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Encyclopedia > Cultivator
Cultivator
Cultivator

A cultivator is a farm implement for stirring and pulverizing the soil, either before planting or to remove weeds and to aerate and loosen the soil after the crop has begun to grow. The cultivator usually stirs the soil to a greater depth than does the harrow. The cultivator is used in crop work or farming. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... Crumbler roller, commonly used to compact soil after it has been loosened by a harrow In agriculture, a harrow is an implement for cultivating the surface of the soil, in this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper cultivation. ... Agriculture refers to the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ...


Small lightweight mechanical cultivators are used for gardening. Garden cultivators can be used to mix soils with manures and fertilizers in preparation for planting. They till the soil and convert soil lumps to a tilth. Different attachments can rotovate and plough the soil. A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...

Contents

Field cultivators

Field cultivators are used to complete tillage operations in many different types of crop fields such as corn, soybeans, and wheat. This implement has many shanks mounted on the underside of a metal frame. The rear of this machine is also equipped with small narrow rods that smooth out the soil surface for easier travel when planting. These machines are pulled by tractors through the field and can vary greatly in size and shape. Some of these implements are as small as 10 feet (3 m) wide and some are large and can be 60-80 feet wide. Picking the correct size greatly depends on the size of tractor owned by the farmer. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A modern farm tractor. ...


Uses and configurations

There are many different sizes and configurations of field cultivators and row crop cultivators. Choosing which type is best for a particular farm depends on many different factors. Some of these factors include farm size, the size of tractor available to pull the implement, and what types of crops are included in the farming operation. The main functions of the field cultivator is to prepare a proper seedbed for the crop that is going to be planted, burry crop residue in the soil which helps to warm the soil before planting, control weeds, and mix and incorporate the soil to ensure the growing crop has enough water and nutrients to grow well during the growing season. A proper seedbed is important for the seed to imbibe water and to germinate properly. Weed control is the main function of the row crop cultivator. Most field cultivators are raised and lowered and have their depth controlled by one or many hydraulic cylinders. Row crop cultivators are usually raised and lowered by a three point hitch and its depth is controlled by gauge wheels. Many of the implements are equipped with hydraulic wings that fold up that makes road travel much easier and safer. For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sizing

When determining the size of cultivator needed for a particular farming operation, you need to first determine how much horsepower it takes to pull the implement and then compare that to horsepower capabilities of tractors available on the farm. To do this, you first need to determine how many pounds of force are required to pull the implement through the soil. The following equation is used to determin this:


D=Fi[A+B(S)+C(S)²]WT


where:


D is implement draft (lbf)


F is a dimensionless soil texture adjusment parameter


i = 1 for fine, 2 for medium, and 3 for course textured soils


A, B, and C are machine specific parameters


S is field speed (mile/hr)


W is machine width in ft or number of tools


T is tillage depth (in) for major tilage tools and dimensionless for minor tillage tools and seeding implements


A table with F, A, B, and C parameters can be found in the references section under Agriculture Machinery Management Data.


Once the answer is generated it will be in terms pounds and needs to be converted into an answer in terms of horsepower. To do this, complete the following equation:


(D(lbf) x S(ft/min))/33,000(ft·lbf/min) Multiply D x S first and then divide by 33,000 to convert the answer to horsepower.


Another concept that needs to be considered to compute an accurate answer is tractive efficiency.


Tractive efficiency=power at the drawbar divided by the power at the axle. This article is about haulage. ...


Most tractive efficiencies are between 70% and 80%. If the answer found above is multiplied by the tractive efficiency as a decimal you will find the HP that is actually available at the drawbar.


The last step is to simply compare the HP requirement of the field cultivator to the HP capabilities of the tractors that are part of the farming operation.


Sizes of field cultivators rangle from 20-60 feet wide. Most row cultivators come in sizes of 4, 8, 12, or 16 rows of shanks.


Producers of cultivators used in row crop agriculture

Most agricultural equipment manufacturers offer some variation of the field cultivator. Not all companies, however, produce row crop cultivators since these implements are not as commonly used as in the past. Some major implement manufacturers include Case New Holland, John Deere, and Massey Ferguson. Designs and styles may vary while the end result of using the implement is the same.


