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Encyclopedia > Cultural movement

A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the sciences, and philosophies. Long ago, different nations or regions of the world would go through their own independent sequence of movements in culture, but as world communications have accelerated this geographical distinction has become less noteworthy. When cultural movements go through revolutions from one to the next, genres tend to get attacked and mixed up, and often new genres are generated and old ones fade. These changes are often reactions against the prior cultural form, which typically has grown stale and repetitive. An obsession emerges among the mainstream with the new movement, and the old one falls into neglect - sometimes it dies out entirely, but often it chugs along favored in a few disciplines and occasionally making reappearances (sometimes prefixed with "neo-"). Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... The scope of this article is limited to the empirical sciences. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ...

There is continual argument over the precise definition of each of these periods, and one historian might group them differently, or choose different names or descriptions. As well, even though in many cases the popular change from one to the next can be swift and sudden, the beginning and end of movements are somewhat subjective, as the movements did not spring fresh into existence out of the blue and did not come to an abrupt end and lose total support, as would be suggested by a date range. Thus use of the term "period" is somewhat deceptive. "Period" also suggests a linearity of development, whereas it has not been uncommon for two or more distinctive cultural approaches to be active at the same time. Historians will be able to find distinctive traces of a cultural movement before its accepted beginning, and there will always be new creations in old forms. So it can be more useful to think in terms of broad "movements" that have rough beginnings and endings. Yet for historical perspective, some rough date ranges will be provided for each to indicate the "height" or accepted timespan of the movement.

Cultural movements

  • Graeco-Roman
    • The Greek culture marked a departure from the other Mediterranean cultures that preceded and surrounded it. The Romans adopted Greek and other styles, and spread the result throughout Europe and the middle east. Together, Greek and Roman thought in philosophy, religion, science, history, and all forms of thought can be viewed as a central underpinning of Western culture, and is therefore termed the "Classical period" by some. Others might divide it into the Hellenistic period and the Roman period, or might choose other finer divisions.
See: Classical architectureClassical sculptureGreek architecture — Hellenistic architecture — IonicDoricCorinthianStoicismCynicismEpicureanRoman architectureEarly ChristianNeoplatonism
  • Romanesque (11th & 12th centuries)
    • A style (esp. architectural) similar in form and materials to Roman styles. Romanesque seems to be the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent.
See: Romanesque architectureOttonian Art
See: Gothic architectureGregorian chantNeoplatonism
  • Nominalism
    • Rejects Platonic realism as a requirement for thinking and speaking in general terms.
  • Humanism (1500s)
  • Renaissance
    • The use of light, shadow, and perspective to more accurately represent life. Because of how fundamentally these ideas were felt to alter so much of life, some have referred to it as the "Golden Age". In reality it was less an "Age" and more of a movement in popular philosophy, science, and thought that spread over Europe (and probably other parts of the world), over time, and affected different aspects of culture at different points in time. Very roughly, the following periods can be taken as indicative of place/time foci of the Renaissance: Italian Renaissance 1450-1550. Spanish Renaissance 1550-1587. English Renaissance 1588-1629.
  • Mannerism
    • Anti-classicist movement that sought to emphasize the feeling of the artist himself.
    • See: Mannerism/Art
  • Baroque
    • Emphasizes power and authority, characterized by intricate detail and without the "disturbing angst" of Mannerism. Essentially is exaggerated Classicism to promote and glorify the Church and State. Occupied with notions of infinity.
    • See: Baroque artBaroque music
  • Neoclassical (17th–19th centuries)
    • Severe, unemotional movement recalling Roman and Greek ("classical") style, reacting against the overbred Rococo style and the emotional Baroque style. It stimulated revival of classical thinking, and had especially profound effects on science and politics. Also had a direct influence on Academic Art in the 1800s. Beginning in the early 1600s with Cartesian thought (see René Descartes), this movement provided philosophical frameworks for the natural sciences, sought to determine the principles of knowledge by rejecting all things previously believed to be known about the world. In Renaissance Classicism attempts are made to recreate the classic artforms - tragedy, comedy, and farce.
    • Also: Cartesian — French neoclassicism 1630-1680.
  • Romanticism (1770–1830)
    • Began in Germany and spread to England and France as a reaction to Neoclassicism. The notion of "folk genius", or an inborn and intuitive ability to do magnificent things, is a core principle of the Romantic movement. Nostalgia for the primitive past in preference to the scientifically minded present. Romantic heroes, exemplified by Napoleon, are popular. Fascination with the past leads to a resurrection of interest in the Gothic period. It did not really replace the Neoclassical movement so much as provide a counterbalance; many artists sought to join both styles in their works.
    • See: Symbolism
  • Realism (1830–1905)
    • Ushered in by the Industrial Revolution and growing Nationalism in the world. Began in France. Attempts to portray the speech and mannerisms of everyday people in everyday life. Tends to focus on middle class social and domestic problems. Plays by Ibsen are an example. Naturalism evolved from Realism, following it briefly in art and more enduringly in theater, film, and literature. Impressionism, based on 'scientific' knowledge and discoveries concerns observing nature and reality objectively.
    • See: Fauvism — Post-impressionism — Pre-Raphaelite

