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Encyclopedia > Cultural appropriation

Cultural appropriation is the adoption of some specific elements of one culture by a different cultural group. It denotes acculturation or assimilation, but often connotes a negative view towards acculturation from a minority culture by a dominant culture.[1][2] It can include the introduction of forms of dress or personal adornment, music and art, religion, language, or social behavior. These elements, once removed from their indigenous cultural contexts, may take on meanings that are significantly divergent from, or merely less nuanced than, those they originally held. Or, they may be stripped of meaning altogether. Pocahontas, in England, as Mrs John Rolfe, 1616: engraving after Simon Van de Passe Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organised sounds and silence. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...

Contents

Overview

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The term cultural appropriation can have a negative connotation. It generally is applied when the subject culture is a minority culture or somehow subordinate in social, political, economic, or military status to the appropriating culture; or, when there are other issues involved, such as a history of ethnic or racial conflict between the two groups. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The term race serves to distinguish between populations or groups of people based on different sets of characteristics which are commonly determined through social conventions. ...


To many, the term implies that culture can actually be "stolen" through cultural diffusion.


Cultural appropriation may be defined differently in different cultures. While academics in a country such as the United States, where racial dynamics had been a cause of cultural segmentation, may see many instances of intercultural communication as cultural appropriation, other countries may identify such communication as a melting pot effect. Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...


An example of this concept in the United States would be the stigma towards white rappers (sometimes referred to as wiggers or wannabes). Elvis Presley is known by many for his cultural appropriation of black musical traditions. While some have claimed he has "stolen" black music, others, such as James Brown, refer to him as a "soul brother."[citation needed] This debate raises questions over whether culture can be stolen. Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006), commonly referred to as The Godfather of Soul and The Hardest Working Man in Show Business, was an American entertainer recognized as one of the most influential figures in 20th century popular music. ...


Cultural appropriation has also been seen as a site of resistance to dominant society when members of a marginalized group take and alter aspects of dominant culture to assert their agency and resistance. This is exemplified in the novel Crick Crack, Monkey by Merle Hodge when those who are colonized appropriate the culture of the colonizers. Another historical example were the Mods in the UK in the 1960s, working class youth who appropriated and exaggerated the highly tailored clothing of the upper middle class. Objections have been raised to such political cultural appropriation, citing class warfare and identity politics. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


In some cases, appropriation can occur to the point to where the dominating culture will credit itself for the establishment of the expressive element.[citation needed] For example, some believe that Elvis invented rock and roll[citation needed], which he did not.


Support

Justin Britt-Gibson's article for the Washington Post looked at the appropriation of his African-American culture as a sign of progress: Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Throngs of dreadlocked Italians were smoking joints, drinking beer, grooving to the rhythms of Bob Marley, Steel Pulse and other reggae icons. Most striking was how comfortable these Italians seemed in their appropriated shoes, adopting a foreign culture and somehow making it theirs. The scene reinforced my sense of how far we've come since the days when people dressed, talked and celebrated only that which sprang from their own background. For the first time in my life, I was fully aware of the spiritual concept that we're all simply one.

That sense hasn't left me. Everywhere I look, I see young people -- such as my two younger brothers, a Japanese-anime-obsessed 11-year-old and a pastel-Polo-sporting 21-year-old -- adopting styles, hobbies and attitudes from outside the culture in which they were raised. Last month in a Los Angeles barbershop, I was waiting to get my trademark Afro cut when I noticed a brother in his late teens sitting, eyes closed, as the barber clipped his hair into a " 'frohawk," the punk-inspired African American adaptation of the mohawk. Asked why he chose the look, the guy, without looking up, shrugged, "Something different." Immediately, I understood. Minutes later, his "different" cut became my new look.[1] Dreadlocks, sometimes called simply dreads or locks, are matted ropes of hair which will form by themselves if the hair is allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors or scissors for a long period of time. ... Robert Nesta Marley OM (February 6, 1945 – May 11, 1981) was a Jamaican singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Opposition

