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Encyclopedia > Cubeb
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Cubeb

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae
Genus: Piper
Species: P. cubeba
Binomial name
Piper cubeba
L.

Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried. Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, similar in appearance to black pepper, but with stalks attached — the "tails" in "tailed pepper". The dried pericarp is grayish-brown, or black and wrinkled. The seed, when present, is hard, white and oily. The odor of cubebs is described as agreeable and aromatic. The taste, pungent, acrid, slightly bitter and persistent. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families Aristolochiaceae Hydnoraceae Lactoridaceae Piperaceae Saururaceae The Piperales are an order of flowering plants. ... Genera Macropiper Peperomia Piper Sarcorhachis Trianaeopiper Zippelia Lepianthes Potomorphe Ottonia The Piperaceae is a plant family which includes more than 2000 species divided into eight genera. ... Species , black/white/green pepper , betel , ant piper , Malias piper , cubeb , long pepper , kava , long pepper Piper is an economically and ecologically important genus of the family Piperaceae that includes a fascinating array of species for studying natural history, natural products chemistry, community ecology, and evolutionary biology. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné â–¶(?), and in English usually under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... Species , black/white/green pepper , betel , ant piper , Malias piper , cubeb , long pepper , kava , long pepper Piper is an economically and ecologically important genus of the family Piperaceae that includes a fascinating array of species for studying natural history, natural products chemistry, community ecology, and evolutionary biology. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... Map of Java Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... SEED is a block cipher developed by the Korean Information Security Agency. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor (American English) or odour (Commonwealth English) is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, are concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue. ...


Cubeb came to Europe via India through the trade with the Arabs. The name cubeb entered European languages via Arabic kabaabah (كبابة), which is of unknown origin.[1] Cubeb is mentioned in alchemical writings by this name. In his Theatrum Botanicum, John Parkinson tells that the king of Portugal prohibited the sale of cubeb in order to promote the black pepper (Piper nigrum) around 1640. It experienced a brief resurgence in 19th century Europe for medicinal uses, but has practically vanished from the European market since. It continues to be used as a flavoring for sauces, cigarettes, and spirits in Indonesia and nearby areas, and as one of botanicals used to flavor the premium gin Bombay Sapphire. Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... John Parkinson(1567-1650) was the last of the great English herbalists and almost the first of the great English botanists, for he was apothecary to James I, and a charter member of the Society of Apothecaries in December 1617, and on the committee that published their London Pharmacopoeia, 1618. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE In cooking, a sauce is a liquid served on or used in the preparation of food. ... A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ... Spirits redirects here. ... A bottle of Bombay Sapphire brand gin that has been partially consumed. ...

Contents


History

In the 4th century BC, Theophrastus mentioned komakon, joining it with cinnamon and cassia as an ingredient in aromatic confections. Guillaume Budé and Claudius Salmasius have identified komakon with cubeb, probably due to the resemblance which the word bears to the Javanese name of cubeb, kumukus. This is seen as a curious evidence of Greek trade with Java in a time earlier than that of Theophrastus.[2] (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... Theophrastus, the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school, a native of Eresus in Lesbos, was born c. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ) is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... Guillaume Budé (Latin: Guglielmus Budaeus) (1467 - August 23, 1540) was a French scholar. ... Claudius Salmasius is the Latin name of Claude Saumaise (April 15, 1588 - September 3, 1653), a French classical scholar. ... The Javanese language is the inferred language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ...


Cubeb was introduced to Arabic cuisine around 10th century.[3] Marco Polo's manuscript mentions Java as a producer of cubeb, along with other valuable spices. Javanese growers protected their monopoly of the trade by sterilizing the berries by scalding, ensuring that the vines were unable to be cultivated elsewhere.[4] In the 14th century, cubeb was imported into Europe from the Grain Coast, under the name of pepper, by merchants of Rouen and Lippe. A 14th century moral tale exemplifying gluttony by the Franciscan writer Francesc Eiximenis describes the eating habits of a worldly cleric who consumes a bizarre concoction of egg yolks with cinnamon and cubeb after his baths, probably intended as an aphrodisiac. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254, Venice, Italy; or Curzola, Venetian Dalmatia - now Korčula, Croatia — January 8, 1324, Venice) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... The area that became Liberia was called the Grain Coast, because grain of paradise grew there in abundance. ... Location within France Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... This article is about the district Lippe. ... Gluttony is one of the seven deadly sins. ...


