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Encyclopedia > Culture of Indonesia
Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali.
Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali.

The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by a long process of interaction and acculturation between original indigenous customs and a myriad of foreign influences. As Indonesia is located in the middle of ancient sea trading routes between Far East and Middle East, much of daily practices and art forms have been influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Islam, especially in many trading cities. Cultural mixture in Indonesia is complex and has to be distinguished from the original. Examples include Agama Hindu Dharma, a denomination of Hinduism now practiced by 93% of Balinese, the fusion of Islam with Hindu in Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha, the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan, and many others. Download high resolution version (480x953, 161 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bali Categories: User-created public domain images ... Download high resolution version (480x953, 161 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bali Categories: User-created public domain images ... Bold textDewi Shris biography Dewi Shri is the goddess of rice (paddy)in Bali island. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... Pocahontas, in England, as Mrs John Rolfe, 1616: engraving after Simon Van de Passe Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Agama Hindu Dharma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed Balinese Gamelan, local music This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Abangan form a large majorty of the Javanese Muslims. ... Animism is a belief system that does not accept the separation of body and soul, of spirit from matter. ... The Bodha, also known as Boda, are the non-Muslim animist Sasaks living on the slopes of Gunung Rinjani on the island of Lombok. ... Kaharingan, is the religion is professed by most Dayaks in the Kalimantan province of Indonesia. ...


The cultural mixture is noticeable in Indonesian art-forms. For instances, puppet shows, known as wayang, a traditional theater shows, used to spread Hinduism and Islam among villagers in Java. Javanese and Balinese dances have stories about old Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms. Islamic art forms and architectures are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are mixed into a martial art form of Pencak Silat, formerly used as a self defence. Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... Islamic art is the art of Islamic people, cultures, and countries. ... The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Pencak Silat or Silat (fighting by using techniques of self-defence) is an Asian martial art with roots in the culture of the Malay World. ...


Western culture has influenced Indonesia, but mostly in modern entertainment, such as television shows, movies and songs. India has notably influenced Indonesian songs and movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical dangdut, which is often mixed with Arab and Malay folk music. Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian popular music which is partly derived from Arab, Indian, and Malay folk music. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Despite these high influences of foreign cultures, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups of Mentawai, Asmat, Dani, Dayak, Toraja and many others are still practising their ethnic rituals, customs and wearing their traditional clothes. With more than 300 ethnic groups and a long history of foreign cultural mixtures, Indonesia has a rich cultural diversity. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Asmat are an ethnic group of New Guinea, residing in the Papua province of Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ... Carved wooden Torajan art - each panel is a stylised representation of a wish for goodwill of some form. ... Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. ...

Contents

Performing arts

Music

Music played to accompany dancers. Photo: G Larson
Music played to accompany dancers. Photo: G Larson
Main article: Music of Indonesia

Indonesia is culturally diverse and is home to hundreds of forms of music, with those from the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali being the most frequently recorded.[citation needed] The traditional music from Central- and East Java and Bali is the Gamelan. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Download high resolution version (1734x1134, 380 KB)Music being played to accompany dancers. ... Download high resolution version (1734x1134, 380 KB)Music being played to accompany dancers. ... Indonesia is culturally diverse, and every one of the 18,000 islands has its own cultural and artistic history and character[1]. This results hundreds of differernt forms of music, which often accompanies dance and theater. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... This is the current Indonesian Collaboration of the week. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ...


In 1965, a law was passed (Panpres 11/1965) banning Western-style pop or rock music.


On June 29, 1965, Koes Plus, a leading Indonesian pop group in the 1960's, 70's and 80's, was imprisoned in Glodok, West Jakarta for playing Western-style music.[citation needed] The Pop Group were a post punk band from Bristol, United Kingdom whose uncompromising, dissonant sound spanned punk, free jazz and dub reggae. ... West Jakarta (Indonesian: Jakarta Barat) is a city (kota) in Jakarta, the capital province of Indonesia. ...


After President Soekarno resigned and PKI disbanded, the law was rescinded. In the 1970s, the Glodok prison was destroyed and turned into a large shopping centre. The new shopping centre in Glodok is now the centre of recording, production and distribution of modern Indonesian pop and rock music. It has been suggested that Retail park be merged into this article or section. ...


