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Encyclopedia > Cultural Marxism
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Cultural Marxism is a form of Marxism that adds an analysis of the role of the media, art, theatre, film and other cultural institutions in a society, often with an added emphasis on race and gender in addition to class. The term "Cultural Bolshevism" or in German "Kulturbolschewismus" has been used in a similar meaning. As a form of political analysis, Cultural Marxism gained strength in the 1920s, and was the model used by a group of intellectuals in Germany known as the Frankfurt School; and later by another group of intellectuals at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies in Birmingham, England. The fields of Cultural Studies and Critical theory are rooted in (and remain influenced by) Cultural Marxism. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Cultural studies combines sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in industrial societies. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ...


Conservatives, especially PaleoConservatives, have long been critical of Cultural Marxism, claiming it was formulated as a way to subvert western civilization using methods other than direct political action. Further to the political right, William S. Lind, Patrick J. Buchanan and others state that Cultural Marxists seek to control society by manipulating language, the media, and academia by way of political correctness by employing the Frankfurt School's "Critical theory." Cultural Marxists scoff at these charges.[1] The term "Cultural Marxism" was also used by the left to describe a particular critique of culture--especially fascist culture--not to describe an aspect of fascism or to suggest that fascism and Marxism share cultural attributes. Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) is an anti-authoritarian[1] right wing movement based primarily in the United States that stresses tradition, civil society and classical federalism, along with familial, religious, regional, national and Western identity. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... William S. Lind is director of the Center for Cultural Conservatism at the Free Congress Foundation. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ...

Contents

Background

The Frankfurt School is shorthand for the members and allies of the Institute for Social Research of the University of Frankfurt. In the 1930s the Frankfurt School was forced out of Germany by the rise of the Nazi Party and moved to New York. The Institute for Social Research (German: Institut für Sozialforschung) is a research organization covering topics such as sociology and continental philosophy, best known as the institutional home of the Frankfurt School. ... University of Frankfurt may refer to two (or three) German universities: the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) in Frankfurt am Main the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) (Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)) in Frankfurt (Oder), or its historical predecessor...


According to Marxist professor Douglas Kellner, "Many 20th century Marxian theorists ranging from Georg Lukacs, Antonio Gramsci, Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, and T.W. Adorno to Fredric Jameson and Terry Eagleton employed the Marxian theory to analyze cultural forms in relation to their production, their imbrications with society and history, and their impact and influences on audiences and social life." The Frankfurt School also influenced scholars such as Max Horkheimer, Wilhelm Reich, Eric Fromm and Herbert Marcuse. [1] [2] Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, and a member of Sigmund Freuds inner circle. ... Eric Fromm (born June 27, 1958 in Queens, New York) is a former tennis player from the United States, who did not won a single title during his professional career. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Kellner explains:

Cultural Marxism was highly influential throughout Europe and the Western world, especially in the 1960s when Marxian thought was at its most prestigious and procreative. Theorists like Roland Barthes and the Tel Quel group in France, Galvano Della Volpe, Lucio Colletti, and others in Italy, Fredric Jameson, Terry Eagleton, and cohort of 1960s cultural radicals in the English-speaking world, and a large number of theorists throughout the globe used cultural Marxism to develop modes of cultural studies that analyzed the production, interpretation, and reception of cultural artifacts within concrete socio-historical conditions that had contested political and ideological effects and uses. One of the most famous and influential forms of cultural studies, initially under the influence of cultural Marxism, emerged within the Centre for contemporary cultural studies in Birmingham, England within a group often referred to as the Birmingham School.[3]

See also: Marxism, Frankfurt School, Critical theory (Frankfurt School), Postmodernity, Cultural hegemony, Cultural studies, and Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Cultural hegemony is the concept that a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination. ... Cultural studies combines sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in industrial societies. ... The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham. ...

