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Encyclopedia > Culture of France
Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto «Liberté, égalité, fraternité», as the French put it, this painting became the primary symbol of the French Republic.
Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto «Liberté, égalité, fraternité», as the French put it, this painting became the primary symbol of the French Republic.

The culture of France is very rich and diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of immigration. France has been playing an important role as a cultural center for many centuries, with Paris as a center of high culture; first in Europe, later world wide. The importance of French culture has waned and waxed over the centuries, largely dependent on its economic, political and military importance. Its formal global expression today consists of regular conventions of leaders from the Francophonie, the group of countries or nations where French is the main or one of the main languages: France, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada and a number of countries in Africa. According to Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Culture, it is moderately individualistic and has a relatively high Power Distance Index. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... For other uses, see Masterpiece (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Romantics redirects here. ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood), [1] is the motto of the French Republic, and is a typical example of a tripartite motto. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... Geert Hofstede Geert Hofstede is an influential Dutch writer on the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures, and is an author of several books including Cultures Consequences (2nd, fully revised edition, 2001) and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (2nd, revised edition 2005). ...

Contents

Education

Main article: Education in France

Since the Jules Ferry laws of 1881-2, named after the then Minister of Public Instruction, all state-funded schools, including universities, are independent from the (roman catholic) church. Education in these institutions is free. Non-secular institutions are allowed to organize education as well. The French educational system differs strongly from Northern-European and American systems in that it stresses the importance of the development of the individual as an independent intellectual rather than a productive servant (of the State or the Company). Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... The Jules Ferry laws are a set of French laws which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in France

France is a secular country where freedom of thought and of religion is preserved, in virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Republic is based on the principle of laïcité, that is of freedom of religion (including of agnosticism and atheism) enforced by the Jules Ferry laws and the 1905 law on the separation of the State and the Church, enacted at the beginning of the Third Republic (1871-1940). Roman Catholicism is not considered anymore a state religion, as it was before the 1789 Revolution and throughout the various, non-republican regimes of the 19th century (the Restauration, the July Monarchy and the Second Empire). At the beginning of the 20th century, France was a largely rural country with conservative Catholic mores. Major developments have taken place since those days: the countryside has become severely depopulated, and the population has largely become de-Christianised. This has led to important changes in social morals. France is a secular country where freedom of thought and of religion are preserved, in virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. ... This article is about secularism. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... “Atheist” redirects here. ... The Jules Ferry laws are a set of French laws which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). ... The first page of the bill, as brought before the Chambre des Députés in 1905 On 9 December 1905, a law was passed in France separating the church and the state. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or...


Specific communities

The Bohemian geography of Paris deserves an article in itself. Many cultural icons spent some years in Paris, including Hemingway, Picasso, Toulouse Lautrec, Gertrude Stein, Samuel Beckett and many others. For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 - September 9, 1901) was a French painter. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ...


Art in France

Main article: French art

The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Painting

The first paintings of France are those that are from prehistoric times, painted in the caves of Lascaux well over 10,000 years ago. The arts flourished already 1,200 years ago, at the time of Charlemagne, as can be seen in many hand made and hand illustrated books of that time. Painting of bison attacking a man, from the cave at Lascaux, c. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Classic painters of the 17th century in France are Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. During the 18th century the Rococo style emerged as a frivolous continuation of the Baroque style. The most famous painters of the era were Antoine Watteau, François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. At the end of the century, Jacques-Louis David was the most influential painter of the Neoclassicism. Poussin redirects here. ... Claude Lorrain. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French Rococo painter. ... François Boucher The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ... The Bathers, 1765 Inspiration, 1769 The Reader, c. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that...


Géricault and Delacroix were the most important painters of the Romanticism. Afterwards, the painters were more realistic, describing nature (Barbizon school). The realistic movement was led by Courbet and Honoré Daumier. Impressionism was developed in France by artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Camille Pissarro. At the turn of the century, France had become more than ever the center of innovative art. The Spaniard Pablo Picasso came to France, like many other foreign artists, to deploy his talents there for decades to come. Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin and Cézanne were painting then. Cubism is an avant-garde movement born in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century. Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Romantics redirects here. ... The Gleaners. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 - September 9, 1901) was a French painter. ... Paul Gauguin (June 7, 1848 - May 9, 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The Louvre in Paris is one of the most famous and the largest art museums in the world, created by the new revolutionary regime in 1793 in the former royal palace. It holds a vast amount of art of French and other artists, e.g. the Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, and classical Greek Venus de Milo and ancient works of culture and art from Egypt and the Middle East. This article is about the museum. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the group of prehistoric statuettes known as Venus figurines. ...


