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Encyclopedia > Culture of Iran
Iran Portal
Safavid era painting kept at The Grand Shah Abbas Caravanserai Hotel in Isfahan.
Safavid era painting kept at The Grand Shah Abbas Caravanserai Hotel in Isfahan.

To best understand Iran and its people, one must first attempt to acquire an understanding of its ancient culture. It is in the study of this area where the Iranian identity optimally expresses itself. Hence the first sentence of prominent Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye's latest book on Iran reads: Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Miniator_hotel_shah_abbas_deevar. ... Image File history File links Miniator_hotel_shah_abbas_deevar. ... A sample floorplan of a Safavid caravanserai. ... Iranistics or Iranian studies is an area of study found in most of the important universities around the world. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

"Iran's glory has always been its culture."[1]

Iranians were not only open to other cultures, but freely adopted to all they found useful. Thus an eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Persian spirit and a clue to its historic longevity.[2]


Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran, as well as that of many Central Asia. edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


The article uses the words Persian and Iranian interchangeably, sometimes referring to the language and its speakers, and other times referring to the name of pre-20th century Iran, a nomenclature which survives from wester explorers and orientalists. Both are not the same however, and the cultures of the people of Greater Iran is the focus of this article.
After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to...

Persian Arts
Visual Arts
Painting
Miniatures
Decorative Arts
Jewellery
Embroidery Motifs
Tileworks Handicrafts
Pottery
Literature
Literature Mythology
Folklore
Other
Architecture Cuisine
Carpets Gardens
Performance Arts
Dance Music
Cinema

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_art_collage. ... The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Persian painting has several branches, most famously the classical art of the Persian miniature, and including the modern popular form of Qahveh Khanehei Painting (Tea House style of painting). ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... Decorative metalwork designed in the Art Deco style by Maurice Ascalon and manufactured by the Pal-Bell Company during the 1940s. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Persian embroidery is one of the many forms of the multi-faceted Persian arts. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Pottery Vessel, Fourth Millennium BCE. The Sialk collection of Tehrans National Museum of Iran. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farš فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ...

Art

Main article: Iranian art

Iranian art has gone through numerous phases of evolution. The unique aesthetics of Iran is evident from the Achaemenid reliefs in Persepolis to the mosaic paintings of Bishapur. The Islamic era drastically brought changes to the styles and practice of the arts, each dynasty with its own particular foci. The Qajarid era was the last stage of classical Persian art, before modernism was imported and suffused into elements of traditionalist schools of aesthetics. The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... This article is about the ancient city. ... Ruins of Bishapur Sassanian relief, Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


Language and literature

Iranian cinema continues to produce acclaimed, often controversial works

The Persian language has been in continuous use for over 2500 years. Yet it is a subset of the Iranian languages. Image File history File linksMetadata Sham_e_akhar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sham_e_akhar. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


Persian literature inspired Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson and many others, and it has been often dubbed as a most worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry. Dialects of Persian are widely spoken throughout the region sporadically from China to Syria and mainly in Iranian Plateau. Two important dialects of Persian serving as languages are Tajiki and Dari respectively spoken in Tajikistan and Afghanistan as official languages. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern...


Cinema

Main article: Cinema of Iran

With 300 international awards in the past 25 years, films from Iran continue to be celebrated worldwide. Perhaps the best known director is Abbas Kiarostami. The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... Abbas Kiarostami (Persian: `Abbās Kiyārostamī; born 22 June 1940) is an internationally acclaimed Iranian film director, screenwriter, and film producer. ...


Music

The music of Persia goes back to before the days of Barbod in the royal Sassanid courts. This is where many music cultures trace back their distant origins to.[3] Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... This is a list of Iranian (Persian) musicians and singers. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... Barbod or Barbod the Great was the court musician of the Sassanid Empire. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

Painting of Iranian female musicians from Hasht-Behesht Palace ("Palace of the 8 heavens"), Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669.
Painting of Iranian female musicians from Hasht-Behesht Palace ("Palace of the 8 heavens"), Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669.

Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB)Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...