Critique of Cultural Marxism from the political right

In 1932 Pope Pius XI advised the Centre Party to work with Hitler's National Socialists in a coalition to stop what was called the "cultural Bolshevizing" of Germany. At the time, both were seen by conservatives as criticisms of forms of socialism. (For a discussion of the disputed claims that Hitler's Nazi party remained a form of socialism after Hitler gained power, see Fascism and ideology.) Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Centre Party is the designation of several parties and might refer to: Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond) Centre Party (Faroe Islands) (Miðflokkurin) Centre Party (Finland) (Suomen Keskusta) Centre Party (Germany) (Deutsche Zentrumspartei, or merely Zentrum) Centre Party (Hungary) (Centrumpárt) National Centre Party (Ireland) Centre Party (Israel) (Mifleget Hamerkaz... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ...


After World War I many reactionaries and conservatives viewed “Modern art” as a form of cultural degeneration which they linked with Marxism. Some of these attacks were influenced by Max Nordau's Entartung (Degeneration). Bauhaus, Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, and other art movements were attacked as forms of "Cultural Bolshevism." Anton Webern's music was denounced as "Cultural Bolshevism." This became a major theme of the German National Socialists. In 1933 Paul Renner published an anti-Nazi pamphlet titled “Kulturbolschewismus?” (Cultural Bolshevism), attacking the German government's campaign against modern art and architecture, called Degenerate art by the German government. [2] Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Conservatism is a political philosophy that generally favors free markets, traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... Modern art is a general term used for most of the artistic production from the late 19th century until approximately the 1970s. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Max Simon Nordau (July 29, 1849 - January 23, 1923), born Simon Maximilian Südfeld, Südfeld Simon Miksa in Pest, Hungary, was a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. ... Reconstructed main building of the Bauhaus Dessau (2003). ... The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse Les Fauves (French for Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubist house in Prague Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image:Http://www. ... Modern art is a general term used for most of the artistic production from the late 19th century until approximately the 1970s. ... Modern architecture is a broad term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the Nazi exhibition of degenerate art. ...


In any case, after World War II, conservatives remained suspicious of socialism and what was called "social engineering," and an argument was made that Cultural Marxists and the Frankfurt School helped spark the radical left social movements of the 1960s as part of a continuing plan of transferring Marxist subversion into cultural terms in the form of Freudo-Marxism.[3] Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ...


Conservatives note that Gyorgy Lukacs once asked “Who will free us from Western civilization?” The conclusion is that Cultural Marxists seek to undermine western civilisation by attacking its moral and ideological basis because (conservatives claim) "Cultural Marxists think that the Christian religion and its values, particularly sexual morality, demotivate the working classes from rising up and revolting against the class system, and that such values need to be rejected." [4] According to Patrick J Buchanan; "...what I called cultural Marxism and militant secularism are clearly winning in the United States of America." Marxism has lost in the arenas of economics and politics, but has won the Culture War. According to Buchanan, the Italian marxist, Antonio Gramsci, led an offensive to de-Christianize and destroy the values of western civilization that has been largely successful. [5] Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 - June 4, 1971) was a Hegelian and Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Pat Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies the production, distribution, and consumption of resources. ... Politics is the process by which individuals or relatively small groups attempt to exert influence over the actions of an organization. ... The term culture war (sometimes pluralized as the culture wars) has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since the 1960s, but especially beginning in the 1980s. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Patrick J Buchanan in his book "The Death of the West", provides a criticism of the Frankfurt School and Cultural Marxism: Pat Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ...

The four horsemen of the school were music critic Theodor Adorno, psychologist Erich Fromm, sociologist Wilhelm Reich and professor Herbert Marcuse. Their ideas, echoing through the halls of academia and from the ink stained hands of writers and journalists, would lead to, as Buchanan calls it, the establishment of today’s politically correct catechism. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Erich Fromm Erich Pinchas Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned German-American psychologist and humanistic philosopher. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, and a member of Sigmund Freuds inner circle. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ...

The original strategy to destroy America, employed by the Frankfurt School, came from Italian Communist Antonio Gramsci who realized that in order to achieve a Socialist victory, cultural institutions would have to be infiltrated and subverted. Gramsci realized that America, steeped in traditions of freedom and liberty, would never to succumb to a frontal assault.... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ...