Dangdut is a very popular style of music with an accompanying free dance style, which first surfaced in the 1970s.[citation needed] The popularity of dangdut with both young and old Indonesians has made it useful in political campaigns.[citation needed]Keroncong is a musical genre that uses guitars and ukuleles as the main musical instruments. This genre had its roots in Portugal and was brought to Indonesia by Portuguese traders in the 15th century.[citation needed] There is a traditional "Keroncong Tugu" music group in North Jakarta and other traditional Keroncong music groups in Maluku, with strong influences from Portuguese culture. This music genre was popular in the first half of 20th century, but now keroncong is considered "old people's" music. One of the most revered keroncong composers is Gesang. Gesang received the OISCA International award from Japan for his song "Bengawan Solo".[citation needed] A more modern form of keroncong is called Pop Keroncong. Hetty Koes Endang is one of its most versatile singers. In addition, there are regional variations such as Langgam Jawa, which is most popular in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian popular music which is partly derived from Arab, Indian, and Malay folk music. ... Free dance is a 20th century dance form that preceded Modern dance. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... Kroncong is the name of a ukulele-type instrument and an Indonesian musical style that typically makes use of the kroncong, a flute, and a female singer. ... A music genre is a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or basic musical language (van der Merwe 1989, p. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... In music, a band is a company of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of or improvising a musical arrangement on different musical instruments. ... North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is a kota (formerly kotamadya) of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Langgam jawa is a regional form of Indonesian kroncong music most often associated with the city of Surakarta (solo). ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ...


The soft Sasando music from the province of East Nusa Tenggara in West Timor is completely different. Sasando uses an instrument made from a leaf of the lontar palm, which bears some resemblance to a harp. Categories: Islands of Indonesia | Southeast Asia geography stubs | Indonesia geography stubs ... Map of Timor (island only) West Timor is a political region that comprises the western half of Timor island with the exception of Oecussi-Ambeno district (which is politically part of East Timor) and forms a part of the Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur, (NTT or East Nusa Tenggara). ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ...


In West Java, popular musical styles include Degung and Angklung, which is played with bamboo instruments. Map showing West Java in Indonesia West Java (Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia, located on the island of Java. ... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... Angklung Musical Instrument Angklung is a musical instrument made out of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. ...


Dance

Young Balinese dancers. Photo: G Larson
Young Balinese dancers. Photo: G Larson

It is not difficult to see a continuum in the traditional dances depicting episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata from India, through Thailand all the way to Bali. There is a marked difference, though between the highly stylized dances of the courts of Yogyakarta and Surakarta and their popular variations. While the court dances are promoted and even performed internationally, the popular forms of dance art and drama must largely be discovered locally. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1740x1122, 665 KB)Young Balinese Dancers performing Legong Keraton. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1740x1122, 665 KB)Young Balinese Dancers performing Legong Keraton. ...


During the last few years Saman from Aceh in North Sumatra has become rather popular and is often performed on TV. Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ...


Drama and theatre

Traditional puppets being shown at the Indonesian Embassy in Australia.
Traditional puppets being shown at the Indonesian Embassy in Australia.

The Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet theatre shows display several mythological events. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1454x953, 245 KB) Traditional puppets and puppeteer - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Wayang Culture of Indonesia Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1454x953, 245 KB) Traditional puppets and puppeteer - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Wayang Culture of Indonesia Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... A shadow puppet is a puppet intended for performance at night or in a darkened interior space. ...


Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals. It incorporates music, singing, dance, drama and the silat martial art, with performances often based on semi-historical Minangkabau stories and legends. Randai is a folk theatre tradition of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Visual arts

Painting

Indonesia is not generally known as a treasure trove for paintings, but the fact is that the connoisseur will be able to find unique works of art. Primarily there are the often intricate and expressive traditional and modern Balinese paintings. They often express natural scenes and themes from the traditional dances. Furthermore there are several internationally known painters either Indonesians or Europeans who settled in Indonesia whose works now fetch very high prices. Modern Indonesian painters use a wide variety of styles and themes. Calligraphy, mostly based on the Qur'An is decorative in its special way. A treasure-trove is gold, silver, gems, money, jewellery, etc found hidden under ground or in cellar or attics, etc. ...