Safety

Agriculture in the United States is one of the most hazardous occupations a person can have. When using a cultivator of any size, safety needs to be considered at all times. The most care needs to be taken when traveling from field to field. Many cultivators are so large it can be difficult for the driver to see behind them. Extra care needs to be taken by the farmer to make sure that they ensure safety. Drivers around these types of farm machinery also need to be careful to not crowd the machine or try and pass when it is unclear. Also, almost all cultivators use some sort of hydraulic power. Hydraulic power is usually a safe and useful form of power, but problems can arrise if the proper precautions are not taken. Some hazards that can arise in the field are such things as hooking the implement in a fence line or on a tree. Both of these situations can cause damage to the tractor as well as to the cultivator.


Operation of field and row crop cultivators

Operating these two implements can be somewhat challenging without training and experience. Field cultivators need to be placed at the proper as to not rip up the soil and to prepare a good seedbed for the seed. This depth will vary with implement and trial runs will need to be performed to obtain the correct depth. When turning around at the end of fields the implement should be raised but still left in the ground to avoid compaction on the end rows of the field. Proper speed needs to be considered of the tractor as to not damage the tractor or the implement. Concentration needs to be even greater for the row cultivator. If straight driving is not maintained the row crops will be destroyed by the teeth of the implement. In this operation, the implement is lifted completely out of the ground as to not destoy the plants on the end rows. Speed of travel is also reduced to ensure that the minimum amount of plants are destroyed when preforming this operation.


Problems with using field cultivators in some field conditions

Field cultivators can have a difficult time working properly if fields conditions are not at the proper levels. These field conditions can be such things as wet soil, great amount of residue on the soil surface, and rocky soil. Wet soil and increased residue can cause the implement to become "plugged" up and require the area to be re-tilled. Rocky soil can cause the shanks on the under side of the machine to break off. This can lead to running over it with another machine and causing a flat tire or the shank can be taken in by the combine harvester and cause great damage to the internal working parts. Increased care needs to be taken when operating in field conditions such as these. Decreased depth of tillage may help solve these problems. Going over the soil with another tillage implement first such as a plow or a ripper can help avoid the residue clogging problems. A CLAAS Caterpillar LEXION Combine. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ...