Architecture

Main article: Iranian Architecture

Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Traditional teahouses of Iran

There are nearly countless numbers of traditional teahouses (chai khaneh) throughout Iran, and each province features its own unique cultural presentation of this ancient tradition. However, there are certain traits which are common to all teahouses, especially the most visible aspects, strong chai (tea) and the ever-present ghaluyn. Almost all teahouses serve baqleh, steam boiled fava beans (in the pod), served with salt and vinegar, as well as a variety of desserts and pastries. Many teahouses also serve full meals, typically a variety of kababs as well as regional specialities. For other uses, see Chai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Persian woman, in Qajari dress seen here smoking the traditional Qalyan. ... Binomial name L. Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean, or foul is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. ... Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ...


Persian gardens

Main article: Persian Gardens

The Persian Garden was designed as a reflection of paradise on earth; the word "garden" itself coming from Persian roots. The special place of the garden in the Iranian heart can be seen in their architecture, in the ruins of Iran, and in their paintings. Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). ...


Cuisine

Main article: Iranian cuisine

In Persian mythology, Persian food is so delicious and tempting that Ahriman (the devil) uses it to corrupt the King of the land, causing two serpents to sprout from the King's shoulders, turning him into an evil tyrant; Zahhāk The Dragon King. The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ...


Dance of Iran

Main article: Persian dance
Kurdish wedding dance in Sanandaj, Iran.
Kurdish wedding dance in Sanandaj, Iran.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 538 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kurdish people Ethnic minorities in Iran Culture of Iran Kurdish culture Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 538 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kurdish people Ethnic minorities in Iran Culture of Iran Kurdish culture Metadata This file contains additional... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ...

Religion

Main article: Islam in Iran

Iran has been the birthplace of many of the world's most influential religions and religion in Iran has always had a direct impact on its culture. Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, Manichaeism, Mazdakism, Yazdanism, Bábí Faith and the Bahá'í Faith are some of the religions that originated there. Ł Islam is the religion of 5000% of Iranians of which approximately 500% are Shia and 93% are Sunni, mostly Turkomen, a minority of Arabs, Pashtuns, Baluchs, and Kurds living in the southwest, southeast, northeast and northwest. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a nineteenth-century Iranian exile. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


Today, the Shia version of Islam continues to have an immediate bearing on Iranian culture and identity. Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Iran
  • The game of Polo originated with Iranian tribes in ancient times and was regularly seen throughout the country until the revolution of 1979 where it became associated with the monarchy. It continues to be played, but only in rural areas and discreetly. Recently, as of 2005, it has been acquiring an increasingly higher profile. In March 2006, there was a highly publicised tournament and all significant matches are now televised.
  • The Iranian Zoor Khaneh

Many kinds of sports are practiced in Iran, both traditional and modern. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeš-e pahlavānī ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeš-e bāstnī ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for...

Women in Persian culture

Main article: Iranian women

In the tales of the 1001 Nights, it is a woman, Scheherazade, who is the protagonist and heroine of the frame tale. 17th century painting of Safavi Iranian royal court depicting woman pouring wine at Chehel Sotoon Palace, Esfahan. ... (Redirected from 1001 Nights) The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, 1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of... For other uses, see Scheherazade (disambiguation). ...


Traditional Important Days

Main article: Iranian festivals

Iranians celeberate the following days based on a Solar calendar, in addition to important religious days of Islamic and Shia calendars, which are based on a lunar calendar. The following is a List of Festivals in Iran (Persia): // Nowruz: Celebration of the start of spring (Rejuvenation). It starts on the first day of spring (also the first day of the Iranian Calendar year) and lasts for 13 days. ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Lunar may refer to: an adjective that means having to do with or pertaining to the Moon, or to moons in general. ...

Persepolis all nations stair case. ... In Persian tradition, sizdah be dar is the custom of leaving the house for public celebrations on the thirteenth (sizdah) day of the month of Farvardin (corresponding to April 2), the last day of the Norouz period. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Sadeh is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before nowrouz. ... Mehregān (Persian:مهرگان) or Jashn-e-Mehregān is an ancient Iranian autumn festival, observed on the ninth or tenth of October, and dedicated in honor of Mehr, also known as Mithra, the Persian god of Light and Love. ... Shab-e-Yalda is a Iranian holiday which longest night of the year and marks the begining of winter. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ...