Sculpture

Relief sculpture from Borobodur temple.
Relief sculpture from Borobodur temple.
Carved wooden Torajan art.
Carved wooden Torajan art.

Indonesia has a long-standing tradition of sculpture and carving. Examples of Indonesian sculpture have been found dating back to the Bronze and Iron ages, but the art-form particularly flourished in the 8th to 10th centuries, both as standalone works of art, and also incorporated into temple structures. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1203x929, 764 KB)[edit] Summary Photo of relief sculpture from Borobodur Temple, Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1203x929, 764 KB)[edit] Summary Photo of relief sculpture from Borobodur Temple, Indonesia. ... Borobudur from a distance Borobudur, located in the Indonesian island of Java, 40 km (25mi) north-west of Yogyakarta, is a Buddhist stupa related to the Mahayana tradition, and the largest Buddhist monument on earth. ... Download high resolution version (1100x704, 201 KB)Carved wooden Toraja art. ... Download high resolution version (1100x704, 201 KB)Carved wooden Toraja art. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Most notable are the hundreds of meters of relief sculpture at the temple of Borobodur in Central Java. Here, approximately two miles of exquisite relief sculpture tell the story of the life of Buddha and illustrate his teachings. Furthermore, the temple was originally home to 504 statues of the seated Buddha. This site, as with others in Central Java show a clear Indian influence. Borobudur from a distance Borobudur, located in the Indonesian island of Java, 40 km (25mi) north-west of Yogyakarta, is a Buddhist stupa related to the Mahayana tradition, and the largest Buddhist monument on earth. ... Media:Example. ...


In the twentieth century, Bali saw a flourishing of its artistic communities, and many art-forms, especially painting, batik and sculpture developed in new directions, combining traditional methods with contemporary themes and techniques. Although many of the Balinese sculpture workshops now produce 'en masse' for the tourist trade, there is still a vibrant sculptural tradition in Bali, especially around Ubud.


Elsewhere in Indonesia, sculpture remains important in the culture life of the islanders. Long houses in Sulawesi and Sumatra are adorned with carved relief, and the structures of the buildings themselves are often carved. Indigenous animistic carvings are still made in Sulawesi and elsewhere, although much of this is now made for sale to tourists. In Tana Toraja, effigies of the dead are carved in some areas. In New Guinea, Bisj Poles of up to 25 meters are carved from a single piece of mangrove tree, adorned with human figures, animals and other totems. A longhouse at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia. ... Carved wooden Torajan art - each panel is a stylised representation of a wish for goodwill of some form. ... A Bisj Pole, or Bis Pole, is a ritual artifact used by the Asmat people of south-western New Guinea. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...


Architecture

Minangkabau Rumah Gadang
Minangkabau Rumah Gadang

For centuries, the most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture were Indian, although European influences have been particularly strong since the nineteenth century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1209 KB)[edit] Summary Photograph I took myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1209 KB)[edit] Summary Photograph I took myself. ... Rumah Gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra The rumah gadang (Minangkabau, big house) is the traditional house of the Minangkabau. ... Indonesian Architecture reflects the same diversity of cultural, historical, and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. ... Indonesian Architecture reflects the same diversity of cultural, historical, and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. ...


Like much of South East Asia, traditional buildings in Indonesia are built on stilts with the significant exceptions of Java and Bali. Notable stilt house are those of the Dayak people in Borneo, the Rumah Gadang of the Minangkabau people in western Sumatra, the Batak people in northern Sumatra, and the Tongkonan of the Toraja people in Sulawesi. Oversized saddle roofs with large eves are, such as the homes of the Batak and the tongkonan of Toraja, are often bigger than the house they shelter. The fronts of Torajan houses are frequently decorated with buffalo horns, stacked one above another, as an indication of status. The outside walls also frequently feature decorative reliefs. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Stilt houses or pile dwellings are houses raised on stilts over the surface of the soil or a body of water. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... Rumah Gadang in the Pandai Sikek village of West Sumatra The rumah gadang (Minangkabau, big house) is the traditional house of the Minangkabau. ... The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Batak designates two distinct peoples, one living in Indonesia, the other in the Philippines. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... A tongkonan with colorful decorations on the wall. ... Carved wooden Torajan art - each panel is a stylised representation of a wish for goodwill of some form. ... Location of Sulawesi Island (light green) among the various islands of Indonesia. ...


