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Encyclopedia > Cultural

The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning "to cultivate", generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of "culture" reflect different theoretical bases for understanding, or criteria for evaluating, human activity. Anthropologists most commonly use the term "culture" to refer to the universal human capacity to classify, codify and communicate their experiences symbolically. This capacity is long been taken as a defining feature of the genus Homo. However, primatologists such as Jane Goodall have identified aspects of culture among our closest relatives in the animal kingdom.[1] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Species Homo sapiens sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Primatology is the study of primates. ... Jane Goodall Dame Jane Goodall, DBE (born April 3, 1934) is an English primatologist, ethologist and anthropologist, probably best-known for conducting a forty-five year study of chimpanzee social and family life, as director of the Jane Goodall Institute in Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania. ...

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1675, 385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1675, 385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ...


Defining "culture"

Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society." As such, it includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, norms of behaviour and systems of belief.[2] A ritual is a formalised, predetermined set of symbolic actions generally performed in a particular environment at a regular, recurring interval. ...


Various definitions of culture reflect differing theories for understanding — or criteria for evaluating — human activity.


Sir Edward B. Tylor writing from the prespective of social anthropology in the U.K. in the late nineteenth century described culture in the following way: Edward Burnett Tylor. ... Cultural anthropology, also called social anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology, forms one of four commonly-recognized fields of anthropology, the holistic study of humanity. ...

"Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."[3]

More recently, the United Nations Economic, Social and Cultural Organization UNESCO (2002) described culture as follows: The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

"... culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs".[4]

While these two definitions cover a range of meaning, they do not exhaust the many uses of the term "culture." In 1952 Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of more than 200 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions[5] Alfred Louis Kroeber Alfred Louis Kroeber (June 11, 1876–October 5, 1960) was one of the most influential figures in American anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century. ... A Harvard sociologist of the first half of the twentieth century, Clyde Kluckhohn, advocated cross-cultural values, values that are in common across all cultures (e. ...


These definitions, and many others, provide a catalog of the elements of culture. The items catalogued (e.g., a law, a stone tool, a marriage) each have an existence and life-line of their own. They come into space-time at one set of coordinates and go out of it another. While here, they change, so that one may speak of the evolution of the law or the tool.


A culture, then, is by definition at least, a set of cultural objects. Anthropologist Leslie White asked: What sort of objects are they? Are they physical objects? Mental objects? Both? Metaphors? Symbols? Reifications? In Science of Culture, (1949), he concluded that they are objects "sui generis," i.e., of their own kind. In trying to define that kind, he hit upon a previously unrealized aspect of symbolization, which he called "the symbolate," i.e., an object created by the act of symbolization. He thus defined culture as: "symbolates understood in an extra-somatic context."[6] The key to this definition is the discovery of the symbolate. Leslie Alvin White ([19 January [1900]], Salida Colorado -- 31 March 1975) was an anthropologist known for his advocacy of theories of cultural evolution and his role in creating the department of anthropology at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor. ... The term somatic refers to the body. ...


Key components of culture

Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi in Africa
Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi in Africa

. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1086x720, 249 KB) en:: Initiation Ritual in Malawi Uploaded on April 4, 2005 by Steve Evans (babasteve) --Atamari 20:19, 29 May 2005 (UTC) Source: http://flickr. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1086x720, 249 KB) en:: Initiation Ritual in Malawi Uploaded on April 4, 2005 by Steve Evans (babasteve) --Atamari 20:19, 29 May 2005 (UTC) Source: http://flickr. ... Initiation rites are formalized, ceremonial rites of passage as an individual moves from stage to stage within a social career or formally acquires such status. ... 9 to 10 year old boys of the Yao tribe participating in circumcision and initiation rites (March 2005). ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ...


