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Encyclopedia > Cubism
Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913
Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913

Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1908 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. Download high resolution version (400x702, 120 KB)Braque: Woman with a guitar, painted 1913, in the Musée Nationale d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. ... Download high resolution version (400x702, 120 KB)Braque: Woman with a guitar, painted 1913, in the Musée Nationale d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. ... Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... Picasso redirects here. ... Violin and Candlestick, Paris, spring 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Georges Braque (May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ...


In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.

Contents

Conception and origins

Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910
Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the European cultural elite were discovering African, Micronesian and Native American art for the first time. Artists such as Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the stark power and simplicity of styles of those foreign cultures. Around 1904, Picasso met Matisse through Gertrude Stein, at a time when both artists had recently acquired an interest in African sculpture. They became friendly rivals and competed with each other throughout their careers, perhaps leading to Picasso entering a new period in his work by 1907, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian and African art. Picasso's paintings of 1907 have been characterized as Protocubism, as notably seen in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, the antecedent of Cubism. Download high resolution version (786x1097, 182 KB)Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso (1910) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Download high resolution version (786x1097, 182 KB)Le guitariste by Pablo Picasso (1910) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Picasso redirects here. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This article is about the Pacific region known as Micronesia. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Henri Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) was a French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... african sculpture is from africa. ... Les Demoiselles dAvignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon in English) is a celebrated painting by Pablo Picasso that depicts five prostitutes in a brothel. ... An antecedent is a preceding phrase or word. ...


Some believe that the roots of cubism are to be found in the two distinct tendencies of Paul Cézanne's later work: firstly to break the painted surface into small multifaceted areas of paint, thereby emphasizing the plural viewpoint given by binocular vision, and secondly his interest in the simplification of natural forms into cylinders, spheres, and cones. Cezanne redirects here. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


However, the cubists explored this concept further than Cézanne; they represented all the surfaces of depicted objects in a single picture plane, as if the objects had had all their faces visible at the same time. This new kind of depiction revolutionized the way in which objects could be visualized in painting and art.


The invention of Cubism was a joint effort between Picasso and Braque, then residents of Montmartre, Paris. These artists were the movement's main innovators. A later active participant was the Spaniard Juan Gris. After meeting in 1907 Braque and Picasso in particular began working on the development of Cubism. Picasso was initially the force and influence that persuaded Braque by 1908 to move away from Fauvism. The two artists began working closely together in late 1908 - early 1909 until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. The movement spread quickly throughout Paris and Europe. A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... ] Categories: People stubs | Modern artists | French painters | French sculptors | 1882 births | 1963 deaths | Cubism ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


French art critic Louis Vauxcelles first used the term "cubism", or "bizarre cubiques", in 1908 after seeing a picture by Braque. He described it as 'full of little cubes', after which the term quickly gained wide use although the two creators did not initially adopt it. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture - that of a man-made construction, a coloured canvas."[1] Louis Vauxcelles (1870-?) was an influential French art critic. ... Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ...

Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas

Cubism was taken up by many artists in Montparnasse and promoted by art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, becoming popular so quickly that by 1911 critics were referring to a "cubist school" of artists. However, many of the artists who thought of themselves as cubists went in directions quite different from Braque and Picasso. The Puteaux Group was a significant offshoot of the Cubist movement; it included Guillaume Apollinaire, Robert Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, his brothers Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Villon, and Fernand Léger, and Francis Picabia. Other important artists associated with cubism include: Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Marie Laurencin, Diego Rivera, Marie Vorobieff, Louis Marcoussis, Jeanne Rij-Rousseau, Roger de La Fresnaye, Henri Le Fauconnier, František Kupka, Amédée Ozenfant, Patrick Henry Bruce among others. Section d'Or is a another name for a related group of many of the same artists associated with cubism and orphism. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x1056, 162 KB)Photograph of Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x1056, 162 KB)Photograph of Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris in the public domain. ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (June 25, 1884 - January 11, 1979) was an art dealer and promoter. ... The Puteaux Group is the name applied to a group of European artists and critics associated with Cubism but because of their unique style, were branded a Cubist offshoot called Orphism. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... 1911. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Raymond Duchamp-Villon (November 5, 1876 - October 9, 1918) was a French sculptor. ... Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 - June 9, 1963) was a French Cubist painter and printmaker. ... Still Life with a Beer Mug, 1921. ... Francis Picabia in his studio. ... Albert Gleizes, born December 8, 1881 _ died June 23, 1953 was a French painter. ... At the Cycle-Race Track, 1912, Peggy Guggenheim Collection. ... Marie Laurencin photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1949 Marie Laurencin (October 31, 1883 — June 8, 1956) was a Parisian painter and engraver. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska (1892 in Cheboksary, Russia - 4 May 1984 in London, Great Britain) – the nickname Marevna reputedly having been given her by Maxim Gorky after a Russian fairy sea princess – was a cubist painter who is internationally noted for convincingly combining elements of cubism (called by her Dimensionalism) with... Louis marcoussis was a polish painter whom the Spanish surrealist Joan Mirò (1893-1983), in 1930, started Graphic Technique with, but had to stop in 1939 due to the emergence of WWII (1939-1945) ... Artillery, 1911. ... FrantiÅ¡ek Kupka (September 23, 1871 - June 24, 1957) was a Czech painter. ... Guitar and Bottles (Guitare et bouteilles), 1920. ... Patrick Henry Bruce (1881 – November 12, 1936) was an American modernist painter who practiced a form of cubism. ... The Section dOr was a Paris-based collective of Cubist painters that was active from 1912 to around 1914. ... Orphism or Orphic cubism, is a term coined in 1912 France by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. ...