The eighth-century Borobodur temple near Yogyakarta is the largest Buddhist temple in the world, and is notable for incorporating c.160 relief panels into its structure, telling the story of the life of the Buddha. As the visitor ascends through the eight levels of the temple, the story unfolds, the final three levels simply containing stupas and statues of the Buddha. The building is said to incorporate a map of the Buddhist cosmos and is a masterful fusion of the didactic, the monumental and the serene. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Borobudur from a distance Borobudur, located in the Indonesian island of Java, 40 km (25mi) north-west of Yogyakarta, is a Buddhist stupa related to the Mahayana tradition, and the largest Buddhist monument on earth. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... A stupa A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ...


The nearby temple complex at Prambanan are amongst the best preserved examples of Hindu temple architecture in Java. Built in the ninth century, the temple complex comprises eight main shrines, surrounded by 250 smaller shrines. The Indian influence on the site is clear, not only in the style of the monument, but also in the reliefs featuring scenes from the Ramayana which adorn the outer walls of the main temples, and in the votive statuary found within. The Prambanan temple complex Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. ... Temple architecture in the Hindu tradition is connected to astronomy and sacred geometry. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


Crafts

Several Islands are famous for their batik, ikat and songket cloth. Once on the brink of disappearing batik and later ikat found a new lease of life when former President Soeharto promoted wearing batik shirts on official occasions. In addition to the traditional patterns with their special meanings, used for particular occasions, batik designs have become creative and diverse over the last few years. A batik painting depicting two Indian women. ... Ikat weaving from the Island of Sumba, Indonesia Ikat is a style of weaving that uses a tie-dye process on either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. ... Songket is fabric which belongs to the brocade family of textiles. ...


Literature

Pramoedya Ananta Toer was Indonesia's most internationally celebrated author, having won the Magsaysay Award as well as being considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Other important figures include the late Chairil Anwar, a poet and member of the Generation 45 group of authors who were active in the Indonesian independence movement. Tight information controls during Suharto's presidency suppressed new writing. Other things included are also its immense social reforms. Pramoedya Ananta Toer (February 6 1925 - April 30 2006) was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics, and histories of his homeland and its people. ... The Magsaysay award is given in honor of the late President of the Philippines Ramon Magsaysay. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Chairil Anwar (1922 - April 28, 1949) was probably one of the most famous Indonesian poets. ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


In the book Max Havelaar, Dutch author Multatuli criticised the Dutch treatment of the Indonesians, which gained him international attention. Max Havelaar is the protagonist in a Dutch novel of the same name written by Multatuli (the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker), first published in 1860. ... Eduard Douwes Dekker, also known as Multatuli Eduard Douwes Dekker (2 March 1820 - 19 February 1887), better known by his pen name Multatuli, was a Dutch writer famous for his satirical novel, Max Havelaar (1860) in which he denounced the abuses of colonialism in the former Dutch colony of Indonesia. ...


Modern Indonesian authors include Seno Gumira Adjidarma, Ayu Utami, Gus tf Sakai, Eka Kurniawan, Ratih Kumala, Dee, Oka Rusmini. A few of their works have translated into another languages. Ayu Utami (born in November 21, 1968) is a famous Indonesian writer. ... Eka Kurniawan was born in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, 1975. ... DEE (born Martin Dee Granger) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, DJ, producer, multi-instrumentalist and remixer. ...


Poetry

There is a long tradition in Indonesia, and particularly among ethnically Malay populations, of extemporary, interactive, verbal composition of poetry. These poems are referred to as pantun. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pantun is a Malay poetic form. ...


Recreation and sports

The ball used in Sepak Takraw.
The ball used in Sepak Takraw.

