FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Ctesiphon" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ctesiphon

Coordinates: 33°06′N 44°35′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Ctesiphon, 1932

Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: تيسفون‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Mada'in: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. It is first mentioned in the Book of Ezra of the Old Testament as Kasfia/Casphia (a derivative of the ethnic name, Cas, and a cognate of Caspian and Qazvin) The Greek colony of Seleucia on the Tigris was directly across the river, and the city is often referred to by the hyphenated name Seleucia-Ctesiphon. It is believed that Ctesiphon was the largest city in the world from 570 to 637.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3873x2826, 2898 KB)TITLE: Iraq, Ctesiphon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3873x2826, 2898 KB)TITLE: Iraq, Ctesiphon. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... The Cas or Caspi were a tribe of the Dahae who settled south of the Caspian sea and north of the Alborz mountains, in what is now the GÄ«lān Province, in Achaemenid times. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... Qazvin may refer to: Qazvin (city) Qazvin province Note: Qazvin province was created in 1996; older references to Qazvin are invariably to the city. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ...

Contents

Location

Ctesiphon (Tâgh-i Kasrâ). Drawn 1824 by Captain Hart.
Ctesiphon (Tâgh-i Kasrâ). Drawn 1824 by Captain Hart.

Ctesiphon is located approximately 20 miles southeast of the modern city of Baghdad, Iraq, along the river Tigris. Ctesiphon measured 30 square kilometers (cf. the 13,7 square kilometers of 4th century imperial Rome). Palace in Ctesiphon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Palace in Ctesiphon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


History

Ruins of Ctesiphon depicted on a 1923 postage stamp of Iraq
Ruins of Ctesiphon depicted on a 1923 postage stamp of Iraq

Ctesiphon rose to prominence during the Parthian Empire in the first century BC, and was the seat of government for most of its rulers. Because of its importance, Ctesiphon was a major military objective for the leaders of the Roman Empire in its eastern wars. The city was captured by Rome or by its successor state, Byzantium, five times in its history, three times in the second century alone. The emperor Trajan captured Ctesiphon in 116, after one year of occupation his successor Hadrian had no choice but to return it in 117 as part of a peace settlement. The Roman general Avidius Cassius captured Ctesiphon during another Parthian war in 164, but abandoned it when peace was concluded. In 197, the emperor Septimius Severus sacked Ctesiphon and carried off thousands of its inhabitants, possibly as many as 100,000, whom he sold into slavery. Image File history File links Stamp_Iraq_1923_3a. ... Image File history File links Stamp_Iraq_1923_3a. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53–August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98–117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Gaius Avidius Cassius (c. ... Events Ctesiphon is captured by the Romans, but returned to the Parthians after the end of the war. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and captures an enormous number of its inhabitants as slaves. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ...


Late in the third century, after the Parthians had been supplanted by the Sassanids, the city again became a source of conflict with Rome. In 295, Galerius was defeated by the Persians outside the city. Humiliated, he returned a year later and won a tremendous victory which ended in the fourth and final capture of the city by a Roman army. He returned it to the Persian king Narses in exchange for Armenia. About 325 and again in 410 the city, or the Greek colony directly across the river, was the site of church councils for the Church of the East. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events Roman Empire Diocletian beseiges Achilleus in Egypt, capturing him. ... Galerius Maximianus ( 250–5 May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. ... Narseh (whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was a Sassanian King of Persia (292 - 303), and son of Shapur I. He rose as pretender to the throne against his grand-nephew Bahram III in AD 292, and soon became sole king. ... Church of the East related to those churches under the dominion of the first Patriarchate of Jerusalem which was first transferred from Jerusalem to Pella as following the 135CE Roman ban on Jews the city was given over to Antiochs jurisdiction. ...