Sometimes the term cubeb refers to a closely related species, Piper clusii that produces the African cubebs or West African black pepper, the berry of which is smoother than that of common cubebs and usually has a curved pedicel. In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ...


Pagan ritual

Scott Cunningham states the cubeb berries are used for love sachets and spells. Cubeb is also included in his recipe for incense mixture to ward off incubus. Occult author Scott Cunningham Scott Douglas Cunningham (June 27, 1956 – March 28, 1993) was the author of dozens of popular books on wicca and various other alternative religious subjects. ...


Medicinal use

The introduction of cubeb into medicine is supposed to have been due to the Arabian physicians in the Middle Ages. Many of them were versed in alchemy, and cubeb was used, under the name kababa, when preparing the water of al butm[5].: See also Medical doctor (BE), Physician (AE), and Medical school. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Physician examining a child The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Alchemy is an early protoscientific and philosophical discipline combining the elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, and art. ...

Take one pound of tarmantanita, half a pound of honey of which the frost has been removed, one pound of aqua vita, very fine Indian 'and, sandal, in equal parts. Arab samg, juz bawwa, kholanjan root, kababa, reed, mastaqi, qaranfal, sanbal, of each three drachms. They must be pounded well and put into a distilling vessel made of glass, and it must be well covered, and put on a gentle fire. And the first water which will come up will be pure... (snip) And know that the first is called "the mother of medicine."[5] Aqua vitae, not to be confused with the beverage aquavit, is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol. ... Drachma, pl. ...

The modern employment of cubeb in England as a drug dates from 1815. A small percentage of cubebs were also commonly included in lozenges designed for use in bronchitis, in which the antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful. But the most important therapeutic application of this drug was in gonorrhea, where its antiseptic action was of much value. As compared with copaiba in this connection cubebs has the advantages of being less disagreeable to take and somewhat less likely to disturb the digestive apparatus in prolonged administration. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A pullover with a lozenge pattern A lozenge is a parallelogram which usually has two corners pointing up and down that are farther apart than the corners pointing sideways. ... Bronchitis is an obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs. ... An antiseptic (Greek αντι, against, and σηπτικος, putrefactive) is a substance that prevents the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) on the external surfaces of the body. ... Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία) or treatment is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. ... Gonorrhoea (USA spelling: gonorrhea, slang term the clap) is among the most common curable sexually transmitted diseases in the world caused by the Gram-negative bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Visit this site for fascinating information on healing remedies from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil. ...


Volatile oil

Dried berries of cubeb
Enlarge
Dried berries of cubeb

About 15% of a volatile oil is obtained by distilling cubebs with water. After rectification with water, or on keeping, this deposits rhombic crystals of camphor of cubebs, C15H60; cubebene, the liquid portion, has the formula C15H24. Cubebin, C10H10O3, is a crystalline substance existing in cubebs, discovered by Eugène Soubeiran and Capitaine in 1839. It may be prepared from cubebene, or from the pulp left after the distillation of the oil. The drug, along with gum, fatty oils, and malates of magnesium and calcium, contains also about 1% of cubebic acid, and about 6% of a resin. The dose of the fruit is 30 to 60 grains, and the British Pharmacopoeia contains a tincture with a dose of 4 to 1 dram. Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... This shape is a Rhombus In geometry, a rhombus (also known as a rhomb) is a parallelogram in which all of the sides are of equal length. ... Quartz crystal A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing large viscosity increase of a solution in even a small concentration. ... Malate (-OOC-CH2-CH(OH)-COO-) is the ionized form of malic acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... The British Pharmacopoeia is the authoritative collection of standards for UK medicinal substances. ... The avoirdupois system is a system of weights defining terms such as pound and ounce. ...


The volatile oil, oleum cubebae, is also official, and is the form in which this drug is most commonly used, the dose being 5 to 20 minims, which may be suspended in mucilage or given after meals in a wafer. The drug has the typical actions of a volatile oil, but exerts some of them in an exceptional degree. Thus it is liable to cause a cutaneous erythema in the course of its excretion by the skin; it has a marked diuretic action; and it is a fairly efficient disinfectant of the urinary passages. Its administration causes the appearance in the urine of a salt of cubebic acid which is precipitated by heat or nitric acid, and is therefore liable to be mistaken for albumin, when these two most common tests for the occurrence of albuminuria are applied. A minim is a small amount of fluid. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... In cooking, a wafer can refer to a crisp, sweet, very thin flat dry cake which is often used to decorate ice creams. ... This article is about skin in the biological sense. ... Erythema is an abnormal redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... A diuretic is any drug that tends to increase the flow of urine from the body (diuresis). ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... Flash point not applicable R/S statement R: ? S: ? RTECS number  ? Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Albuminuria is a pathological condition where albumin is present in the urine. ...