A common way of understanding culture sees it as consisting of four elements:

  1. values
  2. norms
  3. institutions
  4. artifacts.[7]

Values comprise ideas about what in life seems important. They guide the rest of the culture. Norms consist of expectations of how people will behave in various situations. Each culture has methods, called sanctions, of enforcing its norms. Sanctions vary with the importance of the norm; norms that a society enforces formally have the status of laws. Instututions are the structures of a society within which values and norms are transmitted. Artifacts—things, or apects of material culture—derive from a culture's values and norms. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... I archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ...

Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony.
Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony.

Julian Huxley gives a slightly different division, into inter-related "mentifacts", "socifacts" and "artifacts", for ideological, sociological, and technological subsystems respectively. Socialization, in Huxley's view, depends on the belief subsystem. The sociological subsystem governs interaction between people. Material objects and their use make up the technological subsystem.[8] Academic procession at the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony 2004. ... Academic procession at the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony 2004. ... The University of Canterbury is located in the suburbs of the city of Christchurch, New Zealand. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a British biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ...


As a rule, archeologists focus on material culture, whereas cultural anthropologists focus on symbolic culture, although ultimately both groups maintain interests in the relationships between these two dimensions. Moreover, anthropologists understand "culture" to refer not only to consumption goods, but to the general processes which produce such goods and give them meaning, and to the social relationships and practices in which such objects and processes become embedded. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Cultural anthropology, also called social anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology, forms one of four commonly-recognized fields of anthropology, the holistic study of humanity. ... In economics Final goods are goods that are ultimately consumed rather than used in the production of another good. ...


Ways of looking at culture

Culture as civilization

Many people today have an idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. This notion of culture reflected inequalities within European societies, and between European powers and their colonies around the world. It identifies "culture" with "civilization" and contrasts it with "nature." According to this way of thinking, one can classify some countries as more civilized than others, and some people as more cultured than others. Some cultural theorists have thus tried to eliminate popular or mass culture from the definition of culture. Theorists such as Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) or the Leavises regard culture as simply the result of "the best that has been thought and said in the world”[9] Arnold contrasted culture with social chaos or anarchy. On this account, culture links closely with social cultivation: the progressive refinement of human behavior. Arnold consistently uses the word this way: "... culture being a pursuit of our total perfection by means of getting to know, on all the matters which most concern us, the best which has been thought and said in the world".[9] World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Frank Raymond Leavis (July 14, 1895 - April 14, 1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ...

In practice, culture referred to élite goods and activities such as haute cuisine, high fashion or haute couture, museum-caliber art and classical music, and the word cultured described people who knew about, and took part in, these activities. For example, someone who used 'culture' in the sense of 'cultivation' might argue that classical music is more refined than music produced by working-class people, such as punk rock or the indigenous music traditions of aboriginal peoples of Australia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x681, 95 KB) xfer from wikipedia a better color reproduction w:Image:Degas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x681, 95 KB) xfer from wikipedia a better color reproduction w:Image:Degas. ... Edgar Degas Edgar Degas (July 19, 1834 – September 27, 1917) was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpting, and drawing. ... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Haute cuisine (literally high cooking in French) is a cookery style that originated in Napoleonic France under the influence of the chef Antoine Carême and was elaborated by Auguste Escoffier. ... Haute couture (French for high sewing or high dressmaking; IPA: ) refers to the creation of exclusive fashions. ... The National Gallery in London, a famous museum. ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ...


People who use the term "culture" in this way tend not to use it in the plural as "cultures". They do not believe that distinct cultures exist, each with their own internal logic and values; but rather that only a single standard of refinement suffices, against which one can measure all groups. Thus, according to this worldview, people with different customs from those who regard themselves as cultured do not usually count as "having a different culture," but are classed as "uncultured." People lacking "culture" often seemed more "natural," and observers often defended (or criticized) elements of high culture for repressing "human nature". Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ...