Examples

A common sort of cultural appropriation is the adoption of the iconography of another culture. Obvious examples include tattoos of Hindu gods, Polynesian tribal iconography, Chinese characters, or Celtic bands worn by people who have no interest in, or understanding of, their cultural significance. When these artifacts are regarded as objects that merely "look cool," or when they are mass produced cheaply as consumer kitsch, people who venerate and wish to preserve their indigenous cultural traditions may be offended. In Australia, Aboriginal artists have discussed an 'authenticity brand' to ensure consumers are aware of artworks claiming false Aboriginal significance [3]. The movement for such a measure has gained momentum after the 1999 conviction of John O'Loughlin for fraud, for the sale of works described as Aboriginal but painted by non-indigenous artists [4]. Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the tattoo, a design in ink or some other pigment, usually decorative or symbolic, placed permanently under the skin. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... http://www. ... 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hànzì, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tự. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Muiredacha Cross. ... A cultural artifact is an man-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... Look up Cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Kitsch is a German term that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... Aboriginal hollow log tomb Australian Aboriginal art is art done by Australian Aborigines, covering art that pre-dates European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aborigines based on traditional culture. ...


Looking back in history, some of the most hotly debated cases of cultural appropriation occur in places where cultural exchange is the highest, such as along the trade routes in southwestern Asia and southeastern Europe. For instance, some scholars of the Ottoman empire and ancient Egypt argue that Ottoman and Egyptian architectural traditions have long been falsely claimed and praised as Persian or Arab, [5] and Greco-Roman, innovations, respectively. World map showing the location of Asia. ... This article is very long. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ...


In Serbia, many foods and drinks had been appropriated from the Ottomans. For example, some consider Moussaka to be a Serbian national food, while in fact it was brought by a foreign influence. Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Musakka/Moussakas Moussaka ([musaka]; Greek: ; Romanian: ; Turkish: ; South Slavic: мусака/​musaka; Armenian: ; Arabic: ‎ musaqqaa) is a traditional eggplant (aubergine)-based dish in the Balkans and the Middle East, but most closely associated with Greece and Turkey. ...


A more subtle example is brass band music (trubaci). While this kind of music is almost exclusively performed by Romani people, who may not consider themselves Serbs, many people of Serbian origin will consider this to be their own style. Romani (or Romany) relates to: The Roma people, sometimes referred to as Gypsies. Romani language, the language of the Roma. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


On the other hand, when the middle-class Slovenian band Pankrti adopted the style of London punk music rooted in unemployment and other issues specific to the UK, it was seen in Yugoslavia as the spread of British culture and its adaptation to the local setting. Pankrti (The Bastards in Slovenian) were a punk rock band from Ljubljana, Slovenia, active in the late seventies and eighties. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


In some cases, groups may agree that a particular tradition has been culturally appropriated, but disagree as to which group is the authentic heir to the tradition, and which is the appropriator. For example, in the ongoing dispute between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, each side has accused the other of falsely appropriating the cultural legacy of Macedon and Alexander the Great.[6] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


