also Hei-tiki#Current popularity.
  5. ^ Walker, Ranginui (1990), Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End, pp.221-5
  6. ^ Māori#Business and intellectual property
  7. ^ All language statistics from Statistics New Zealand website: http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/classification-counts/about-people/language-spoken.htm
  8. ^ All religion statistics from Statistics New Zealand website: http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/classification-counts/about-people/religious-affiliation.htm
  9. ^ Sinclair, Keith (1969), A History of New Zealand, 2nd edn, p.285.
  10. ^ Cluny Macpherson (1977), 'Polynesians in New Zealand: An Emerging Eth-Class?', in David Pitt, ed., Social Class in New Zealand, pp.99-112.
  11. ^ Tim Hazeldine (1998) Taking New Zealand Seriously: The Economics of Decency.
  12. ^ NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade website: http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/index.php
  13. ^ Phillips, Jock (1987), A Man's Country? The Image of the Pakeha Male: A History, pp.1-42
  14. ^ Phillips, pp.81-130
  15. ^ Colin Meads biography at allblacks.com: http://stats.allblacks.com/Profile.asp?ABID=601
  16. ^ Phillips, pp.261-89
  17. ^ 'Food, drink and dress' in Te Ara: Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealandInBrief/Society/9/en
  18. ^ Ian Taylor, head of Auckland's Sheffield executive recruitment company, said "We're a very anti-intellectual society, and ... we still have that No.8 wire thing."[1]
  19. ^ Bassett, Michael (1998), The state in New Zealand, 1840-1984: Socialism without Doctrines?
  20. ^ For example, there is a statue of him in Hamilton, where he lived.
  21. ^ [2]

In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Maori), Tiki is the first man, created by either Tu Matauenga or Tane. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ...

External links

  • Kiwi Ingenuity
  • Kiwiana.org.nz
  • Research in New Zealand Performing Arts - A free online research journal that discusses New Zealand music and related arts.
  • Māori hip hop
  • New Zealand Cultural Events and Organisations
Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... // New Zealand Main Articles: Main article on New Zealand, New Zealand Wikiportal and Category:New Zealand Main Articles Māori History of New Zealand Politics of New Zealand Geography of New Zealand Māori culture Economy of New Zealand Demographics of New Zealand Culture of New Zealand New Zealand English... The history of New Zealand dates back at least seven hundred years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealand. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British Crown, and various Māori chiefs from the northern North Island of New Zealand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The military history of New Zealand spans several hundred years. ... This is a timeline of the History of New Zealands involvement with Antarctica. ... On November 2, 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally, and was perhaps the first country to do so. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... New Zealand has a total of nineteen marine reserves spread around the North and South Islands, and two on outlying island groups. ... Lake Wakatipu This is a list of lakes in New Zealand. ... This is a list of all waterways named as rivers in New Zealand. ... The following is a list of some of the more well known caves and caverns in New Zealand. ... A map showing the major cities and towns of New Zealand. ... This is a list of towns in New Zealand. ... The biodiversity of New Zealand, a large Pacific archipelago, is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. ... Politics of New Zealand takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their parliamentary seats through nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... New Zealand’s foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. ... The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of Roger and economics, was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies followed by New Zealand Finance Minister Roger Douglas from his appointment in 1984. ... New Zealand receives two million tourists per year. ... This is a list of companies based in New Zealand. ... Communications in New Zealand are fairly typical for an industrialized nation. ... Wharenui, Ohinemutu village, Rotorua. ... New Zealand English (NZE) is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... New Zealand music is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. ... Holidays in New Zealand can refer to publicly observed holidays or to a vacation period. ... A map showing the major cities and towns of New Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in New Zealand. ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... The T & G Building (Atkin & Mitchell, Wellington, 1936) Napier (Ahuriri in Māori) is an important port city in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. ... Hastings is the administrative centre of the Hastings District in the Hawkes Bay Region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Tauranga (population 109,100 — 2006 census) is the largest city of the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... // New Zealand Main Articles: Main article on New Zealand, New Zealand Wikiportal and Category:New Zealand Main Articles Māori History of New Zealand Politics of New Zealand Geography of New Zealand Māori culture Economy of New Zealand Demographics of New Zealand Culture of New Zealand New Zealand English... // Demographics of New Zealand, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Queen Elizabeth II wearing the sash and the star of the New Zealand Order of Merit, as well as the badges on her shoulder of the Order of New Zealand and the Queens Service Order. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Culture of New Zealand - Encyclopedia Article (2376 words)
The culture of New Zealand incorporates both Maori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists, many of whom were of working class origin.
Cultural cringe as manifested by the media and some politicians means that New Zealand should experience the same disasters and vicissitudes as the rest of the world.
While being born in New Zealand is an absolute qualification for being identified as a New Zealander, attendance at a New Zealand school, or being a permanent resident in New Zealand when fame is initially achieved also qualifies, irrespective of national origin.
Culture of New Zealand - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4257 words)
The culture of New Zealand is a fusion of Māori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists and later settlers, many of whom were of working class origin.
Others argue that belief in the 'absence' of culture in NZ is a symptom of white privilege, allowing members of a dominant group to see their culture as the 'default', rather than as a specific position of relative advantage.
New Zealand has only recently experienced economic development outside farming, so traditionally, Kiwis are jacks-of-all-trades to some extent, willing to roll up their sleeves and have a go.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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