Brandeis professor Herbert Marcuse, was the pied piper of the sixties as he fostered the development of, as Buchanan points out, 'radical youth, feminists, black militants, homosexuals, the alienated, the asocial, Third World revolutionaries, all the angry voices of the persecuted ‘victims’ of the West.' .... He calls for 'Repressive Tolerance' which means 'intolerance against movements from the right, and toleration of movements from the left.'


Paul Gottfried in his book "The Strange Death of Marxism" states Marxism survived and evolved since the fall of the Soviet Union in the form of Cultural Marxism: Paul Gottfried Paul Edward Gottfried is Raffensperger Professor of Humanities at Elizabethtown College and a Guggenheim recipient. ...

Neomarxists called themselves Marxists without accepting all of Marx’s historical and economic theories but while upholding socialism against capitalism, as a moral position …. Thereafter socialists would build their conceptual fabrics on Marx’s notion of “alienation,” extracted from his writings of the 1840s …. [they] could therefore dispense with a strictly materialist analysis and shift … focus toward religion, morality, and aesthetics. ...

Is the critical observation about the Frankfurt School therefore correct, that it exemplifies ‘cultural Bolshevism,’ which pushes Marxist-Leninist revolution under a sociological-Freudian label? To the extent its practitioners and despisers would both answer to this characterization, it may in fact be valid … but if Marxism under the Frankfurt School has undergone [these] alterations, then there may be little Marxism left in it. The appeal of the Critical Theorists to Marx has become increasingly ritualistic and what there is in the theory of Marxist sources is now intermingled with identifiably non-Marxist ones …. In a nutshell, they had moved beyond Marxism … into a militantly antibourgeois stance that operates independently of Marxist economic assumptions. [6]

See also:

Criticism of Marcuse

Instead of using direct political action, Herbert Marcuse argued in his 1965 essay Repressive Tolerance, that what is needed is a form of tolerance against intolerance, to break the "Repressive Establishment." Marcuse, in his 1954 book Eros and Civilization, had already argued for a form of utopianism based on an individual's striving towards pleasure, because that would break the struggle between "eros" and "thanatos." This striving for pleasure is a form of absolute egalitarianism though, because the "needs" and "wants" and "demands" of each individual are absolute in terms of critical theory. The moral and cultural relativist language by the "Establishment" does not allow for any notion of "good" and "bad," and thus in the present epoch, cannot decide upon which individual "needs" and "wants" are "good" or "bad." Marcuse on the other hand is a nihilist, he sees no "nature of man," instincts are beyond "good" and "evil." Thus without notions of "good" and "evil" Marcuse allows for Nietzschean notions of ethics which serve to exacerbate the same fascist phenomena he thought he was opposing.[4][citation needed] Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ... Repressive Tolerance is the title of a 1965 essay by Herbert Marcuse. ... Eros and Civilization is one of the Herbert Marcuses best known early works. ... Eros is the Greek word for (especially) romantic or sexual love. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thanatos (Freud). ... Egalitarianism can refer to moral as well as factual theories. ... In philosophy, moral relativism takes the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect absolute and universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. ... Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual humans beliefs and activities make sense in terms of his or her own culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Nihilism is a philosophical position, often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche (though he considered it something to be overcome), which argues that the world, and especially past and current human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ...


Criticsm of the concept

According to Bill Berkowitz, "It's not clear whether this diffusion of the cultural Marxism conspiracy theory into the mainstream will continue. Certainly, the anti-Semitism that underlies much of the scenario suggests that it may be repudiated in the coming years. But for now, the spread of this particular theory is a classic case of concepts that originated on the radical right slowly but surely making their way into the American mind. [5]


The Southern Poverty Law Center states that "Lind's theory was one that has been pushed since the mid-1990s by the Free Congress Foundation — the idea that a small group of German philosophers, known as the Frankfurt School, had devised a cultural form of Marxism that was aimed at subverting Western civilization".

At a major Holocaust denial conference put on by veteran anti-Semite Willis Carto in Washington, D.C., Lind gave a well-received speech before some 120 "historical revisionists," conspiracy theorists, neo-Nazis and other anti-Semites, in which he identified a small group of people who he said had poisoned American culture. On this point, Lind made a powerful connection with his listeners.