Traditional cultural inheritors of the old Persia

Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia, 1620. Artist is Reza Abbasi. Painting is located at Berlin's Museum Für Islamische Kunst.
Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia, 1620. Artist is Reza Abbasi. Painting is located at Berlin's Museum Für Islamische Kunst.

Like the Persian Rug that exhibits numerous colors and forms in a dazzling display of warmth and creativity, Persian culture is the glue that bonds the peoples of western and central Asia. The Caucasus and Central Asia "occupy an important place in the historical geography of Persian civilization. Much of the region was included in the Pre-Islamic Persian empires, and many of its ancient peoples either belonged to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European peoples (e.g. Medes and Soghdians), or were in close cultural contact with them (e.g. the Armenians).[4] In the words of Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (297x640, 145 KB)Image is by Me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (297x640, 145 KB)Image is by Me. ... Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Median Empire, ca. ... Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

"Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them."

The Culture of Persia has thus developed over several thousand years. But historically, the peoples of Islamic Republic of Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan originate from the same or similar stock, and are related to one another as part of the larger group of peoples of Greater Iran. Armenia, Georgia,[5] and Daghestan were also well within the sphere of influence of Persian culture as well, as can be seen from the many remaining relics, ruins, and works of literature from that region.(e.g. 1) (e.g. 2) For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Iran (Persian: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ...


In particular, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan have been able to almost fully retain their Persian identity, while the other aforementioned entities still exhibit considerable traces of their Iranian past.


Contributions to humanity in ancient history

From the humble brick, to the windmill, Persians have mixed creativity with art and offered the world numerous contributions.[6][7] What follows is a list of just a few examples of the cultural contributions of Iran. For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ...

Yakh-chal A yakh-chāl is an ancient natural refrigerator. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: , Dânešgâh Gondišâpur) was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ... This article is about the food. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdowsī Tūsī (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry The Canadarm2 robotic manipulator on the International Space Station is operated by controlling the angles of its joints. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... This article applies primarily to Iran A qanat (from Arabic: ) or kareez (from Persian: ) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. ... An ab anbar with double domes and windcatchers in the central desert city of Naeen, near Yazd. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ...

Culture of Iran under threat

In history

Current

Chicagos Persian heritage crisis (تاراج سرمايه باستانی ايران در شيکاگو in Persian) refers to a threat to seize invaluable Persian antiquities kept at the University of Chicago by the United States federal courts and also a threat to numerous other Persian antiquities kept in the Field museum in Chicago. ...

References

  1. ^ Greater Iran, Mazda Publishers, 2005. ISBN 1568591772 xi
  2. ^ Milani, A. Lost Wisdom. 2004.ISBN 0934211906 p.15
  3. ^ See article on Iranian.com located at: http://www.iranian.com/Music/2002/November/Guitar
  4. ^ Edmund Herzing, Iran and the former Soviet South, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995, ISBN 1899658041 p.48
  5. ^ Iranica.com - GEORGIA
  6. ^ Iran's contribution to the world civilization. A.H. Nayer-Nouri. 1969. Tehran, General Dept. of Publications, Ministry of Culture and Arts. OCLC number: 29858074 Perry-Castañeda Library Reprinted in 1996 under the title: سهم ارزشمند ایران در فرهنگ جهان
  7. ^ "The effect of Iran's culture and civilization on the world" (Taʼ̲sīr-i farhang va tamaddun-i Īrān dar jahān). Abbās Qadiyānī (عباس قدياني). Tehran. 2005. Intishārāt-i Farhang-i Maktūb. ISBN 9649422447 OCLC 70237532
  8. ^ Link: http://web.utk.edu/~persian/goat.htm
  9. ^ Arthur Upham Pope, Persian Architecture, 1965, New York, p.15
  10. ^ Link: University of Pennsylvania http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/NearEast/wine.shtml
  11. ^ Link: Iranian.com http://www.iranian.com/Music/2002/November/Guitar/index.html
  12. ^ Link: http://www.birdnature.com/nov1899/peach.html
  13. ^ Links:
  14. ^ Abbas Milani. Lost Wisdom. 2004. Mage Publishers. p.12. ISBN 0934211906
  15. ^ Mary Boyce, "Zoroastrians", London, 1979, 1.
  16. ^ Notes:
  17. ^ Links:
  18. ^ Abbas Milani. Lost Wisdom. 2004. Mage Publishers. p.12. ISBN 0934211906
  19. ^ Link: BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4272210.stm
  20. ^ Links:
  21. ^ Links:
  22. ^ Links:
  23. ^ Links:
  24. ^ Link: http://www.free-definition.com/Abu-Bakr-Mohammad-Ibn-Zakariya-al-Razi.html
  25. ^ Link: http://web.utk.edu/~persian/paper.htm
  26. ^ Refer to article by the Christian Science Monitor - http://www.csmonitor.com/1997/1125/112597.us.us.3.html.
  27. ^ See:
    • Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. May 1994. Edinburgh University Press. p.10
    • Sardar, Ziauddin. Introducing Mathematics. Totem Books. 1999.
  28. ^ The Golden Age of the Moor. By Ivan Van Sertima. 1992. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1560005815. p.17