Emperor Julian was killed outside of the city walls in 363 during his war against Shapur II. Finally, in 627, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius surrounded the city, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, leaving it after the Persians accepted his peace terms. Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Combatants Romans Persians Commanders Julian the Apostate Shapur II Strength 90,000 N/A Casualties low, but include Julian, and casualties from disease 2,500 dead The Battle of Ctesiphon took place in June 26, 363 AD between the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate and the Persian emperor Shapur II... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ...


Ctesiphon fell to the Muslims during the Islamic conquest of Persia in 637 under the military command of Sa'ad Ibn Abi Waqqas (R.A.) during the caliphate of Umar (R.A.). However, the general population was not harmed. Still, as political and economic fortune had passed elsewhere, the city went into a rapid decline, especially after the founding of the Abbasid capital at Baghdad in the 8th century and soon became a ghost town. It is believed to be the basis for the city of Isbanir in the Thousand and One Nights. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Bannack, Montana, a well preserved ghost town that is now a State Park. ... Isbanir is a city referred to in the 1001 Nights as the home of Fakir Taj. ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night...


The ruins of Ctesiphon were the site of a major battle of World War I in November of 1915. The Ottoman Empire defeated troops of Britain attempting to capture Baghdad, and drove them back some 40 miles before trapping the British force and compelling it to surrender. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1680) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


Palaces of Ctesiphon

Main article: Palaces of Ctesiphon
See also: Sassanid architecture

The splendor of imperial palace complex at Ctesiphon to include Khosrau's palace (Shâhigân-ǐ Sepid = the white palace (now almost totally ruined) and the great arch (now, Taq-i-Kisra) remained legendary. The Throne room--presumably under or behind the arch--was more than 110 ft high. The massive barrel vault covered an area 80ft wide by 160 ft long, and was the largest vault ever constructed in Persia. Taq-e-kasra, Built during the Persian empire of the Sassanide dynasty. ... Khosrau, Khusrau, Khosru and also Khusraw (Kasrâ in Arabic; Osroes or Chosroes in Greek) was the name of a mythical Persian leader, in the Avesta known as Kavi Haosravah, with the meaning with good reputation. A number of rulers of Persia and the Middle East were known by this name. ...


The arch of Ctesiphon, or Taq-i-Kisra, is now all that remains above ground of a city that was, for seven centuries, the main capital of the successor dynasties of the Seleucids, Parthians and Sassanids. The structure left today was the main portico of the audience hall of the Sassanids who maintained the same site chosen by the Parthians and for the same reason, namely proximity to the Roman Empire whose expansionist aims could be better contained at the point of contact. The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The arch is located in what is now the Iraqi town of Salman Pak (formerly, Mada'in when it was known to the Europeans a Madayn), just to the south of the capital, Baghdad. The monument was in the process of being rebuilt by Saddam Hussein's government in the course of 1980s, when the fallen northern wing was partially rebuilt. All works, however, stopped after 1991 Gulf War. The Iraqi government is cooperating with the University of Chicago's "Diyala Project" to restore the site. Salman Pak (al-Salman) is a town approximately 15 miles south of Baghdad near a peninsula formed by a broad eastward bend of the Tigris River. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


See also

Persepolis aerial view. ... Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Iran: Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn) (710 words)
Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn); The capital of the Parthian and the Sassanid empires
It is not clear when Ctesiphon became the most important city in the Parthian empire, but what is reasonably clear is that the spoils of a large campaign against the Roman empire in 41 BCE were invested in the new capital, which became one of the greatest cities in the ancient world.
Although Ctesiphon was the capital of the Sassanid empire, Seleucia was not forgotten; it was renamed Veh-Ardašir ("the good city of Ardašir").
Ctesiphon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (790 words)
Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran.
Because of its importance, Ctesiphon was a major military objective for the leaders of the Roman Empire in its eastern wars.
Ctesiphon fell to the Arabs during the Islamic conquest of Iran in 637 and went into a rapid decline, especially after the founding of the Abbasid capital at Baghdad in the 8th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m