'These guys,' he explained, 'were all Jewish.' [6]

According to Richard Lichtman, a social psychology professor at the Wright Institute at Berkeley, the Frankfurt School is "a convenient target that very few people really know anything about...."By grounding their critique in Marxism and using the Frankfurt School, [cultural conservatives] make it seem like it's quite foreign to anything American. It takes on a mysterious cast and translates as an incomprehensible, anti-American, foreign movement that is only interested in undermining the U.S." Lichtman says that the "idea being transmitted is that we are being infected from the outside." Lichtman quoted in "Reframing the Enemy."


References

  1. ^ Douglas Kellner, "Cultural Marxism and Cultural Studies," circa 2004.
  2. ^ Douglas Kellner, "Herbert Marcuse," Illuminations, University of Texas, online.
  3. ^ Douglas Kellner, "Cultural Marxism and Cultural Studies," circa 2004.
  4. ^ Eidelberg, Paul (1969). "The Temptation of Herbert Marcuse". Review of Politics 31 (4): 442-458.
  5. ^ Bill Bekowitz, "Reframing the Enemy: 'Cultural Marxism,' a conspiracy theory with an anti-Semitic twist, is being pushed by much of the American right," Intelligence Report, Summer 2003. online
  6. ^ "Mainstreaming Hate: A key ally of Christian right heavyweight Paul Weyrich addresses a major Holocaust denial conference," Intelligence Report, Fall 2002.online

Paul Eidelberg is an internationally known political scientist, author and lecturer, and is the founder and president of The Foundation for Constitutional Democracy with offices in Jerusalem. ...

Further reading

  • Marcuse, Herbert (1955). Eros and civilization; a philosophical inquiry into Freud. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Wolff, Robert Paul, Marcuse, Herbert (1964). A critique of pure tolerance. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Leiss, William (1974). "Critical Theory and Its Future". Political Theory 2 (3): 330-349.
  • Eidelberg, Paul (1969). "The Temptation of Herbert Marcuse". Review of Politics 31 (4): 442-458.
  • Eidelberg, Paul (1970). "Intellectual and Moral Anarchy in American Society". Review of Politics 32 (1): 32-50.
  • Stokes, Jr., William S. (1980). "Emancipation: The Politics of West German Education". Review of Politics 42 (2): 191-215.
  • Davies, Ioan (1991). "British Cultural Marxism". International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 4 (3): 323-344. DOI:10.1007/BF01386507.
  • Gottfried, Paul (2005). The Strange Death of Marxism: The European Left in the New Millennium. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1597-1.
  • Dworkin, Dennis (1997). Cultural Marxism in Post War Britain: History, the New Left and the Origins of Cultural Studies. ISBN 0-8223-1914-4.

Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ... William Leiss, O.C., Ph. ... Paul Eidelberg is an internationally known political scientist, author and lecturer, and is the founder and president of The Foundation for Constitutional Democracy with offices in Jerusalem. ... Paul Eidelberg is an internationally known political scientist, author and lecturer, and is the founder and president of The Foundation for Constitutional Democracy with offices in Jerusalem. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a permanent identifier (permalink) given to a World Wide Web file or other Internet document so that if its Internet address changes, users will be redirected to its new address. ... Paul Gottfried Paul Edward Gottfried is Raffensperger Professor of Humanities at Elizabethtown College and a Guggenheim recipient. ...

See also

Cultural hegemony is the concept that a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination. ... Cultural studies combines sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in industrial societies. ... The term culture war (sometimes pluralized as the culture wars) has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since the 1960s, but especially beginning in the 1980s. ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the Nazi exhibition of degenerate art. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Freudo-Marxism is a loose designation of several twentieth-century critical theory schools of thought that sought to synthesize the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. ... Marxist film theory is one of the oldest forms of film theory. ... Marxist literary criticism is a loose term describing literary criticism informed by the philosophy or the politics of Marxism. ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) is an anti-authoritarian[1] right wing movement based primarily in the United States that stresses tradition, civil society and classical federalism, along with familial, religious, regional, national and Western identity. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ...

External links

  • Marxism and Multiculturalism
  • on critical theory
  • on Gramsci

 
 

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