From the 18th century onwards, some social critics have accepted this contrast between cultured and uncultured, but have stressed the interpretation of refinement and of sophistication as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. On this account, folk music (as produced by working-class people) honestly expresses a natural way of life, and classical music seems superficial and decadent. Equally, this view often portrays Indigenous peoples as 'noble savages' living authentic unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly-stratified capitalist systems of the West. Folk Music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the common people. ... The term has no universal, standard or fixed definition. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered... This page deals with authenticity in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Today most social scientists reject the monadic conception of culture, and the opposition of culture to nature. They recognize non-élites as just as cultured as élites (and non-Westerners as just as civilized) -- simply regarding them as just cultured in a different way. Thus social observers contrast the "high" culture of élites to "popular" or pop culture, meaning goods and activities produced for, and consumed by the masses. (Note that some classifications relegate both high and low cultures to the status of subcultures.) The term monadic has multiple uses in mathematics: In category theory, an adjunction is monadic or tripleable if it is equivalent to the adjunction given by the Eilenberg-Moore algebras of its associated monad. ... Nature is innate behavior (behavior not learned or influenced by the environment), character or essence, especially of a human. ... Elite may refer to Elitism - the concept of social stratification by innate or social qualities Elite - computer software game Elite - a skilled hacker Leet - an online culture or attitude sometimes identified by frequent use of leetspeak Elite Systems, a UK video game developer. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in any given society. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Low culture is a derogatory term for some forms of popular culture. ... As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ...


Culture as worldview

During the Romantic era, scholars in Germany, especially those concerned with nationalist movements — such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire — developed a more inclusive notion of culture as "worldview." In this mode of thought, a distinct and incommensurable world view characterizes each ethnic group. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures. Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ...


By the late 19th century, anthropologists had adopted and adapted the term culture to a broader definition that they could apply to a wider variety of societies. Attentive to the theory of evolution, they assumed that all human beings evolved equally, and that the fact that all humans have cultures must in some way result from human evolution. They also showed some reluctance to use biological evolution to explain differences between specific cultures — an approach that either exemplified a form of, or segment of society vis a vis other segments and the society as a whole, they often reveal processes of domination and resistance. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... Domination is a supreme or preeminate control, rule, or governing; plural dominion. ... A resistance movement is a non-military group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ...


In the 1950s, subcultures — groups with distinctive characteristics within a larger culture — began to be the subject of study by sociologists. The 20th century also saw the popularization of the idea of corporate culture — distinct and malleable within the context of an employing organization or a workplace. In biology, a subculture in a population of a microorganism is when one microbe colony in such a population is transferred onto blank growth medium and allowed to freely reproduce. ... Organizational Culture refers to the values, beliefs and customs of an organization. ... An organization or organisation (read more about -ize vs -ise) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... For the IBM collaboration software product, see IBM Workplace. ...


Culture as symbols

The symbolic view of culture, the legacy of Clifford Geertz (1973) and Victor Turner (1967), holds symbols to be both the practices of social actors and the context that gives such practices meaning. Anthony P. Cohen (1985) writes of the "symbolic gloss" which allows social actors to use common symbols to communicate and understand each other while still imbuing these symbols with personal significance and meanings.[10] Symbols provide the limits of cultured thought. Members of a culture rely on these symbols to frame their thoughts and expressions in intelligible terms. In short, symbols make culture possible, reproducible and readable. They are the "webs of significance" in Weber's sense that, to quote Pierre Bourdieu (1977), "give regularity, unity and systematicity to the practices of a group."[11] Thus, for example:

The word stop has several possible meanings in the English language. ... A name is a verbal label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ... The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... The antagonist is the character (or group of characters, or, sometimes an institution) of a story who represents the opposition against which the heroes and/or protagonists must contend. ... Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or U.S. common law, or the person who holds such office. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A typical archetype, the cowboy, in the Wild West. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... A stock phrase is a spoken phrase which has little if any actual meaning of its own (a phatic expression); it carries meaning only through custom or context. ...