Greco-Roman refers to the culture of Ancient Greece and Classical Rome and reflects the essential unity of the Mediterranean world at the time when those cultures flourished, between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Rome | Ancient Greece ... i rule:Forum Romanum panorama 2. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Classical sculpture refers to the forms of sculpture from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture (building executed to an aesthetically considered design) was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) until the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... The uncompleted Doric temple at Segesta, Sicily, has been waiting for finishing of its surfaces since 430–420 BC The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Cynicism (Greek κυνισμός) was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics, founded by Antisthenes. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ... The Romans adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for their own purposes, which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new architectural style. ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ... Romanesque St. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... See also Gothic art. ... Gregorian chant is also known as plainchant or plainsong and is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied singing, which was developed in the Catholic church, mainly during the period 800-1000. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ... Nominalism is the position in metaphysics that there exist no universals outside of the mind. ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on our ability to determine what is right using the qualities innate to humanity, particularly rationality. ... In the traditional view, the Renaissance is understood as an historical age that was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the Reformation. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe from the end of the 14th century to about 1600. ... By region Italian Renaissance Spanish Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain, originating from the Italian Renaissance in Italy, that spread during the 15th and 16th centuries. ... This article is about the cultural movement known as the English Renaissance. ... Mannerism is the term used to describe the artistic style that arose in mid-16th century. ... Mannerism is the usual English term for an approach to all the arts, particularly painting but not exclusive to it, a reaction to the High Renaissance, emerging after the Sack of Rome in 1527 shook Renaissance confidence, humanism and rationality to their foundations, and even Religion had split apart. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 to 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... Categories: 1600s ... For other things named Descartes, see Descartes (disambiguation). ... Renaissance Classicism was a form of art that removed extraneous detail and showed the world as it was. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Realism in art and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear, without embellishment or interpretation. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate... Henrik Johan Ibsen (March 20, 1828–May 23, 1906) was an extremely influential Norwegian playwright who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern realistic drama. ... For other meanings see Naturalism. ... Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists who began publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for wild beasts), a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... A Hundred Years of Independence by Henri Rousseau Post-impressionism is a term applied to painting styles of the late 19th and early 20th centuries — after impressionism. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... Art nouveau /É‘Ê€ nuvo/ (French for new art) is a style in art, architecture and design that peaked in popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-nineteenth century. ... Modernism is a cultural movement that generally includes the progressive art and architecture, music, literature and design which emerged in the decades before 1914. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubist house in Prague Cubism is usually regarded as the most important and influential art movement since the Italian Renaissance; it was an avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture in the early 20th century. ... // Early years Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Constructivism is a recent development in philosophy which criticizes essentialism, whether it is in the form of medieval realism, classical rationalism, or empiricism. ... Kay Sage. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Bauhaus (2003). ... Dutch De Stijl (pr. ... Precisionism is an artform that is a type of minimalism. ... This USPS stamp illustrates Pollocks drip technique. ... House I, created by Roy Lichtenstein in 1996, is designed to be an optical illusion. ... Photorealism is the quality of resembling a photograph, generally in a hyperrealistic sense. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... It has been suggested that postmodernity be merged into this article or section. ... The term deconstruction was coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the 1960s and is used in contemporary humanities and social sciences to denote a philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed and understood by writers, texts, and readers. ... Conceptual art, sometimes called idea art, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved are considered the real substance of the art, in distinction to the traditional expectation of a made art object to be the criterion. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... Postmodernism may appear as the ultimate phase of modernism; it expresses what may happen in art after the modernist project appears to have ended. ... In literary and critical theory, posthumanism, meaning beyond humanism, is a European emergent philosophy and is the dominant secular, rational humanist philosophy. ...

See also

An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time (usually a few months, years or decades). ... This is a list of art movements. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ... The history of philosophy tracks the multitudinous theories which aim at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom on fundamental matters as diverse as reality, knowledge, meaning, value, being and truth. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... Self-declared art movments are art movements that have been declared by individual artists or groups, but whose influence has not spread widely beyond the circle of their immediate collaborators. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ...

External links

  • Alphabetical list of some movements, styles, discoveries and facts on the World History Timeline chart

  Results from FactBites:
Cultural movement - Wikinfo (1312 words)
A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work.
When cultural movements go through revolutions from one to the next, genres tend to get attacked and mixed up, and often new genres are generated and old ones fade.
Beginning in the early 1600s with Cartesian thought (see Rene Descartes), this movement provided philosophical frameworks for the natural sciences, sought to determine the principles of knowledge by rejecting all things previously believed to be known about the world.
George Gerbner Series (8022 words)
Professor Gerbner, in 1990, launched a "Cultural Environmental Movement" (see Part III of this study guide) whose broad aims are to support media education, work for democratic media reform, place cultural issues on the sociopolitical agenda, and develop ways of participation in local, national and international cultural policy-making.
Culture is the set of stories that tell us about the nature of the universe, how it is created and run, and the right and wrong modes of conduct within a particular time, place, and society.
It is part of the cultural indicators project, an ongoing research effort to relate recurrent features of the world of television to viewer conceptions of reality, conducted by Dr. Gerbner and based at the Annenberg School.
  More results at FactBites »



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