Many traditional games are still preserved and popular in Indonesia, although western culture has influenced some parts of them. Due to 300 different cultures, there are many kinds of traditional games throughout the country. For instance, cockfighting in Bali, annual bull races in Madura and stone jumping in Nias. The stone jumping involves leaping over a stone wall about up to 1.5 m high and was originally used to train warriors to jump over enemy walls. Pencak Silat is another popular form of sport, which was influenced by Malay and also Asian culture as a whole. Another form of national sport is sepak takraw, which is also influenced by Malay and Thai cultures.[1] The rules of the game are similar to volleyball: to keep the rattan ball in the air with the players' feet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (785x615, 65 KB) Summary The ball used for Sepak Takraw (Kick-Volley in asia) Myself picture (hand of a friend who want to be anonymous) Siren-Com 07:37, 4 December 2005 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (785x615, 65 KB) Summary The ball used for Sepak Takraw (Kick-Volley in asia) Myself picture (hand of a friend who want to be anonymous) Siren-Com 07:37, 4 December 2005 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages link to... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The Cock Fight by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1847) A cockfight is a contest, held in a cockpit between two fighting cocks (roosters) trained to severely injure and/or kill one another. ... This is the current Indonesian Collaboration of the week. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... Nias (Indonesian: Pulau Nias, Nias language: Tanö Niha) is an island off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Look up stonewall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pencak Silat or Silat (fighting by using techniques of self-defence) is an Asian martial art with roots in the culture of the Malay World. ... Malaysian culture or Malaya culture is a mixture of Malay, Chinese, Indian, and various indigenous tribes dating back to more than fifteen hundred years ago from a Kedah kingdom in Lembah Bujang with traders from China and India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asian people. ... Map of the World showing the most popular sports by nation. ... It has been suggested that Takraw be merged into this article or section. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms, or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ...

Hanuman was the mascot of the 1997 SEA Games, hosted by Jakarta.
Hanuman was the mascot of the 1997 SEA Games, hosted by Jakarta.

Popular modern sports in Indonesia include soccer and badminton. Most of these sports have been played at the international level. Indonesian badminton athletes have played in Indonesia Open Badminton Championship, All England Open Badminton Championships and many international events, including summer Olympics ever since badminton is played again in the 1992 Summer Olympics. Rudy Hartono is an Indonesian legendary badminton player, who has succeeded to win All England titles six times in a row.[2] Another international level sport is soccer, which mostly active in the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). Image File history File links 1997_sea_games_mascot. ... Image File history File links 1997_sea_games_mascot. ... Hanuman tearing his chest open to reveal that Rama and Sita are literally in his heart Hanuman (Sanskrit: ; nominative singular ), known also as Anjaneya, is one of the most important personalities in the epic, the Ramayana. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... The Danish Olympic badminton player Peter Gade Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles). ... The Indonesia Open is a golf tournament played in Jakarta Indonesia which is co-sanctioned by the Asian Tour and the European Tour. ... The All England Open Badminton Championships is one of the oldest and most prestigious badminton tournaments. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... The 1992 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Rudy Hartono Kurniawan (born August 18, 1949) was an Indonesian badminton player who won the world championship in 1980, and the All-England Champions trophy 8 times in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Asian Football Confederation Logo The 46 member Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of football in Asia, excluding Cyprus and Israel. ...


The sporting events in Indonesia are organised by the Indonesian National Sport Committee (KONI). The organisation, along with the government of Indonesia have set the National Sports Day on every September 9 with "Sports for All" as the motto. Jakarta has hosted the Southeast Asian Games 3 times, in 1979, 1987 and 1997, and came top of the medal table in each of these years.[3] In fact, Indonesia has come top of the medal table at nine of the fifteen games it attended. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... The Southeast Asian Games (also known as the SEA Games), is a biannual multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. ...