Culture as a stabilizing mechanism

Modern cultural theory also considers the possibility that (a) culture itself is a product of stabilization tendencies inherent in evolutionary pressures toward self-similarity and self-cognition of societies as wholes, or tribalisms. See Steven Wolfram's A new kind of science on iterated simple algorithms from genetic unfolding, from which the concept of culture as an operating mechanism can be developed,[12] and Richard Dawkins' The Extended Phenotype for discussion of genetic and memetic stability over time, through negative feedback mechanisms,[13] such as Wikipedia itself. The word tribalism can refer to two related but distinct concepts. ... Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959 in London) is a scientist known for his work in particle physics, cellular automata and computer algebra, and is the author of the computer program Mathematica. ... A New Kind of Science is a controversial book by Stephen Wolfram, published in 2002. ... Richard Dawkins Clinton Richard Dawkins DSc, FRS, FRSL (known as Richard Dawkins; born March 26, 1941) is an eminent British ethologist, evolutionary theorist, and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair in the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... Meme, (rhymes with cream and comes from Greek root with the meaning of memory and its derivative mimeme), is the term given to a unit of information that replicates from brains and inanimate stores of information, such as books and computers, to other brains or stores of information. ... Negative feedback is the process of feeding back to the input a part of a systems output, so as to reverse the direction of change of the output. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ) is an international Web-based free-content encyclopedia. ...


Cultures within a society

Large societies often have subcultures, or groups of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. The subculture may be distinctive because of the age of its members, or by their race, ethnicity, class or gender. The qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be aesthetic, religious, occupational, political, sexual or a combination of these factors. As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ... Hans Baldung Grien: The Ages And Death, c. ... For other senses of this word, see race (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Gender describes a classification using masculinity and femininity. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Occupation may refer to: the principal activity (job or calling) that earns money for a person (see List of occupations, employment, profession, business) the periods of time following a nations territory invasion by controlling enemy troops (see Military occupation) the act of settling onto an uninhabited tract of land... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ...


In dealing with immigrants groups and their cultures, there are essentially four approaches:

  • Monoculturalism: In most Old World nations, culture is very closely linked to nationalism, thus government policy is to assimilate immigrants.
  • Leading Culture: A model developed in Germany Bassam Tibi. The idea is that communities within a country can have an identity of their own, but they should at least support the core concepts of the culture on which the society is based.
  • Melting Pot: In the United States, the traditional view has been one of a melting pot where all the immigrant cultures are mixed and amalgamated without state intervention.
  • Multiculturalism: A policy that immigrants and others should preserve their cultures with the different cultures interacting peacefully within one nation.

The way nation states treat immigrant cultures rarely falls neatly into one or another of the above approaches. The degree of difference with the host culture (i.e., "foreignness"), the number of immigrants, attitudes of the resident population, the type of government policies that are enacted and the effectiveness of those policies all make it difficult to generalize about the effects. Similarly with other subcultures within a society, attitudes of the mainstream population and communications between various cultural groups play a major role in determining outcomes. The study of cultures within a society is complex and research must take into account a myriad of variables. Monoculturalism is the practice of actively preserving a culture to the exclusion of external influences. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... This societal model has been developed in Germany by the orientalist Bassam Tibi. ... Bassam Tibi, born 1944 in Damascus, is a political scientist of Syrian origin with German citizenship known for his analysis of international relations concerning Islamic countries and civilisation. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... Multiculturalism is a public policy approach for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a countrys borders. ...


Cultures by region

Main article: Culture by region

Many regional cultures have been influenced by contact with others, such as by colonization, trade, migration, mass media and religion. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... This article is about non-human migration. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ...

Africa

Though of many varied origins, African culture, especially Sub-Saharan African culture has been shaped by European colonialism, and is differentiated from North Africa from its lesser influence by Arab and Islamic culture. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...