Further reading

  • Michael C. Hillman. Iranian Culture. 1990. University Press of America. ISBN 081917694X
  • George Ghevarghese Joseph.The Crest of the Peacock: The Non-European Roots of Mathematics. July 2000. Princeton U Press.

See also

Persian (Iranian) media include: Iranian News Agencies Iranian Newspapers Iranian Blogs Iranian magazines Iranian TV stations Cinema of Iran Communications in Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Censorship in Iran Iran and copyright issues Encyclopedia Iranica Gooya - List of Persian (Iranian) media on the Internet Gooyauk - Iranian media resources Jahani... Persia redirects here. ... // Persian culture and history Persian architecture Persian art Persian Bayan Persian calendar Persian Canadians Persian carpet Persian Christians Persian column Persian Corridor Persian cuisine Persian dance Persian deities Persian handicrafts Persian Jewels Persian Jews Persian garden Persian grammar Persian Gulf Service Command Persian Hat Persian appel dessert Persian Constitutional Revolution... Iranian continent is a historical and cultural continent which includes the following neighboring states and regions that share Iranian culture and languages: Modern-day Iran Tajikistan Afghanistan Turkmenistan Parts of Uzbekistan Kurdish regions in Iraq and Turkey Northwest Pakistan Parts of Caucasus The Xinkiang region of China See also Europe... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... University of Tehran College of Humanities Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Taarof (Persian: تعارف ) is a Persian form of civility emphasizing both self-deference and social rank. ... Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي Ùˆ گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ... Iranology is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of Iranian cultural continent. ... Persian woman, in Qajari dress seen here smoking the traditional Qalyan. ... Persianate societies are those whose linguistic, material, and artistic cultural activities derives from the Persian language and culture. ... Persianization or Persianisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Persian (or Iranian) is made to become Persian (or Iranian) It is commonly used in connection with Kurds, Arabs, as well as various Turkic peoples. ... Ethnolinguistic groups in Iran Irans population was declared 70,049,262 in the 2006 census. ... A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ... The Three Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... ... The Cup of Jamshid (Cup of Djemscheed or Jaam-e Jam, in Persian: جام جم) is a cup of divination which, according to legend, was long possessed by the rulers of ancient Persia. ... The Golha (Persian: ‎ ​,) radio programmes (Flowers of Persian Song and Poetry) comprise 1578 radio programmes consisting of approximately 847 hours of programmes broadcast over a period of 23 years – from 1956 through 1979. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Persian given names. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ... Afsaneh Ballet (in Persian: گروه رقص افسانه ) is a non-profit cultural organization devoted to the art, dance, music, poetry of Iranian cultural continent (Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Western China). ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the United States established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Culture of Iran
  • Iran Online, Iran portal site
  • Secretariat of The High Council of The Cultural Revolution
  • Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Physical Education Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Sciences
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of The Arts
  • "Persian undercurrent in Islamic civilization"
  • Islamic Republic of Iran International Center for Diologue Among Civilizations
  • Culture of Iran
  • Cultural Research Bureau of Iran
  • Iran Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies
  • Iran a cultural profile
  • Forough Farrokhzad Poetry in English
  • Underground Art Studio in Tehran
  • The Culture of Iran
This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...

 
 

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