Cuisine

Nasi goreng (fried rice), a popular Indonesian cuisine.
Nasi goreng (fried rice), a popular Indonesian cuisine.
Main article: Cuisine of Indonesia

The cuisine of Indonesia is significantly influenced by Asian culture, including Chinese and Indian as well as Western culture. However in return, Indonesian cuisine has also contributed to and influenced neighboring countries' cuisine such as Malaysia and Singapore. Padang or Minangkabau cuisine from West Sumatra are very popular in Malaysia and Singapore. Also Satay (Sate in Indonesian) that originated from Java, Madura, and Sumatra has gained popularity as a tasty street vendor food from Singapore, Malaysia, and all the way to Thailand. In the fifteenth century, the Portuguese arrived on the Indonesian shores with the intention of trading spices from Indonesia. Starting from the colonial era, many different countries have arrived in Indonesia and brought different cultures, as well as cuisines. Moreover, in the same century, many Arab traders also arrived in the nation and brought more of their ethnic culture. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2312x2200, 761 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture of Indonesia Nasi goreng Wikipedia:Esperanza/Coffee lounge ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2312x2200, 761 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture of Indonesia Nasi goreng Wikipedia:Esperanza/Coffee lounge ... Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 6,000 populated islands that make up Indonesia. ... Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 6,000 populated islands that make up Indonesia. ... Culture of Asia is the aggregate of cultural heritage of the people of several nationalities, social and ethnic groups. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... Grilled beef satay. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


Most native Indonesians eat rice as the main dish, with a wide range of vegetables and meat as the side dish. However, in some different parts of the country, such as Irian Jaya and Ambon, the majority of the people eat sago (a type of tapioca) and sweet potato.[4] Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species of grass (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and in Africa. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Mortal Kombat character, see Meat (Mortal Kombat). ... A side dish of salad accompanying a small pie A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the entrée or main course at a meal. ... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. ... Ambon may refer to two geographical places. ... Sago is a starchy, fecula, granular substance used in cooking. ... Tapioca is an essentially flavourless starchy ingredient, or fecula, produced from treated and dried cassava (manioc) root and used in cooking. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ...


The most important aspect of Indonesia cuisine is that food must be halal, which is an Islamic philosophy. Similar in concept to Kosher in Judaism. Haram, which is the opposite of halal includes pork and alcoholic drinks. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... Two halves of a pig being delivered Pork is the meat taken from pigs. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ...


Indonesian dishes are usually spicy, using a wide range of chillies and spices. The most popular dishes include nasi goreng (fried rice), Satay, Nasi Padang (Dish of Minangkabau) and soy-based dishes, such as tofu and tempe. A unique characteristic of some Indonesian food is the application of spicy peanut sauce in their dishes. Whether as a dressing for Gado-gado or Karedok (Indonesian style salad), or for seasoning grilled chicken satay. Another unique aspect of Indonesian cuisine is using terasi or belacan, a pungent shrimp paste to add taste for certain dishes, especially sambal oelek (hot pungent chili sauce). The sprinkling of fried shallots (small red onion) also gives a unique crispy taste to some Indonesian dishes. The chili pepper, or more simply just chili, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Nasi goreng Nasi goreng is an Indonesian and Malaysian version of fried rice - that is what it means in both languages. ... Grilled beef satay. ... The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. ... Tofu, also called Doufu (often in Chinese recipes) or bean curd (literal translation), is a food of Chinese origin[1], made by coagulating soy milk, and then pressing the resulting curds into blocks. ... A piece of uncooked tempeh. ... Peanut sauce (also called satay sauce) is initially an oriental sauce and widely use in Indonesian cuisine (known as kacang sambal). ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Gado-gado Gado-gado is a traditional dish in Indonesian cuisine, and comprises a vegetable salad served with a peanut sauce dressing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shrimp Paste is often used as a condiment in many Southeast Asian dishes Shrimp paste or shrimp sauce, is a common ingredient used in Southeast Asian and Southern Chinese cuisine. ... -1...