Hopi man weaving on traditional loom in the USA.
Hopi man weaving on traditional loom in the USA.
Americas

The culture of the Americas is strongly influenced by: Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... Image File history File links Hopi man weaving a blanket; with back to cam- era and holding a wooden sley in both hands. ... The Hopi are a Native American nation who primarily live on the 1. ... World map showing the Americas America or the Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

  • peoples that inhabitated the continents before Europeans arrived,
  • Africa (The United States especially has a large African-American population, most of whom are descended from former slaves.), and
  • European immigration, especially Spanish, English, French, Portuguese, and Dutch.
Asia

Asia is not the cultural monolith that many in the west once regarded it as. However, within Asia there are several transnational cultural influences. In East Asia, Chinese writing is generally agreed to exert a unifying influence. Though Korea, Japan, and Vietnam are not Chinese speaking countries, their languages have been heavily influenced by Chinese and Chinese writing. Religion, especially Buddhism and Taoism have had an influence on the culture of East Asian countries (see section on Eastern religion and philosophy, below). There is also a shared social and moral philosophy derived from Confucianism. A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the first European explorers in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... 漢字 Chinese character in hànzì, hanja, kanji. ... Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographical area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama). ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Dao De Jing (ascribed to Laozi) and the Zhuangzi. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Chinese: 儒学, Pinyin: Rúxué‚ [ ] , literally The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ...


Hinduism and Islam have for hundreds of years exerted cultural influence on various peoples of South Asia. Similarly, Buddhism is pervasive in Southeast Asia. Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion that orginated from the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... South Asia is a southern geopolitical region of the Asian continent comprising territories on and in proximity to the Indian subcontinent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Australia

Much of Australia's culture is derived from European and American roots, but distinctive Australian features have evolved from the environment and Aboriginal culture. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...

Europe

European culture also has a broad influence beyond the continent of Europe due to the legacy of colonialism. In this broader sense it is sometimes referred to as Western culture. See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


This is most easily seen the spread of the European languages. Dominant influences include ancient Greece, ancient Rome, and Christianity. Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ...

Middle East and North Africa

Perhaps the defining characteristic of the Middle East and North Africa is Islam and variations of the Arab language, though this region is also home to Israel and Judaism, and significant Christian minorities. Further, several groups which are adherents to Islam do not consider themselves Arab. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ...


Belief systems

Main article: Religion
Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. Islamic art has been mainly abstract and decorative, portraying geometric, floral, Arabesque, and calligraphic designs. Islamic art does not include depictions of human beings, as Muslims believe this tempts followers of the Prophet to idolatry.
Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. Islamic art has been mainly abstract and decorative, portraying geometric, floral, Arabesque, and calligraphic designs. Islamic art does not include depictions of human beings, as Muslims believe this tempts followers of the Prophet to idolatry.

Religion and other belief systems are often integral to a culture. Religion, from the Latin religare, meaning "to bind fast", is a feature of cultures throughout human history. The Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion defines religion in the following way: Image File history File links Image provided by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Image provided by Zereshk. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... The Arabesque, an aspect of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

... an instutution with a recognized body of communicants who gather together regularly for worship, and accept a set of doctrines offering some means of relating the individual to what is taken to be the ultimate nature of reality.[14]

Religion often codifies behavior, such as with the 10 Commandments of Christianity or the five precepts of Buddhism. Sometimes it is involved with government, as in a theocracy. It also influences arts. (Redirected from 10 commandments) This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... Pancasila or pañca-sila is the fundamental code of Buddhist ethics, willingly undertaken by lay followers of Gautama Buddha. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama). ... The term theocracy is commonly used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role. ...


Eurocentric custom to some extent divides the humanity into Western and non-Western cultures, ahtough this has some flaws.


Western culture spread from Europe most strongly to Australia, Canada, and the United States. It is influenced by ancient Greece, ancient Rome and the Christian church. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The term Christian Church, or Catholic Church, as it was known by Christians beginning in the second century, expresses the idea that organised Christianity (the Christian religion) is seen as an institution. ...