African American culture historically has been the subject of aggressive cultural appropriation, especially elements of its music, dance, slang, dress, and demeanor. (See blackface.) For example, artists such as Eminem, a white American who adopted a traditionally African American music and style, may be perceived this way. African American culture is both part of, and distinct from American culture. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem, is an American Grammy and Academy Award Winning rapper, record producer, and actor from Detroit, Michigan. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Another prominent example of cultural appropriation is the use of real or imaginary elements of Native American culture by North American summer camps, by organizations such as the Boy Scouts of America, or by New age spiritual leaders (see Plastic shamans). Many summer camps, and many age-segregated groups of campers within summer camps, are named after real Native American tribes (Mohawk, Seminole, etc.); tipis are common at summer camps (even at an enormous distance from the Great Plains); and rituals often evoke Native American culture, using phrases like "the Great Spirit," for example. The Boy Scout honor society is called the Order of the Arrow. A Hupa man. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Summer camp is a common destination for children and teenagers during the summer months in some countries. ... For the Boy Scout program within the BSA, see Boy Scouts (Boy Scouts of America). ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Mohawk (Kanienkeh or Kanienkehaka meaning People of the Flint) are an indigenous people of North America who live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... The Flag of the Seminoles of Florida, adopted in 1979 The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, and now residing in that state and in Oklahoma. ... A tipi of the Nez Perce tribe. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... The Great Spiritpoo is a conception of a supreme being prevalent among Native American and First Nations cultures. ... In the USA, an honor society (or honour society) is an organization of rank, the induction into which recognizes excellence among ones peers. ... The Order of the Arrow (OA) is a program of the Boy Scout division of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ...


In some cases, a culture usually viewed as the target of cultural appropriation can become the agent of appropriation. For example, the government of Ghana has been accused of cultural appropriation in adopting the Caribbean holiday of Emancipation Day and marketing it to African American tourists as an "African festival."[2]. Emancipation Day is a national holiday in Trinidad and Tobago which celebrates the Emancipation of slaves in the British Empire on August 1, 1834. ...


A bindi dot when worn as a decorative item by a non-Hindu woman could be considered cultural appropriation,[3] along with the use of henna in mehndi as a decoration outside traditional ceremonies. Indian woman with bindi Collection of modern bindis A bindi (Hindi: meaning dot) is a forehead decoration worn in South Asia[1] and Southeast Asia It may also be called a tilak. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Henna (Lawsonia inermis, syn. ... Mehandi on a hand Another intricate Mehandi pattern Mehndi (or mehendi or mehandi or mylanji or gorantak) is the application of henna (Hindustani: हेना حنا) as a temporary form of skin decoration, most popular in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Somaliland as well as expatriate communities from these areas. ...


Non-Arabs or non-Palestinians wearing a keffiyeh might be seen[attribution needed] as appropriating a symbol of Palestinian nationalism, although in practice, the people "appropriating" the symbol are generally showing their support of the Palestinian causes. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... An Iraqi man wearing a predominantly red keffiyeh in a Charraweyya (جراوية) style. ... Palestinian nationalism is a nationalist ideology which calls for the creation of a Palestinian state in all or part of the former British Mandate of Palestine. ...


The metrosexual fashion is often seen as[attribution needed] a form of cultural appropriation of gay culture by straight men. This view is parodied in the South Park episode "South Park is Gay!" On the other hand, gay skinheads are sometimes seen as appropriating the ultramasculine skinhead subculture. Homomasculinity is also observed as an obvious example of the gay male community adopting traits that are strongly associated with heterosexual males (i.e. gay males obsessing with cars, motorcycles, body-building, sports, militarism, blue collar labor etc.). Metrosexuality is the trait of a sophisticated man who has a strong aesthetic sense and spends a substantial amount of time and money on his appearance and lifestyle. ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... South Park is an American, Emmy Award-winning[1] animated television comedy series about four fourth-grade school boys who live in the small town of South Park, Colorado. ... South Park Is Gay! is episode 708 (the 104th) of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... A Gay skinhead, also known as a gayskin or queerskin, is a gay person who identifies with the skinhead subculture, often (though not necessarily) out of sexual interest. ... Skinheads, named after their cropped or shaven heads, are members of a working class subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s, where they were heavily influenced by the rude boys of the West Indies and the mods of the UK. In subsequent decades, the skinhead subculture spread to other... Homomasculinity is a term used to describe a subculture of gay men who self-identify with the imagery, culture, and gender role of what is normally seen as traditional, straight male masculinity. Homomasculine men may demonstrate traits that include, but are not limited to, an interest or participation in sports... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motorcyclists take a break from the road A motorcycle or motorbike is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. ... Bodybuilder Anders Graneheim (Sweden) Bodybuilding is the sport of developing muscle fibers through the combination of weight training, increased caloric intake, and rest. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ...