Fashion

Paris is known as the "Fashion Capital of the world", having unique and free designs. Haute couture is not accidentally a French term adopted by the English language; in France it is a legally protected name, guaranteeing some quality standards. Many designers began their careers in France, such as Coco Chanel, Christian Dior and Lacoste. An influential designer like Karl Lagerfeld came from Germany to make his career mainly in France, illustrating the prestige of French fashion in general. Italian fashion, with its capital in Milan, is its most serious rival. For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. ... Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971)[1] was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her arguably the most important figure in the history of 20th-century fashion. ... Christian Dior (January 21, 1905 – October 23, 1957), was an influential French fashion designer. ... This article is about the clothing company. ... Karl Lagerfeld (born Karl Otto Lagerfeldt on September 10, 1933) is widely recognized as one of the most influential fashion designers of the late 20th century He has collaborated with a variety of different fashion labels, with Chloé, Fendi and Chanel the most notable. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...


Architecture

Main article: French architecture

Chartres cathedral French architecture is very diverse. ...

Customs and traditions

France is noted for its cosmopolitan, civilized approach to life, combined with great concern for style, fashion and appearances, but generalizations are not without risk, as in other countries. There are huge differences in life style and world view between various 'elites' and 'lower' people, especially if they run parallel with the wide gap between Paris and what is sometimes called 'le desert Français'. The French are often perceived as taking a great pride in the national identity and positive achievements of France, although many would argue that people of all nations tend to do that. However, there is a notion of the exception Française that is more explicit in France than its equivalent in many other countries[1]. The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. French culture has played an important role with universalist pretensions for centuries, with Paris as a world center of high culture. Any perceived decline in cultural status is a matter of national concern. Cultural issues are more integrated in the body of the politics than elsewhere.
There are many regional cultures, linked to languages like corsican, català, occitan, alsatian and breizh (Breton). The official policy was for a long time to suppress local native tongues, but it has relaxed to a great extent. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Corsica (Corsican: Corsica, French: Corse) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily, Sardinia, and Cyprus). ... Catalan can mean: the Catalan language inhabitant of Catalonia Eugène Charles Catalan the mathematician a Catalan solid Catalan numbers the Catalan Opening, a chess opening the Catalan forge, a type of open hearth furnace that was a precursor to the blast furnace There is also information on Catalan names. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... Breton can refer to: Brittany, as an adjective for this historical province of France The Breton language, a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany and Loire-Atlantique A Breton person, part of a Brythonic ethnic group inhabiting the region of Brittany André Breton (1896-1966), French...


Food and alcohol

Main article: French cuisine

Dishes like tartiflette, fondue, or poulet roti are characteristic of specific regions. The legal drinking age for alcohol beverages (21% vol. alcohol) is officially 18. French people are well known to be wine drinkers, this is mainly due to the fact that wine is inscribed in the French culture. French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ...


alcohol in France are divided in 5 groups , group 1 are non-alcoholic beverage, group 2 contain vine, beer, cider ... , groups 3 4 and 5 contains more alcohol...


legal age of drinking in france : age and alcohol and bar/ coffee serving : before 13 : group 1 only, must be accompagnied by adult ( 18 and +) before 16 : group 1 only, no need to be suited by an adult if the bar don't serve alcohol before 18 : group 1 and 2 only, can go alone in the bar. 18 and more : group 1 to 5.


Sports and hobbies

Main article: Sport in France

The French "national" sport, is football (soccer), colloquially called 'le foot'. The most-watched sports in France are football (soccer), rugby union, basketball, cycling, sailing and tennis. France is notable for holding the football World Cup in 1998, for holding the annual cycling race Tour de France, and the tennis Grand Slam tournament Roland Garros, or the French Open. Sport is encouraged in school, and local sports clubs receive financial support from the local governments. While football (soccer) is definitely the most popular, rugby takes dominance in the southwest, especially around the city of Toulouse. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation and a sport. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Roland Garros has been considered the world’s first fighter pilot. ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land...


Professional sailing in France is centred on singlehanded/shorthanded ocean racing with the pinnacle of this branch of the sport being the Vendee Globe singlehanded around the world race which starts every 4 years from the French Atlantic coast. Other significant events include the Solitaire du Figaro, Mini Transat 6.50, Tour de France a Voile and Route de Rhum transatlantic race. France has been a regular competitor in the Americas Cup since the 1970s. The Vendée Globe is a single-handed non-stop round the world yacht race. ... Mini Transat 6. ... The Americas Cup is the most famous trophy in the sport of yachting, and the oldest active trophy in sports. ...


The most played sport in France is football (soccer.)


Babyfoot (table football) is a very popular pastime in bars and in homes in France, and the French are the predominant winners of worldwide table football competitions. Foosball (from the German Fußball = soccer) is also known as table soccer, table football, babyfoot, or gettone. ...