References

External links

See also

small spade for clay soil; the other one for sandy soil and loamy soil A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardens and gardening and overlaps with the range of tools made for agriculture and horticulture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Rotary tiller is a motorised cultivator that works the soil by means of rotating blades. ... For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation). ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Adze The tool known as the adze [pronounced adds] serves for smoothing rough-cut wood in hand woodworking. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... Bolt cutters A bolt cutter is a scissors-like tool used for cutting heavy chains, bolts and wire mesh. ... A push style 5/16 keyway broach A broach is a series of chisel points mounted on one piece of steel. ... Ceramic tile cutters are used to cut tiles to a required size or shape. ... For other uses, see Chainsaw (disambiguation). ... A countersink is a tapered hole drilled with a wide outer portion. ... Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ... A froe is cleaving tool having a heavy blade set at right angles to the handle, used for woodworking. ... This article is about the tool. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... modern factory-made Machete For other uses, see Machete (disambiguation). ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... Collection of Modern Safety Razors - Gillette Fusion Power, Gillette M3Power, Mach3 Turbo Champion, Schick Quattro Chrome, Schick Quattro Power, Gillette Mach3, Gillette Sensor, Schick Xtreme3, Schick Xtreme SubZero, and Schick Xtreme3 Disposables A razor is an edge tool primarily used in shaving. ... A reamer or ream is a tool for enlarging holes and is used in metalworking. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... For other uses, see Scalpel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scissors (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of knife. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ... A diagram of a water jet cutter A water jet cutter is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. ... small spade for clay soil; the other one for sandy soil and loamy soil A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardens and gardening and overlaps with the range of tools made for agriculture and horticulture. ... A garden fork differs from a pitchfork because it is designed for digging rather than for lifting. ... Garden hedges, which used to be cut with a knife or with pruning shears, can now be cut with a powered hedge trimmer. ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Hori hori is a gardening tool originally from Japan. ... A lawn mower (often spelled as one word—lawnmower) is a machine (electric or mechnical) used to cut grass to an even length. ... A lawn aerator is a garden tool designed to aerate the soil in which lawn grasses grow. ... The leaf blower was invented by Japanese engineers in the early 1970s and introduced to the United States as a lawn and garden maintenance tool. ... A leaf sweeper can be pushed or towed. ... Loppers Loppers are a type of scissors used for pruning twigs and small branches. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This combination heavy duty rake and hoe tool is named after Ranter Malcolm McLeod. ... A mini-tractor, also known as a compact tractor, can be used for a variety of purposes in larger gardens: lawn mowing, leaf sweeping, cultivating, removing snow, pulling a cart. ... A pitchfork next to a compost bin Pitching hay A pitchfork is a tool with a long handle and long, thin, widely separated pointed tines (also called prongs) used to lift and throw loose material, such as hay, leaves, grapes, or other agricultural products. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Sheares are doubled-bladed cutting implements with straight blades of between 200mm and 300mm. ... The pulaski is a special hand tool used in wildland firefighting. ... A heavy-duty rake for soil and rocks A light-duty rake for grass and leaves A double-sided rake A Rake better known as Kiran Buckman in various parts of Australia (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning to scrape together, heap up... Secateurs, also called hand pruners, or loppers are a type of long scissors, with which one can prune branches of trees and shrubs. ... For other uses, see Spade (disambiguation). ... A rotary irrigation sprinkler in action. ... // A string trimmer, also called a line trimmer, edge trimmer, Weedeater (a brandname), Weedwhacker, weedy, whipper snipper, strimmer, garden strimmer, or bush cutter is a powered handheld device that uses a flexible monofilament line instead of a blade for cutting grass and other plants near objects. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A hand tool is a device for doing a particular job that does not use a motor, but is powered solely by the person using it. ... A Brace or Brace and bit is a hand tool used to drill holes. ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Clamp. ... Standard hacksaws. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... A crossut handsaw In woodworking and carpentry, hand saws are used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes. ... A spirit level A spirit level or bubble level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is level or plumb. ... Needle-nose pliers Pliers are hand tools, designed primarily for gripping objects by using leverage. ... A variety of punches are used in engineering. ... A basic screwdriver made by Craftsman (slotted tip shown) A rechargeable battery-powered electric screwdriver from Black & Decker The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove, screws. ... A torque wrench is a wrench used to precisely set the torque of a fastening such as a nut or bolt. ... Polyurethane sponge Close-up A sponge is a tool consisting of porous material used for cleaning impervious surfaces. ... A power tool is a tool with a motor. ... A bandsaw in use A bandsaw (often spelled band saw in the US) is a saw that can be used for woodworking, metal working, and a variety of other materials. ... Bosch belt sander Stationary belt sander. ... For other uses, see Chainsaw (disambiguation). ... Invented in England in 1780, the circular saw (also known as the buzz saw in the USA) is a metal disc or blade with saw teeth on the edge as well as the machine that causes the disk to spin. ... A concrete saw being readied for use. ... A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large solid chunks of raw material into smaller chunks. ... A diamond blade is a circular saw blade used for cutting hard or abrasive materials. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sander. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Heat Gun Kit A heat gun is a device used to emit a stream of hot air. ... A 1/2 drive pistol-grip air impact wrench An impact wrench (also knows as an air wrench, air gun, or just gun in some contexts, as well as rattle gun in some countries) is a socket wrench power tool designed to deliver high torque output with minimal exertion by... A Bosch power jigsaw A jigsaw is a type of saw used for cutting arbitrary curves, such as stenciled designs or other custom shapes, into a piece of wood or similar material. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A radial arm saw is a machine intended for cutting materials to length. ... Random orbit sanders are hand-held power sanders where the action is a random orbit. ... A handheld power tool with a variety of rotating accessory bits and attachments that can be used for cutting, carving, sanding, polishing and many other applications. ... A sander is a power tool used to smooth wood and automotive or wood finishes. ... A table saw or sawbench is the most common piece of large woodworking equipment. ... A thicknesser (also known as a thickness planer) is a woodworking machine which is used to create boards that are of an even thickness throughout their length. ... A D-handle fixed-base router A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the face of a piece of wood. ... An antique tool is generally defined as a tool over 100 years old[], but often this definition is used more loosely to refer to any tool manufactured before World War II. The use of tools is one of the primary means by which humans are distinguished from animals. ... A diamond tool is a cutting tool which contains diamond segments for cutting through a wide variety of materials which other cutting tools cannot. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - cultivation (Agriculture, General) - Encyclopedia (181 words)
cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients.
Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or away from plants as desired.
Cultivation among crop plants is best kept at a minimum; excessive cultivation can be harmful as it may cause root pruning and loss of soil water due to increased evaporation.
Shifting cultivation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5089 words)
Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture in which the cultivated or cropped area is shifted regularly to allow soil properties to recover under conditions of natural successional stages of re-growth.
In a stable shifting cultivation system, the fallow is long enough for the natural vegetation to recover to the state that it was in before it was cleared, and for the soil to recover to the condition it was in before cropping began.
Shifting cultivation was still being practiced as a viable and stable form of agriculture in many parts of Europe and west into Siberia at the end of the 19th century and in some places well into the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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