Western culture tends to be more individualistic than non-Western cultures. It also sees man, god, and nature or the universe more separately than non-Western cultures. It is marked by economic wealth, literacy, and technological advancement, although these traits are not exclusive to it.


Abrahamic religions

Judaism is one of, if not the first, recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. The values and history of the Jewish people are a major part of the foundation of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Islam, as well as Samaritanism and the Bahá'í Faith. Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Samaritans are both a religious and an ethnic group. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


Christianity was the dominant feature in shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years. Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St. Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. European colonization and missionaries have spread it. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


The Bible

Both Christians and Jews regard the Bible as the revealed word of God. The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), is the name used by Jews and Christians for their differing (and overlapping) canons... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ... God denotes the deity believed by monotheists to be the sole creator and ruler of the universe. ...


Because of Christian domination of Europe from the late Roman era to the Age of Enlightenment, the Bible has influenced not only religion but language, law and the natural philosophy of mainstream Western Civilization. The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


Both Hebrew Scripture and the Christian Bible have been translated more times and into more languages — more than 2,100 languages in all — than any other book. The Gutenberg Bible marked the beginning of the mass production of books in the West. The Gutenberg bible owned by the U.S. Library of Congress The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, and as the Mazarin Bible) is a print of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by its namesake, Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


Eastern religion and philosophy

Agni, Hindu fire god
Agni, Hindu fire god

. Image File history File links Agni_god_of_fire. ... Image File history File links Agni_god_of_fire. ... Agni is a Hindu deity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Main articles: Eastern philosophy and Eastern religion

Philosophy and religion are often closely interwoven in Eastern thought. Many Asian religious and philosophical traditions originated in India and China and spread across Asia through cultural diffusion and the migration of peoples. Hinduism is the wellspring of Buddhism, the Mahāyāna branch of which spread north and eastwards from India into Tibet, China, Mongolia, Japan and Korea and south from China into Vietnam. Theravāda Buddhism spread throughout Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka, parts of southwest China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Eastern Religion refers to those religions that originated in the Eastern Roman Empire and points to the East such as Egypt, India, China and Japan As such it includes Egyptian religion, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. ... Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas and material culture, especially if this diffusion occurs independently of population movement. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion that orginated from the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy. They contain elements of nonmaterial pursuits, whereas another school of thought from India, Carvaka, preached the enjoyment of material world. Confucianism and Taoism, both of which originated in China have had pervasive influence on both religious and philosophical traditions, as well as statecraft and the arts throughout Asia. The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Carvaka philosophy See also Important publications in Indian philosophy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hindu philosophy (one of the main divisions of Indian philosophy) is traditionally seen through the prism of six different systems (called darshanas in Sanskrit) that are listed here and make up the main belief systems of Hinduism. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ... Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Chinese: å„’å­¦, Pinyin: Rúxué‚ [ ] , literally The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Dao De Jing (ascribed to Laozi) and the Zhuangzi. ... Public affairs is a catch-all term that includes public policy as well as public administration, both of which are closely related to and draw upon the fields of political science as well as economics. ...


During the 20th century, in the two most populous countries of Asia, two dramatically different political philosophies took shape. Gandhi gave a new meaning to Ahimsa, a core belief of both Hinduism and Jainism, and redefined the concepts of nonviolence and nonresistance. During the same period, Mao Zedong’s communist philosophy became a powerful secular belief system in China. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led Chinas communist revolution after decades of foreign occupation and civil war in the 20th century. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of the Chinese communist Mao Zedong. ...


Folk religions

Main article: Folk religion

Folk religions practiced by tribal groups are common in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Their influence can be considerable; may pervade the culture and even become the state religion, as with Shintoism. Like the other major religions, folk religion answers human needs for reassurance in times of trouble, healing, averting misfortune and providing rituals that address the major passages and transitions in human life. Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and cultural practices transmitted from generation to generation. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A ritual is a formalised, predetermined set of symbolic actions generally performed in a particular environment at a regular, recurring interval. ...