Language

French culture is profoundly allied with the French language. The artful use of the mother tongue, and its defense against perceived decline or corruption by foreign terms, is a major preoccupation for some persons and entities. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... This is an article about language policy in France. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


The Académie française sets an official standard of language purity; however, this standard, which is not mandatory, is even occasionally ignored by the government itself: for instance, the left-wing government of Lionel Jospin pushed for the feminization of the names of some functions (madame la ministre) while the Académie pushed for some more traditional madame le ministre. The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ...


Some action has been taken by the government in order to promote French culture and the French language. For instance, there exists a system of subsidies and preferential loans for supporting French cinema. The Toubon law, from the name of the conservative culture minister who promoted it, makes it mandatory to use French in advertisements directed to the general public. Note that contrary to some misconception sometimes found in the Anglophone media, the French government neither regulates the language used by private parties in non-commercial settings, nor makes it compulsory that France-based WWW sites should be in French. France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language), is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, advertisements, and some other contexts. ... Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ...


France counts many regional languages, some of them being very different from standard French such as Breton and Alsatian. Some regional languages are Romance, like French, such as Provençal. The Basque language is completely unrelated to French and, indeed, to any other language in the world; its area straddles the border between the south west of France and the north of Spain. Many of those languages have enthusiastic advocates; however, the real importance of local languages remains subject to debate. In April 2001, the Minister of Education, Jack Lang, admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages, and announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognized, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools. Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Alsatian can refer to: A person from Alsace, France The Alsatian language A German Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Jack Lang in Belém (Brazil) Jack Mathieu Emile Lang (born 2 September 1939) is a French politician and a member of the French Socialist Party. ...


Transportation

There are significant differences in lifestyles with respect to transportation between very urbanized regions such as Paris, and smaller towns and rural areas. In Paris, and to a lesser extent in other major cities, many households do not own an automobile and simply use efficient mass transportation. The cliché about the parisien is rush hour in the Métro subway. However, outside of such areas, ownership of one or more cars is standard, especially for households with children. This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook (2003 edition) which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ... Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ...


The TGV high speed rail network, train à grande vitesse is a fast rail transport which serves several areas of the country and is self financing. There are plans to reach most parts of France and many other destinations in Europe in coming years. Rail services to major destinations are punctual and frequent. For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Culture of France

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Minister of Culture and Communications is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional maisons de... This is a list of French people. ... Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... French gastronomy France is one of the oldest wine-producing regions of Europe. ... Les Enfants du Paradis (Marcel Carne), one of the greatest French films ever made La regle du jeu (Jean Renoir), another candidate for the best French film LAtalante (Jean Vigo) La belle et la bête (Jean Cocteau) Diary of a Country Priest (Robert Bresson) Vivre sa Vie (Jean... France has long been considered a centre for European art and music. ... Rugby union is a popular team sport that is played in France. ... Catherinettes was a traditional French label for girls of twenty-five years old who were still unmarried by the Feast of Saint Catherine (25th November). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The architecture of Normandy spans a thousand years. ...

References

  • Bernstein, Richard. Fragile Glory: A Portrait of France and the French. Plume, 1991.
  • Carroll, Raymonde. Carol Volk, translator. Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience. University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  • Darnton, Robert. The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. Vintage, 1984.
  • Dauncey, Hugh, ed. French Popular Culture: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press (Arnold Publishers), 2003.
  • Forbes, Jill and Michael Kelly, eds. French Cultural Studies: An Introduction. Clarendon Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-871501-3
  • Gopnik, Adam. Paris to the Moon. Random House, 2001.
  • Hall, Edward Twitchell and Mildred Reed Hall. Understanding Cultural Differences: Germans, French and Americans. Intercultural Press, 1990.
  • Howarth, David and Georgios Varouzakis. Contemporary France: An Introduction to French Politics and Society. New York: Oxford University Press (Arnold Publishers), 2003. ISBN 0-340-74187-2
  • Kelly, Michael. French Culture and Society: The Essentials. New York: Oxford University Press (Arnold Publishers), 2001. (A Reference Guide)
  • Kidd, William and Siân Reynolds, eds. Contemporary French Cultural Studies. Arnold Publishers, 2000. ISBN 0-340-74050-7
  • Nadeau, Jean-Benoît and Julie Barlow. Sixty Million Frenchmen Can’t Be Wrong: Why We Love France But Not The French. Sourcebooks Trade, 2003. ISBN 1-4022-0045-5
  • Wylie, Laurence and Jean-François Brière. Les Français. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 2001. (in French)
  • Zedlin, Theodore and Philippe Turner, eds. The French. Kodansha International, 1996.

Notes

  1. ^ Jonathan Fenby: On the brink; the trouble with France Warner Books London, 1998

External links

  • Morrison, Don. "The Death of French Culture," TIME

  Results from FactBites:
 
Culture of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2467 words)
The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration.
France is notable for holding the football World Cup in 1998, for holding the annual cycling race Tour de France, and the tennis Grand Slam tournament Roland Garros, or the French Open.
French culture is profoundly allied with the French language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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