Cubeb cigarettes

A Victorian advertisement for Dr. Perrin's Medicated Cubeb Cigarettes.
Enlarge
A Victorian advertisement for Dr. Perrin's Medicated Cubeb Cigarettes.

Cubebs were frequently used in the form of cigarettes for asthma, chronic pharyngitis and hay fever. Edgar Rice Burroughs, being fond of smoking cubeb cigarettes, humorously stated that if he had not smoked so many cubebs, there might never have been a Tarzan. Marshall's Prepared Cubeb Cigarettes was a popular brand with enough sales to still be made during World War Two.[6] A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ... Pharyngitis is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... Pollen grains from a variety of common plants can cause hay fever. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he produced works in many genres. ... Tarzan, a character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, first appeared in the 1914 novel Tarzan of the Apes, and then in twenty-three sequels. ...


Chinese medicine

In Chinese medicine it is used for its alleged warming property. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also known simply as Chinese medicine (Chinese: 中醫學 or 中药学, zhōngy o xŭe) or traditional Oriental medicine, is the name commonly given to a range of traditional medical practices originating in China thousands of years ago. ...


Culinary use

In Europe, cubebs were used ground as a seasoning for meat, or candied and eaten whole. Candied cubeb is mentioned in Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow, set in 1940s: Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ... Meat is animal tissue (mainly muscle) used as food. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Gravitys Rainbow book cover. ...

Under its tamarind glaze, the Mills bomb turns out to be luscious pepsin-flavored nougat, chock-full of tangy candied cubeb berries, and a chewy camphor-gum center. It is unspeakably awful. Slothrop's head begins to reel with camphor fumes, his eyes are running, his tongue's a hopeless holocaust. Cubeb? He used to smoke that stuff. "Poisoned..." he is able to croak.
"Show a little backbone," advises Mrs. Quoad.[7]

In Moroccan cuisine, cubeb is used in savory dishes and in pastries like markouts, little diamonds of semolina with honey and dates. Cubeb is sometimes included in the list of ingredients for the spice mixture Ras el hanout. It is still used as a seasoning in Indonesia. Influence and history Being at the crossroads of many civilisations; the cuisine of Morocco has been influenced by the native Berber cuisine, the Arabic Andalusian cuisine, brought by Moors and later Moriscos when they left Spain, the Turkish cuisine from the Turkish occupied Algeria and the Middle Eastern cuisines brought... Semolina is coarsely ground durum wheat, with particles mostly between 0. ... Ras el hanout, also called Moroccan seasoning, is a popular blend of herbs and spices that originated in Morocco and used in other parts of North Africa. ...


Spirits

Bombay Sapphire gin is flavored with botanicals including cubebs and grains of paradise. The brand was launched in 1987, but its maker claims that it is based on a secret recipe dating to 1761. A bottle of Bombay Sapphire brand gin that has been partially consumed. ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ...


Notes

  1. ^ 1.1 (Katzer 1998).
  2. ^ 2.1 (Cordier, Yule 1920) Chapter XXV.
  3. ^ 3.1 (Hal 2002, p. 32)
  4. ^ 4.1 (Katzer 1998).
  5. ^ 5.1 5.2 (Patai 1995, p. 215)
  6. ^ 6.1 (Shaw 1998).
  7. ^ 7.1 (Pynchon 1973, p. 118)

References

  • Cordier, Henri and Yule, Henry (1920), "The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2 by Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa", The Travels of Marco Polo.
  • Davidson, Alan (1999), The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192115790.
  • Hal, Fatema (2002), The Food of Morocco: Authentic Recipes from the North African Coast, Periplus, ISBN 962593992X.
  • Katzer, Gernot (1998), "Cubeb pepper (Cubebs, Piper cubeba)", Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages.
  • Patai, Raphael (1995), The Jewish Alchemists, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691006423.
  • Pynchon, Thomas (1973), Gravity's Rainbow, Penguin Classics (1995 reprint edition), ISBN 0140188592.
  • Shaw, James A. (1998), "Marshall's Cubeb", Jim's Burnt Offerings.

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Cubebs were known to Arabian physicians as early as the ninth century, who employed them as a diuretic in kidney troubles.
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Cubeb cigarettes are used in the treatment of nasal catarrh.
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