Asian culture, such as Chinese and Indian, have influenced the cuisine of Indonesia in many ways, including the serving of food and types of spices used. It is very common to find Chinese food in Indonesia such as Dim Sum as well as noodles, and Indian cuisine such as Tandoori chicken. In addition, Western culture has significantly contributed to the extensive range of type of dishes. However, the dishes have been transformed to suit Indonesian people's tastes. For example, steaks are usually served with rice. Popular fast foods such as Kentucky Fried Chicken would be served with rice instead of bread , and sambal (spicy sauce) instead of ketchup. Some indonesian foods have been adopted by the Dutch, like Indonesian Rice Table or 'rijsttafel'. Chinese cuisine is widely seen as representing one of the richest and most diverse culinary cuisines and heritages in the world. ... Dim sum (Chinese: 點心; Cantonese IPA: dɪm2sɐm1; Pinyin: diǎnxīn; Wade-Giles: tien-hsin; literally dot heart or order heart, meaning order to ones hearts content; also commonly translated as touch the heart, dotted heart, or snack), a Cantonese term... A cook making hand-pulled noodles. ... Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs and the influence of the longstanding and widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. ... Tandoori chicken is a popular dish in Punjabi cuisine. ... KFC (full name Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ... Sambal is an Indonesian, Malaysian and Singaporean condiment made from a variety of peppers, although chile peppers are the most common. ...


Popular media

See also: Media of Indonesia

Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suhartos rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. ...

Cinema

21Cineplex logo
21Cineplex logo
Main article: Cinema of Indonesia

The largest chain of cinemas in Indonesia is 21Cineplex, which has cinemas spread throughout 24 cities on the islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. However, many smaller independent cinemas also exist. Image File history File links 21cineplexlogo. ... Image File history File links 21cineplexlogo. ... The cinema of Indonesia has a long history but at present is a small, struggling industry. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... This is the current Indonesian Collaboration of the week. ... Location of Sulawesi Island (light green) among the various islands of Indonesia. ...


In the 1980s, the film industry in Indonesia was at its peak, and it also dominated the cinemas in Indonesia. The movies, including Catatan Si Boy and Blok M, gained high success and became legendary movies in the history of Indonesian cinema. The actors such as Onky Alexander, Meriam Bellina, Nike Ardilla and Paramitha Rusady were considered young at that time.[5] However, the film industry failed to gain more success in the 1990s, when the number of movies produced decreased significantly, from 115 movies in 1990 to just 37 in 1993.[6] As a result, most movies produced in the '90s contained adult themes. In addition, movies from Hollywood and Hong Kong started to dominate the cinemas in the country. The industry started to recover in the late 1990s, with the rise of independent directors and many new movies produced, such as Garin Nugroho's Cinta dalam Sepotong Roti, Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana's Petualangan Sherina and Arisan! by Nia Dinata.[5] Another form of recovery is the re-establishment of the Indonesian Film Festival (FFI), which had been inactive for 12 years. This is now running again, as the Jakarta International Film Festival. Daun Di Atas Bantal (1998) has received The Best Movie award on Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei (1998).[citation needed] The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... ... Indonesian Film Festival/Festival Film Indonesia (FFI) is a movie festival in Indonesia. ... The Asia Pacific Film Festival, first held in 1946, is a major film festival in Asia. ... Nickname: the City of Azaleas (杜鵑花之城) Coordinates: Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan Capital Xinyi Dist (信義區) Mayor Hau Lung-bin Area    - City 271. ...


Television

Television in Indonesia began on the August 17, 1962 in Jakarta with the state-run station, TVRI, which began broadcasting on the 17th anniversary of Indonesian Independence.[citation needed] It held a television monopoly in Indonesia until 1989 when the first commercial station, RCTI(Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia) began as a local station and was subsequently granted a national license a year later. This marks the first showing of TV commercials in Indonesia. August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) is the oldest television station in Indonesia, and was the only television station until 1989. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... RCTI (Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia) is Indonesias first privately-owned television network based in Jakarta. ...