In 1913 the United States was exposed to cubism and modern European art when Jacques Villon exhibited seven important and large drypoints at the famous Armory Show in New York City. Braque and Picasso themselves went through several distinct phases before 1920, and some of these works had been seen in New York prior to the Armory Show, at Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery. Czech artists who realized the epochal significance of cubism of Picasso and Braque attempted to extract its components for their own work in all branches of artistic creativity - especially painting and architecture. This developed into so-called Czech Cubism which was an avant-garde art movement of Czech proponents of cubism active mostly in Prague from 1910 to 1914. Armory Show poster. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... He was a loser. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... Cubist villa, Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic Rondocubist building of Legiobanka, Prague, Czech Republic Czech Cubism was avant-garde art movement of Czech proponents of the Cubism active mostly in Prague from 1910 to 1914. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


Analytic Cubism

Analytic Cubism is one of the two major branches of the artistic movement of Cubism and was developed between 1908 and 1912. In contrast to Synthetic cubism, Analytic cubists "analyzed" natural forms and reduced the forms into basic geometric parts on the two-dimensional picture plane. Colour was almost non-existent except for the use of a monochromatic scheme that often included grey, blue and ochre. Instead of an emphasis on colour, Analytic cubists focused on forms like the cylinder, sphere and the cone to represent the natural world. During this movement, the works produced by Picasso and Braque shared stylistic similarities. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... For other uses, see Sphere (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... ] Categories: People stubs | Modern artists | French painters | French sculptors | 1882 births | 1963 deaths | Cubism ...


Both painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque moved toward abstraction, leaving only enough signs of the real world to supply a tension between the reality outside the painting and the complicated meditations on visual language within the frame, exemplified through their paintings Ma Jolie (1911), by Picasso and The Portuguese (1911), by Braque.


In Paris in 1907 there was a major museum retrospective exhibition of the work of Paul Cezanne shortly after his death. The exhibition was enormously influential in establishing Cezanne as an important painter whose ideas were particularly resonant especially to young artists in Paris. Both Picasso and Braque found the inspiration for Cubism from Paul Cezanne, who said to observe and learn to see and treat nature as if it were composed of basic shapes like cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones. Picasso was the main analytic cubist, but Braque was also prominent, having abandoned Fauvism to work with Picasso in developing the Cubist lexicon. Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ...

Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (760x1107, 166 KB)Photograph of Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (760x1107, 166 KB)Photograph of Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas by, Juan Gris in the public domain. ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ...

Synthetic Cubism

Synthetic Cubism was the second main branch of Cubism developed by Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris and others between 1912 and 1919. It was seen as the first time that collage had been made as a fine art work. A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... ] Categories: People stubs | Modern artists | French painters | French sculptors | 1882 births | 1963 deaths | Cubism ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ... For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ...


The first work of this new style was Pablo Picasso's Still Life with Chair-caning (1911–1912), which includes oil cloth pasted on the canvas. At the upper left are the letters "JOU", which appear in many cubist paintings and may refer to a newspaper titled "Le Journal". Newspaper clippings were a common inclusion in this style of cubism, whereby physical pieces of newspaper, sheet music, or the like were included in the collages. JOU may also at the same time be a pun on the French words jeu (game) or jouer (to play). Picasso and Braque had a constant friendly competition with each other and including the letters in their works may have been an extension of their game.


Whereas analytic cubism was an analysis of the subjects (pulling them apart into planes), synthetic cubism is more of a pushing of several objects together. Picasso, through this movement, was the first to use text in his artwork (to flatten the space), and the use of mixed media—using more than one type of medium in the same piece. Opposed to analytic cubism, synthetic cubism has fewer planar shifts (or schematism), and less shading, creating flatter space.


Another technique used was called papier collé, or stuck paper, which Braque used in his collage Fruit Dish and Glass (1913). Papier collé (French: pasted paper) is a painting technique and type of collage. ...


Cubism and its ideologies

Paris before World War I was a ferment of politics. New anarcho-syndicalist trade unions and women's rights movements were especially new and vigorous. There were strong movements around patriotic nationalism. Cubism was a particularly varied art movement in its political affiliations, with some sections being broadly anarchist or leftist, while others were strongly aligned with nationalist sentiment. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


Cubism in other fields

Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic
Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic

The written works of Gertrude Stein employ repetition and repetitive phrases as building blocks in both passages and whole chapters. Most of Stein's important works utilize this technique, including the novel The Makings of Americans (1906–08) Not only were they the first important patrons of Cubism, Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo were also important influences on Cubism as well. Picasso in turn was an important influence on Stein's writing. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2160 × 1440 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cubism Czech Cubism... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2160 × 1440 pixel, file size: 261 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cubism Czech Cubism... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Leo Stein (born ??-?? 1872 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania; died July 29, 1947 in Florence, Italy) was an American art collector and critic. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ...