Controversy has arisen concerning the usage of the leprechaun mascot by the Boston Celtics basketball club and the University of Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team. Some people of Irish ancestry see the usage as an example of cultural appropriation and even racism. Leprechauns appear in many Celtic mythological motifs, and the reduction of this mythological figure to a set of stereotypes and clich├ęs may be perceived as offensive. [7][8] A common term amongst the Irish for someone who appropriates or misrepresents Irish culture is Plastic Paddy.[4] A modern stereotypical depiction of a Leprechaun of the type popularised in the 20th Century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Head Coach Charlie Weis 2nd Year, 19-6 Home Stadium Notre Dame Stadium Capacity 80,795 - Grass Conference Independent First Year 1887 Athletic Director Dr. Kevin White Website UND.com Team Records All-time Record 821-269-42 (.744) Postseason Bowl Record 13-15 Awards Wire National Titles 8 Heisman... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Look up Plastic Paddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Pocahontas, in England, as Mrs John Rolfe, 1616: engraving after Simon Van de Passe Acculturation is the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen Ansgar, the 9th century apostle of the North in an 1830 drawing. ... Coolitude is a term referring to the cultural interaction of the Indian or Chinese diaspora, and any migratory episode seen through its variegated aspects. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Look up Plastic Paddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wigger (often spelled wigga or whigger or whigga) is a slang term that refers to a white person who emulates mannerisms, slangs and fashions stereotypically associated with urban African American; especially in relation to hip hop culture. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Race Isn't a Factor When My Generation Chooses Friends.
  2. ^ Jennifer Hasty, "Rites of Passage, Routes of Redemption: Emancipation Tourism and the Wealth of Culture", Africa Today, Volume 49, Number 3, Fall 2002, pp. 47-76. Indiana University Press. PDF available on subscription site muse.jhu.edu.
  3. ^ Salil Tripathi, Hindus and Kubrick, The New Statesman, 20 September 1999. Accessed online 23 November 2006.
  4. ^ Arrowsmith, Aidan (April 1, 2000). "Plastic Paddy: Negotiating Identity in Second-generation 'Irish-English' Writing". Irish Studies Review 8 (1): 35-43. DOI:10.1080/09670880050005093. 

  • Reckless Borrowing or Appropriate Cultural Sharing? by Jaqui James

September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Review of Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation from the 'University of Toronto Quarterly'
  • Model Minority: Chinese Tattoos / Year of the Dragon / Commodifying Buddhism
  • Intellectual Property in the Dreamtime

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Cultural appropriation (4033 words)
Cultural appropriation is the adoption of elements of cultural expression of one societal group, such as forms of dress or personal adornment, music and art, religion, language, or behavior, by an external group, who often ignore the underlying purpose and intent of the expression.
When combined with cultural appropriation, particularly if the cultural expression in its original context has attendant religious or spiritual value, or is an important factor in forging group identity, some people may feel that the subject culture has been cheapened, co-opted, or made the appropriation a "meaningless" part of pop culture.
A common sort of cultural appropriation is the adoption of the iconography of another culture.
FOOTPRINTS IN NEW SNOW: POSTMODERNISM OR CULTURAL APPROPRIATION? (9016 words)
The difference between (genuine) postmodern practice and cultural appropriation, or even plagiarism, is that the latter parasitically feed on the meaning and significance of the borrowed material; in fact they have no meaning and significance of their own apart from the borrowing.
Cultural appropriation and plagiarism are morally questionable on the grounds that they pretend to make a statement and furthermore claim authorship for the said statement, while in fact the entire statement can easily exist within quotation marks.
In cultural contexts where protectionism is regarded as preferable to a system of free and uninhibited cultural flow and exchange, the moral question that still remains is whether this type of borrowing is justifiable or defensible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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