[citation needed] Several commercial stations have started up since then and as of 2006, 11 national-wide commercial networks are available, including RCTI, TPI, SCTV, antv, Indosiar, Metro TV, TV7, Trans TV, Lativi, and Global TV. Several regional television stations are formed in all over the country, even in remote and poor areas.[citation needed] Commonly, local government run directly these stations.[citation needed] Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia, popularly known as RCTI, Indonesias first privately-owned television network based in Jakarta. ... TPI logo TPI (Indonesian Education Television) is a private television station in Indonesia established by Siti Hardijanti Rukmana, the first daughter of Soeharto. ... sdfgs ... Antv (Andalas Televisi) is an Indonesian television network. ... Indosiar logo Indosiar is a privately owned national television station in Indonesia, which has been operating from West Jakarta since 1994. ... Metro TV, Indonesias first 24-hour news channel based in Jakarta. ... TV7 logo TV7 is a national commercial television station in Indonesia, which is owned by the Gramedia Group and began broadcasting in 2001. ... Trans TV logo Trans TV (Transformation TV Indonesia) is a national television station in Indonesia, owned by Chairul Tanjung and group. ... Lativi logo Lativi is a privately owned national television station in Indonesia, owned by entrepreneur Abdul Latief. ... Global TV is a private television network in Indonesia established in early 1999 and first went on air in October 2001 with MTV programming. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state or province. ...


Each of the network has a wide variety of programs, ranging from traditional show, such as wayang performance, to Western programs (for example, the Indonesian Idol). One typical television show of almost every networks is sinetron (abbr. from electronic cinema). Sinetron is usually a drama series, following the soap opera format, but can also refer to any fictional series. Sometimes it can be comedy in nature, like the popular Bajaj Bajuri series, featuring a bajaj(a taxi like tri-cycle) driver and the people he drives around. Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theater. ... Indonesian Idol is an Indonesian television show. ... For Philippine soap opera, see Teleserye. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... The word Bajaj can mean several things A common surname in western India Jamnalal Bajaj, a prominent businessman from India An autorickshaw, a three wheeled passenger and goods carrier built by Bajaj Auto Bajaj Auto, a manufacturer of 2 and 3-wheelers in India, Indonesia and South America Bajaj Tempo...


On 2006, there is a trial transmission of digital TV (DVB-T) in Jakarta.[citation needed] Digital cable PayTV transmission service through fibre optic is available in Bekasi, near Jakarta and several apartments in Jakarta.[citation needed] Digital satellite PayTV transmission services (DVB-S) are available throughout Indonesia.[citation needed] Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... DVB-T stands for Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. ... Digital cable is a term for a type of cable digital television that delivers more channels than possible with analog cable by using digital video compression. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by total internal reflection. ... Bekasi is city to the east of Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC...


Radio

The state radio network Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) was founded in 1945. It consists of a network of regional stations located in all 33 provinces of the archipelago. In most cities and large towns there are also many commercial stations. Since 2006, there are several digital radio stations in Jakarta and Surabaya, based on Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and Hybrid HD-Radio. [citation needed] Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) is the state radio network of Indonesia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Surabaya (formerly Soerabaja) is Indonesias second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... The HD Radio Logo HD Radio is the brand name of a method of digital transmission of audio on the FM and AM radio bands. ...


Religion and philosophy

Islam is Indonesia's main religion, with almost 88% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census[7], making Indonesia the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world. The remaining population is 9% Christian (of which roughly 2/3 are Protestant with the remainder mainly Catholic, and a large minority Charismatic), 2% Hindu and 1% Buddhist. The Pancasila (the statement of five principles which are said to encapsulate the ideology of the independent Indonesian state) states that: "The state shall be based on the belief in the one and only God". Indonesia religions map Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... Islam in Indonesia is the dominant religion by far with the greatest number of religious adherents. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians —specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Symbol of Indonesias Pancasila Pancasila, pronounced Panchaseela, is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. ...


See also

Indonesia Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is an article about the digital recording format. ... Indonesias 242 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ What's Sepak Takraw http://www.geocities.co.jp/Colosseum-Acropolis/2678/english/whatsepa.html
  2. ^ http://web.ukonline.co.uk/m.gratton/Sport.htm
  3. ^ POC http://www.olympic.ph/games_sea.html
  4. ^ Inside Indonesia 67 http://www.serve.com/inside/edit67/giay.htm
  5. ^ a b Kompas http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0507/02/Bentara/1857854.htm
  6. ^ Kondisi Perfilman di Indonesia http://www.geocities.com/Paris/7229/film.htm
  7. ^ Indonesia - The World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html

The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ...

External links

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