The poets generally associated with Cubism are Guillaume Apollinaire, Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob, André Salmon and Pierre Reverdy. As American poet Kenneth Rexroth explains, Cubism in poetry "is the conscious, deliberate dissociation and recombination of elements into a new artistic entity made self-sufficient by its rigorous architecture. This is quite different from the free association of the Surrealists and the combination of unconscious utterance and political nihilism of Dada."[2] Nonetheless, the Cubist poets' influence on both Cubism and the later movements of Dada and Surrealism was profound; Louis Aragon, founding member of Surrealism, said that for Breton, Soupault, Éluard and himself, Reverdy was "our immediate elder, the exemplary poet."[3] Though not as well remembered as the Cubist painters, these poets continue to influence and inspire; American poets John Ashbery and Ron Padgett have recently produced new translations of Reverdy's work. Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Frédéric Louis Sauser (September 1, 1887 – January 21, 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss novelist and poet naturalized French in 1916. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... André Salmon (October 4, 1881, Paris - March 12, 1969, Sanary-sur-Mer in Provence), French poet, art critic and writer. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) was a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... Kenneth Rexroth (December 22, 1905 – June 6, 1982) was an American poet, translator and critical essayist. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Max Ernst. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... John Ashbery John Ashbery (born July 28, 1927) is an American poet. ... Ron Padgett, born in 1942 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, is a poet and member of the New York School. ... Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) was a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ...

Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912
Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912

Wallace Stevens' "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird" is also said to demonstrate how cubism's multiple perspectives can be translated into poetry.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1800 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1,023 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cubism House... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1800 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1,023 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cubism House... The House of the Black Madonna is a cubist building in the Old Town area of Prague, Czech republic. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ...



The composer Edgard Varèse was heavily influenced by Cubist writing and art.[citation needed] Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ...


Cubism today

Far from being an art movement confined to the annals of art history, Cubism and its legacy continue to inform the work of many contemporary artists. Not only is cubist imagery regularly used commercially but significant numbers of contemporary artists continue to draw upon it both stylistically and perhaps more importantly, theoretically. The latter contains the clue as to the reason for cubism's enduring fascination for artists. As an essentially representational school of painting, having to come to grips with the rising importance of photography as an increasingly viable method of image making, cubism attempts to take representational imagery beyond the mechanically photographic and to move beyond the bounds of traditional single point perspective perceived, as though, by a totally immobile viewer. The questions and theories which arose during the initial appearance of cubism in the early 20th century are, for many representational artists, as current today as when first proposed.


References

  1. ^ Ernst Gombrich (1960) Art and Illusion, as quoted in Marshall McLuhan (1964) Understanding Media, p.12 [1]
  2. ^ The Cubist Poetry of Pierre Reverdy (Rexroth)
  3. ^ Bloodaxe Books: Title Page > Pierre Reverdy: Selected Poems
  4. ^ Illinois Wesleyan University - The American Poetry Web

Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Understanding Media is a book by Marshall McLuhan. ...

Further reading

  • John Cauman (2001). Inheriting Cubism: The Impact of Cubism on American Art, 1909-1936. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries. ISBN 0-9705723-4-4. 

See also

An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. ... Cubist villa, Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic Rondocubist building of Legiobanka, Prague, Czech Republic Czech Cubism was avant-garde art movement of Czech proponents of the Cubism active mostly in Prague from 1910 to 1914. ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ...

External links

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Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... Chromoluminarism is a technique used by Neo-impressionists such Georges Seurat (1859-1891). ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... The Yellow Christ (Le Christ jaune) 1889, oil on canvas Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York Cloisonnism is a style of post-Impressionist painting with bold forms separated by dark contours. ... Nabis (or Les Nabis; the prophets, from the Hebrew term for prophet) was a group of young post-impressionist avant-garde Parisian artists of the 1890s that influenced the fine arts and graphic arts in France at the turn of the 20th century. ... Synthetism is a style of painting that developed out of Cloisonnism. ... Thomas Cole (1801-1848) View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters, whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... 20th Century Art begins with Impressionism through to contemporary art. ... 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Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Adolf Wölflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translates as Raw Art or Rough Art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created... Cover Art by Mark Ryden Cover Art by Joe Coleman Todd Schorr, Futility in the Face of a Hostile World, 2003. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... As defined in the glossary of Nicolas Bourriauds book Relational Aesthetics, Relational (Art) is: a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space. ... Videogame art involves the use of patched or modified computer and video games or the repurposing of existing games or game structures. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Mountebanks ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

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ArtLex on Cubism (2109 words)
In Cubism the subject matter is broken up, analyzed, and reassembled in an abstracted form.
There were three phases in the development of Cubism: Facet Cubism, Analytic Cubism, and Synthetic Cubism.
Although Braque was a pioneer of Cubism, he was in the midst of exploring the
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