Further information: Major religious groups and List of religions

Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ... The following is a list of religions. ...

The ”American Dream”

The American Dream is a faith, held by many in the United States, that, through hard work, courage, and self-determination, regardless of social class, a person can gain a better life.[15] This notion is rooted in the belief that the country is a "city upon a hill, a light unto the nations,"[16] which were values held by many early European settlers and maintained by subsequent generations. Historical American flags in Washington, DC: the Betsy Ross flag hangs on both ends and the classic Old Glory is to each side of the current 50 state version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... City upon a hill is the phrase often used to refer to John Winthrops famous sermon, A Model of Christian Charity,, of 1630, based on Matthew 5:14 (You are the light of the world. ...


Marriage

Religion often influences marriage and sexual practices. In virtually all religions, marriage is a long-term union between two people and is established with ceremonies and rituals. ... Sexual activity in humans is an instinctive form of physical intimacy. ...


Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship. In marriage, Christians see a picture of the relationship between Jesus Christ and His Church. The Roman Catholic Church believes it is morally wrong to divorce, and divorcées cannot remarry in a church marriage. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody...


Cultural change

A 19th century engraving showing Australian "natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook" in 1770.
A 19th century engraving showing Australian "natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook" in 1770.

Cultures, by predisposition, both embrace and resist change dependence of culture traits. For example, men and women have complementary roles in many cultures. One sex might desire changes that affect the other, as happened in the second half of the 20th century in western cultures. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (880x862, 476 KB) Summary illustration from Australia: the first hundred years, by Andrew Garran, 1886 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (880x862, 476 KB) Summary illustration from Australia: the first hundred years, by Andrew Garran, 1886 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Indigenous Australians are the first inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands, continuing their presence during European settlement. ... Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Look up Change in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Cultural change can come about due to the environment, to inventions (and other internal influences), and to contact with other cultures. For example, the end of the last ice age helped lead to the invention of agriculture, which in its turn brought about many cultural innovations. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


In diffusion, the form of something moves from one culture to another, but not its meaning. For example, hamburgers, mundane in the United States, seemed exotic when introduced into China. "Stimulus diffusion" refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention in another. Diffusions of innovations theory presents a research-based model for why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products. The diffusion of ideas or artifacts from one culture to another is a well-attested and uncontroversial concept of cultural anthropology. ... Hamburgers often contain beef, lettuce, onions, and other toppings in a bun. ... Diffusion of innovations is the social sciences theory for how and why new ideas spread through cultures. ...


"Acculturation" has different meanings, but in this context refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such as happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization. A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the first European explorers in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Related processes on an individual level include assimilation (adoption of a different culture by an individual) and transculturation. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Transculturation is a term coined by Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. ...


Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behaviour but which does not exist as a physical object. Cultural invention describes any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people but which does not exist as a physical object. ...


Cultural studies

Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century, in part through the re-introduction of Marxist thought into sociology, and in part through the articulation of sociology and other academic disciplines such as literary criticism. This movement aimed to focus on the analysis of subcultures in capitalist societies. Following the non-anthropological tradition, cultural studies generally focus on the study of consumption goods (such as fashion, art, and literature). Because the 18th- and 19th-century distinction between "high" and "low" culture seems inappropriate to apply to the mass-produced and mass-marketed consumption goods which cultural studies analyses, these scholars refer instead to "popular culture". Cultural studies combines sociology, social theory, literary theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in industrial societies. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... Articulation is the process where cultural forms and practices are appropriated for use by particular classes. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Cultural studies combines sociology, social theory, literary theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in industrial societies. ... The term fashion applies to a prevailing mode of expression. ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Today, some anthropologists have joined the project of cultural studies. Most, however, reject the identification of culture with consumption goods. Furthermore, many now reject the notion of culture as bounded, and consequently reject the notion of subculture. Instead, they see culture as a complex web of shifting patterns that link people in different locales and that link social formations of different scales. According to this view, any group can construct its own cultural identity. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior.
  2. ^ Jary, D. and J. Jary. 1991. The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology, p. 101.
  3. ^ Tylor, E.B. 1974. Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom.
  4. ^ UNESCO. 2002. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity.
  5. ^ Kroeber, A. L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.
  6. ^ White, L. 1949. The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization.
  7. ^ Hoult, T. F, ed. 1969. Dictionary of Modern Sociology, p. 93.
  8. ^ Forsberg, A. Definitions of culture
  9. ^ a b Arnold, Matthew. 1869. Culture and Anarchy.
  10. ^ Cohen, A. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community.
  11. ^ Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice.
  12. ^ * Wolfram, S., A New Kind of Science.
  13. ^ Dawkins, R. 1982. The Extended Phenotype
  14. ^ Reese, W.L. 1980. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought, p. 488.
  15. ^ Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream, p. 1.
  16. ^ Ronald Reagan. "Final Radio Address to the Nation".

A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, Hon GCB, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...

References

  • Arnold, Matthew. 1869. Culture and Anarchy. New York: Macmillan. Third edition, 1882, available online. Retrieved: 2006-06-28.
  • Boritt, Gabor S. 1994. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252064453.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052129164X
  • Cohen, Anthony P. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: New York,
  • Dawkiins, R. 1982. The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene. Paperback ed., 1999. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 0192880519
  • Forsberg, A. Definitions of culture CCSF Cultural Geography course notes. Retrieved: 2006-06-29.
  • Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York. ISBN 0465097197.
— 1957. "Ritual and Social Change: A Javanese Example," American Anthropologist, Vol. 59, No. 1.
  • Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674116496
  • Hoult, T. F., ed. 1969. Dictionary of Modern Sociology. Totowa, New Jersey, United States: Littlefield, Adams & Co.
  • Jary, D. and J. Jary. 1991. The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0604610865
  • Keiser, R. Lincoln 1969. The Vice Lords: Warriors of the Streets. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 0-03-080361-6.
  • Kroeber, A. L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum
  • Middleton, R. 1990. Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0335152759.
  • Tylor, E.B. 1974. Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. New York: Gordon Press. First published in 1871. ISBN 0879680911
  • O'Neil, D. Cultural Anthropology Tutorials, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marco, California. Retrieved: 2006-06-29.
  • Ronald Reagan. "Final Radio Address to the Nation", January 14, 1989. Retrieved June 3, 2006.
  • Reese, W.L. 1980. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. New Jersey U.S., Sussex, U.K: Humanities Press.
  • UNESCO. 2002. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, issued on International Mother Language Day, February 21, 2002. Retrieved: 2006-06-23
  • White, L. 1949. The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  • Wolfram, Stephen. 2002 A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Media, Inc. ISBN 1579550088

A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... City College of San Francisco is a two-year community college located in San Francisco, California. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan, Hon GCB, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Language Martyrs Day 21st February has been proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by the UNESCO in 2000. ...

See also

Culture Portal
Find more information on Culture by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

Cultural bias is interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to ones own culture. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ... Ethnocentricity is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own ethnic culture. ... Cross-cultural communication (also frequently referred to as intercultural communication) is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds endeavour to communicate. ... Intercultural competence is the ability for successful communication with people of other cultures. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... Culture theory is the branch of anthropology and other related social science disciplines (e. ... Organizational (Company / Corporate) culture comprises the attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and customs of an organization. ...

External links

  • CICB Center of Intercultural Competence
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: "Cultural Development" in Antiquity
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: "Culture" and "Civilization" in Modern Times
  • Intenational Art & Culture email Group
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